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17 




BROADCASTING THE UNITED STATES MARINE 
BAND 

At the Sylvan Theatre in Washington. The announcer of 
WCAP, the station which broadcast the concert, is comfortably 
seated inside the coupe with a microphone at his side. The soft 
upholsferr at the car makes an excellent announcer's booth 



RADIO 
BROADCAST 



Vol. 6, No. i 




November, 1924 



Will Radio Make the People the 

Government? 

Democracy Is Government by Public Opinion and Radio Broadcasting is 
Bringing Politics Into the Front Parlor Will Those Who Listen Vote? 



BY MARK SULLIVAN 



ONE afternoon during the Demo- 
cratic Convention in July, a 
Texas delegate remarked, "This 
will cost Texas a million dollars 
in its cotton crop through farmers staying 
away from the fields to listen in on the radio. 
But," he added, "it's worth it. It'll let every- 
body know just 
who's who and 
what's what in 
this conven- 
tion." 

Whatever ac- 
curacy his judg- 
ment may have 
had about the 
money i n - 
volved, his de- 
duction about 
the effect of the 
radio on that 
Democratic 
Co n v ent ion 
was correct. 
There was one 
day in which 
the news of it 
might have 




JOHN W. DAVIS 

Democratic candidate for President, campaigning by radio. Radio 
is aiding the people to find out just what each candidate says he 
stands for. Probably the most notable feature of the 1924 cam- 
paign is the use of radio by all three candidates 



been compressed by the practitioners of that 
most compact of arts, the headline writers 
into something like: "Western Radio Fans 
Listening-in On Convention, Hear New York 
Hiss Bryan, and Telegraph Delegates to 
Stand by Commoner." That quickness of 
response on the part of public feeling is going 

to be one of the 
effects the radio 
will have on 
politics. Coup- 
led with its 
widespread use, 
its ultimate un- 
iversal it y, it 
will work sev- 
eral political 
t r ansforma- 
tions. In polit- 
ical conven- 
tions, and in 
every other sort 
of political dis- 
cussion, the 
thing most ard- 
ently desired by 
everybody who 
has confidence 



2O 



Radio Broadcast 



that his position has popular support, is quick 
access to that public, and facility for the pub- 
lic to express itself. 

This increase of facility is one of the things 
the radio will bring about. Popular support 
existed to some extent before; and to the 
degree that it existed, it was the most powerful 
of political leverages. For the fact that 
Woodrow Wilson had a political career, the 
largest single contributing factor was an in- 
cident at the Democratic Convention at Balti- 
more in 1912. During all the early days of 
that convention, Champ Clark was in the lead, 
with Wilson a second, at one time so destined, 
apparently, to be permanently a second, that 
some of his advisers counseled him to with- 
draw, after Clark had pushed his leadership 
to the point of an actual majority. Just 
about that time, however, the convention 
adjourned over Sunday. During that week- 
end adjournment, the convention and the 
individual delegates were flooded with tele- 
grams demanding that Wilson be made the 
nominee. It was through this pressure from 
the country that the Democrats took the 
unprecedented step of refusing the necessary 
two thirds to a candidate who had already got 
more than half the delegates, rejected Clark, 
and nominated Wilson. 

BROADCASTING CONGRESS 

THAT is the kind of thing that is going to 
be greatly accelerated by the radio. We 
have already had the radio for the first time 
this year in the conventions and in the ac- 
ceptance ceremonies of the candidates. Un- 
doubtedly the proceedings of Congress will 
soon be broadcast, I think. A public that 
got so much interest out of the Democratic 
Convention will insist on the same access to 
Congress. And Congress as a whole won't 
be disposed to deny it. There is already a 
bill pending providing for the installation. The 
bill was introduced by Senator Howell of 
Nebraska. Senator Howell was one of the 
very earliest radio zealots in America. He 
was acutely interested in it and active about 
it long before most of us paid any attention 
to it. Senator Howell has a scientific thread 
in his training that he got from his education 
at the Annapolis Naval Academy. Also, 
he is a most earnest believer in the public 
ownership and management of utilities that 
concern the public generally. Before he came 
to the Senate he was, as the manager of the 
city gas system of Omaha, one of the earliest, 
and possibly the most successful, director of a 
publicly owned utility in the United States. 



Senator Howell heard about the use of the 
radio in Europe quite early, and some three 
years ago made a trip to Vienna to study its 
working in that city. He thinks strongly 
that the radio should be facilitated in every 
possible way as a medium between the people 
and the Government. Due to his own bent 
and experience, he would take an earlier and 
longer step toward identification of the radio 
with the Post Office, for example, than most 
of his fellow senators now think practicable 
or desirable. Short of that, however, there is 
little doubt that his bill to equip the two 
Houses of Congress for the broadcasting of 
speeches and other public business will be 
adopted. I don't know of any public man 
who opposes the idea of the maximum possible 
radio dissemination of all forms of public busi- 
ness and public discussion. If any of them 
have qualms, they won't state them publicly, 
for they know it is an innovation that cannot 
be stopped. Theoretically, a politician may 
believe in some other form of government than 
through public opinion or public emotion. 
But practically they know that it is the form 
of government that is now here. And if you 
assent to the principle of government by 
public opinion, you must assent also to the 
doctrine that the wider the dissemination of 
public information, and the greater the 
number of persons enabled to participate in 
the formation of common judgments and 
common reactions in the shape of emotion, the 
more logical it is. 

HOW IS RADIO GOING TO BALANCE POLITICAL 
FORTUNES? 

POSSIBLY we shall have some erratic, 
some curious and unanticipated results in 
the fortunes of individual politicians and 
leaders. There appears to be such a thing 
as a radio personality. In the present cam- 
paign it is claimed that Coolidge has it, 
while Davis has not. A correspondent of a 
Democratic paper, Mr. Charles Michelson of 
the New York World, wrote about this: 

Mr. Coolidge is no orator. There is a wire 
edge to his voice, due in some degree to the 
regular nasal twang of the thirty-third degree 
Yankee and in part to his meticulous enuncia- 
tion of each syllable; but according to the pro- 
fessors of the new art, he has a perfect radio 
voice. The twang and shrillness disappear 
somewhere along the aerial, and he sounds 
through the ether with exact clearness as well 
as softness. Mr. Davis, on the contrary, has a 
voice which to the direct auditor has that bell- 
like quality of resonance that doubles the 



Will Radio Make the People the Government? 



21 



quality of his delightful rhetoric. Via radio, 
however, this muffles and fogs to some extent. 
The radio was perfected just in time for Mr. 
Coolidge. His adversary has all the best of it 
in presence and personal magnetism. Davis 
is tall, with a face that would fit in a group 
picture of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence and features like an idealistic 
medallion. Coolidge 
looks shorter than he 
is; his features are 
sharp and give a 
probably unjust im- 
pression of peevish- 
ness. Before an 
audience Davis 
glows, while the Pres- 
ident always looks un- 
happy whether he is 
or not. Under these 
circumstances, the 
radio must be Mr. 
Coolidge's salvation. 
He doesn't look as if 
he had the physique 
to stand the strain of 
an old-fashioned cam- 
paignhalf a dozen 
speeches a day and 
traveling every night 
for months in the 
first place, and in the 
second his hard, sta- 
tistical, analytical 
method of expression 
is scarcely calculated 
to counterbalance the 
unimpressiveness of 
his appearance. So 
the advent of radio 
must be listed as one 

more item in the total of the Coolidge luck 
or destiny or whatever it is that seems to make 
things come right for him politically. 

ARE OUR SPEAKERS GOING TO BE DIFFERENT? 

T HAVE speculated a good deal, without 
* arriving at any very competent conclusions, 
about what the effect of the radio will be on 
Congress as a whole and on individual politi- 
cians. Just what type of public speaker will 
the people prefer to listen to? One of the 
premier Marathon talkers in the Senate is 
Heflin of Georgia. Without having measured 
the lines in the Congressional Record, I 
should say off-hand that Heflin is one of the 
greatest long-distance speakers, one of the 
most nearly ever-flowing fountains of words, in 
public life. When a newspaper man hurries 
into the press-room on his way to the gallery, 
fearing he may be missing something im- 
portant, and finds the bulk of the newspaper 



Who Is the Government? 



Some pessimists like to think it is the Sen- 
ate, some the House, more think the Govern- 
ment is the President, and some few seem to 
think it is the Supreme Court. But when 
the broadcasters began sending out the 
Republican and Democratic conventions, 
the political observers with their ears to the 
political ground began to wonder. It took 
no seer to observe that the "peepul" were 
again taking an interest in politics. And 
during this campaign, very largely being con- 
ducted by radio, politics is prowling right 
into the front parlor. 

What is going to happen? Mark Sullivan, 
who contributes a political article to World's 
Work each month, and whose daily stories 
from Washington in the New York Herald- 
Tribune are counted some of the most au- 
thoritative and interesting in the field of 
political writing, considers these questions: 

Is Congress Going to Broadcast? 

What Is Radio Personality? 

Can Broadcasting Replace the Con- 
gressional Record? 

What Is Going to Become of the Old 
Line Political Speaker? THE EDITOR. 



men chatting in the ante-room, the explana- 
tion they most generally give him for their 
temporary retirement is that "Heflin is 
talking." Or they remark, "There is noth- 
ing important on. Heflin is delivering the 
twenty-third installment of his attack on the 
Federal Reserve Board." 

As it happens, it is 
the depraved taste of 
the writer of this 
article that elevates 
him to the distinc- 
tion, rather uncom- 



mon among news- 
papermen and among 
senators, of liking to 
listen to Heflin talk. 
Heflin is not a beauti- 
ful person, but he has 
two engaging quali- 
ties: He has that 
agreeable intonation 
of the South and he 
can tell Negro stories 
better than any other 
man in public life. I 
would venture more 
and say that Heflin 
can tell more Negro 
stories and better 
ones than any prcK 
fessional entertainer. 
Heflin knows the dif- 
ference between a 
stage-carpentered 
Negro story and the 
true Negro story, the 

kind that reflects the real soul, the habit of 
thought, the way of looking at things, of 
the genuine unsophisticated Southern colored 
man. And Heflin doesn't tell his stories 
merely for the sake of being amusing. He 
adapts them to the situation he is discussing 
with an art that is often rather more effective 
than heavy logic. 

As to the soundness of Heflin's economics, 
or the high-mindedness of his political arts, 
there is some difference of judgment. They 
tell a story about Heflin. That is, they re- 
peat something that Heflin is alleged to have 
said on the stump in Alabama some years ago. 
I never heard Heflin address an audience of 
Alabama farmers in the hills far back from the 
railroads. I should like to. For there, I 
should imagine, Heflin would be at his best. 
In any event, disavowing personal responsi- 
bility for the authenticity of the story, I repeat 
it in the same spirit in which Heflin repeats his 



22 



Radio Broadcast 



stories about Black Sam and Mollie the cook. 
Heflin made a campaign for the Lower 
House in the year at the beginning of the War, 
when cotton was at six cents a pound. Then 
he made his appeal for the Senate in 1918, 
when the war-time demand had got under 
way and raised the price of cotton to upward of 
thirty cents a pound. 
All this economic and 
political history Hef- 
lin is alleged to have 
summed up to the 
Alabama farmers in 



Let the Non-Voter Beware 



a passage running 
thus: 

"You good folks, 
you-all sent me to the 
Lower House of Con- 
gress when cotton was 
six cents a pound, and 
then you saw cotton 
go right straight up to 
thirty cents a pound. 
Now, good folks, you 
send me to the Upper 
House of Congress, to 
the high-up place 
you send me to the 
Senate, and then you 
watch whe/e the price 
of cotton will go to." 

Unhappily it was 
soon after Alabama 
elevated Heflin to the 
Senate that the War 
ended and cotton de- 
scended rapidly to under ten cents a pound^- 
which unkind reversal of fate, some members 
of the Federal Reserve Board believed, had 
more than a little to do with Heflin's Sena- 
torial attacks on them as the authors, accord- 
ing to his theory, of the deflation of the price 
of cotton. 

SENATORIAL NEGRO STORIES BY RADIO? 

\ A /ILL the radio audiences want to listen 
Y. 10 Heflin's Negro stories? Or will they 
prefer the less ornate, the less mellow and 
mellifluous but rather more austerely accurate 
facts and figures of a speech on the tariff by 
Senator Smoot? If the radio audience has the 
same reaction as the personal presence audi- 
ence, it should work out all right. Last winter 
the two senators whose speeches were most 
certain to draw an audience to the Senate 
galleries were Borah of Idaho and Walsh of 
Montana. In those two cases, the size of the 
gallery audiences were in direct proportion 



For this year, great efforts are being made 
to bring the sluggish voter to the polls. With 
radio interesting great additional groups of 
citizens in the affairs of government, many 
organizations are pushing a "Get-Out-the- 
Vote" campaign. The National Association 
of Manufacturers is cooperating with the 
American Radio Association to appeal to 
the voter by radio and by newspaper an- 
nouncement. And the Boy Scouts of Amer- 
ica are going to make a personal canvass 
designed to reach every voter. James E. 
West, Chief Scout Executive, says in a letter 
to RADIO BROADCAST, "It seems to us that 
this problem offers the Boy Scouts of Amer- 
ica an excellent opportunity for applying its 
method of 'learning by doing' by having 
scouts make an earnest effort to increase the 
voting average of their respective cities and 
towns, beginning with their own homes and 
neighborhoods, entirely on a non-partisan 
basis." There are many who think that the 
noticeably increased interest in practical 
politics is due in a large measure to radio. 
THE EDITOR. 



to the fundamental merit of the speeches and 
the speakers. 

A good many questions will arise about dis- 
tribution of time. We have already seen 
that the radio is making its own imperious de- 
mands about a preferred hour. In 1920, before 
the radio came, the two candidates for the 
Presidency, Cox and 
Harding, both timed 
their acceptance 
speeches for the after- 
noon, because from 
three to five o'clock 
were the hours most 
convenient for the 
greatest number to 
be there in person. 
This year both the 
candidates timed 
their acceptance 
speeches with a view, 
not to the audience, 
that could actually 
be there, but to the 
radio one. Eight 
o'clock in the even- 
ing, in the Eastern 
territory where popu- 
lation is densest, 
seems to be the hour 
accepted as best 
adapted for the larg- 
est number of radio 
listeners. Presum- 
ably, when the radio 
reaches into Congress, 

that will be the most prized hour. If it is, 
there will result a change in the hours of the 
sessions for the common system now, except 
in the congestion at the end of a session, is for 
Congress to sit from eleven in the morning 
until five in the afternoon. 

CONGRESS WILL BOW TO RADIO 

THAT mere change of working hours will 
be minor compared to complications 
about assigning the preferred hour to the 
speakers who will want it. Probablv the 
outcome will be a wholesome increase in the 
potency of party leadership. It would seem 
probable that with the radio installed, each 
party will tend to gravitate about one leader 
or a small group of leaders, and will tend to 
give these leaders the preferred hours for the 
formulation and dissemination of official party 
policy. One hopes that there will not be too 
much disposition on the part of the radio 
listeners to give their ears to the entertaining 



Will Radio Make the People the Government? 



speaker rather than the sound one, or the ones 
chosen to give official expression of party 
policy. One wonders just how it will be de- 
termined what speakers the radio listeners 
want to hear and what ones they want to 
"walk out on." 

RADIO NEEDS A "GET OFF THE EARTH" SIGN 

THE radio so far provides no means for the 
listener to shout "Get Off the Wire!" or 
"Get Off the Air!" or "Get Off the Earth!" 
or whatever else it is that an irritated radio 
listener should say to a politician who bores 
him, or excites his opposition. Of course, the 
radio listener, so far as he is concerned in- 
dividually, has the most effective possible 
means of giving a boresome speaker per- 
mission to "take the air" in another than 
the radio meaning of that phrase. All the 
listener has to do is to turn his dials and put his 
mind on the more agreeable harmony of a 
concert. The difficulty is, that this method 
lacks a certain kind of personal satisfaction. 
It does not provide the listener with a me- 
chanism for conveying to the speaker thn 




A TELEPHONED PHOTOGRAPH 
Of the Republican convention at Cleveland. The 
linking of wire photography and broadcasting has 
brought the Nation in almost immediate touch with 
political events. Mrs. Florence C. Porter, of Cali- 
fornia, is seconding th? nomination of Calvin 
Coolidge. The microphones can be seen at the top 
of the lectern 




NIGHT SESSIONS OF CONGRESS 

Will become very important if the legislative arm 
"speaks" through the microphone, for only a 
comparative few could listen during the daylight 
hours 



information that the listener is through with 
him. It fails to give the listener that agree- 
able and wholesome outlet for a surging emo- 
tion that comes from rising in his seat and 
marching stiff-necked toward the door. At 
the same time, it has compensations for the 
less combative and the more courteous. From 
a radio audience you can tiptoe your way out 
without suffering the embarrassment of the 
feeling that you may be disturbing your 
fellow-auditors. 

YOU CAN'T FOOL THE RADIO 

THE fundamental merit of the radio in 
Congress will be that it will enable the 
public to get its information direct. At 
present, aside from those speeches from men 
who, because of one distinction or another, 
have all their speeches printed in full aside 
from these, the public is now dependent on 
the vicarious censorship of the newspaper re- 



Radio Broadcast 



I 



porter. It is the reporter who ignores some 
speeches, makes mere allusions to some, and 
transmits extracts from others. In all this 
exercise of judgment or taste, there are the 
aberrations that inevitably accompany any 
individual judgment. Undoubtedly one of 
the chief defects of the present method of re- 
porting Congress is that it lays undue em- 
phasis on the bizarre, the picturesque, the 
humorous, or the sensational. These, fre- 
quently, are the high spots picked out of 
speeches by the reporters, and therefore the 
only portions of the 
speeches that ever 
reach the great mass 
of the public. This is 
a constant and legiti- 
mate occasion for 
complaint on the part 
of public men. 

I once spent some 
weeks at Carlsbad. 
It was a time when 
the proceedings of 
Congress were unusu- 
ally important, and 
when I happened to 
have unusual interest 
in them. Again and 
again, in the depend- 
ence on the news- 
papers enforced by 
that exile in Europe, 
I was impressed with 
the inadequacy of 
the information I 
could get through the 




Underwood & Underwood 

HENRY MORGENTHAU 

Before a microphone in New York. Public men 
welcome the opportunity to address and interest the 
greatly increased audience the radio gives them 

newspapers. I recall 

one day when the only news of our Congress 
in the European edition of an American paper 
consisted of a brief account of a personal 
controversy the late Senator Penrose of 
Pennsylvania had with a fellow-senator. The 
only direct quotation transmitted was a bit of 
caustic sarcasm. 

RADIO: DEMOCRACY'S FINAL SUPPLEMENT 

WITH the radio, all this will be changed. 
The person who wants to listen to Con- 
gress will be able to do so, and there will be 
many who will want to listen. Let there be no 
doubt of that. There has always been in this 
country an immense unfilled demand in this 
field. I have heard it said by a competently 
thoughtful person that the absence of com- 
plete reports of the proceedings of Congress in 
a form and with a promptness available for 
all the public, was a real impediment to the 



functioning of our American democracy, an 
impediment so serious that it might be ade- 
quate cause for apprehension. In London, 
the proceedings of Parliament, with compara- 
tively little condensation, and with only such 
editing as makes for clarity, are printed in full 
in at least three morning London newspapers. 
In America we have nothing like that. The 
nearest we have is the case of two or three 
New York papers which print a few speeches 
in full, and have a condensed summary of the 
rest. The reason for the difference between 
England and the 
United States is not 
any lack of thought- 
ful interest on the 
part of Americans in 
their national legisla- 
ture. Americans read 
much more and sup- 
port many more news- 
papers in proportion 
to population than 
the English. The dif- 
ference is largely me- 
c h a n i c a 1 and geo- 
graphical. So far as 
regards proceedings 
of Parliament in the 
newspapers, all Eng- 
land is practically one 
city. The British 
Parliament is in the 
largest city, whereas 
our Congress is in one 
of our relatively small 
cities. More than 
this, a London news- 
paper that goes to press at two o'clock in the 
morning can be in the hands of readers in the 
most distant hamlet of the Kingdom before 
evening. With us, California is some four 
days distant from the Capital, and the cost 
for telegraph tolls to a San Francisco news- 
paper that might be ambitious enough to print 
all the proceedings of Congress, would be 
prohibitive. 

To offset this difficulty of ours, William 
Jennings Bryan and some others have re- 
peatedly proposed some kind of official news- 
paper that should, through the machinery of a 
non-partisan Board of Editors, make and dis- 
tribute an adequate official summary of the 
work of Congress. That idea has been pro- 
posed again and again. It has never got any- 
where, for the reason, among others, that a 
Board of Editors sufficiently non-partisan to 
satisfy everybody is a dream impossible of 



Will Radio Make the People the Government? 




WHEN SHALL WE LISTEN-IN ON THE GOVERNMENT? . 

Mark Sullivan thinks that the time is not far distant when the proceedings of Congress will be broadcast. 
The average newspaper cannot give full reports of the two Houses, and the Congressional Record reaches 

but a few of the people 



realization. The only thing that would meet, 
without criticism, what Bryan had in mind, 
would be a literal transcript. We already have 
a literal transcript in the shape of the Con- 
gressional Record. With that, the difficulty is 
its rather too great literalness. It includes such 
immense masses of irrelevant quotations in- 
troduced under "leave to print," and so much 
parliamentary minutias about resolutions and 
the like, that it is forbidding, even to a 
reader with the most ardent desire to follow 
the proceedings of his government with in- 



telligence. I find it a strain to read the 
Congressional Record, and it is a part of my 
business to do so. The consequence is that of 
the aggregate circulation of the Congressional 
Record, which is something like thirty-two 
thousand, the bulk, under the system of dis- 
tribution now practised, goes to little country 
newspapers as a complimentary gift from the 
local congressman; and finds its ultimate 
usefulness more in providing little print-shop 
stoves with fuel, than in the information of the 
public. 



CAN STATIC INTERFERENCE BE ELIMINATED? 

U/' ALTER VAN B. ROBERTS has written a dis- 
cussion of this much discussed subject that is as infor- 
mative as it is interesting. What are the engineers doing 
to eliminate the present difficulties? What are the most 
productive lines of experiment? What results are likely 
to occur from the present line of investigation? 



The Ways and Means of Audio 
Frequency Amplification 

Applying the Family Tree Method to a Non-Technical Treat- 
ment of this Highly Important Adjunct to Radio Receivers 



BY JULIAN KAY 



"THIS is the third article by Mr. Kay in the "What's In a Name?" 
* series. The first article appearing last June, sorted out and classified 
the various types of radio receivers in present use. The second, in 
July, told the story of radio-frequency amplification. It is no secret 
that many new members of the radio fraternity glibly use terms of 
whose meaning they have not the slightest idea. The articles in this 
series, each a complete unit, by the use of the unique and helpful 
Family Tree diagram, and a praiseworthy non-technicality of treat- 
ment, aim to clear the radio air for those who find it a bit thick. THE 
EDITOR. 



THE criteria by which an ideal radio 
set is measured are two: distance and 
clarity. Both of these prime quali- 
ties are attained through the proper 
kind of amplifiers. 

Preceding articles of this series have dis- 
cussed the merits of various detectors, that 
essential radio "ear," and the means of aiding 
a detector to eavesdrop over a wide area 
namely, radio frequency amplifiers were 
explained. The super-heterodyne will be 
cited in a succeeding article and discussed 
as the most efficient combination of radio 
receiving apparatus known to-day. 

Radio sets are now nearly complete. One 
can listen over great distances, and so far at 
least, what we hear is a fairly accurate repre- 
sentation of what is 
being transmitted at 
the distant station. 
The final problem is 
to supply "pep'.' in 
sufficient quantity 
and in such a manner 
that what is heard is 
still something like 
what is being trans- 
mitted. 

Fig. i shows the 
position of audio- 
frequency amplifiers 
in the usual radio 
circuit. These am- 



Do You Know 

How to judge a good amplifier? 

What audio frequencies are? 

How much an amplifier amplifies? 

What types of audio frequency amplifi- 
cation there are? 

How "quality" and "quantity" both can 
be secured from an amplifier? 

Why the "frequency characteristic" of a 
transformer is important? 

What the function of the C battery is in an 
amplifier? 

What a power amplifier is? 



plifiers derive their specific name from the 
fact that they follow a detector. In other 
words, they appear in the low or "audio" 
frequency part of the circuit. The band of 
frequencies which they will be called upon to 
amplify lies between about 100 and 5,000 
cycles per second. 

The careful construction of an audio ampli- 
fier is really more important than most radio 
fans appreciate. To rush out to the corner 
radio shop, to grab a cheap transformer, and 
to jam the parts together is not the way to 
make a good amplifier. 

There is still a morbid inclination among 
certain of the nouveau radio public which 
takes the indefensible form of boasting of 
listening to respective sets a half dozen blocks 
up the street, and the 
thrall of hearing hor- 
ribly distorted music 
over a distance of a 
thousand miles seems 
to hold many. The 
fortunate tendency, 
however, is toward 
" how well " one hears 
rather than " how far" 
or "how loud." 

An amplifier as the 
name implies, is any- 
thing that returns to 
you with interest 
whatever you give it. 



The Ways and Means of Audio-Frequency Amplification 



27 



\ 


7 






DETECm 




AUDIO 








j 




AHD 




FffiQU&ICY 


(. 

f 




Tvn& 




WIPLIFIK 





FIG. I 

Audio frequency amplification 
comes after the tuner and detector 



A savings account, or a prize fighter incognito, 
are good examples. The particular type of 
amplifier in which we are now interested is a 
vacuum tube affair, like most of our present 
day radio equipment, and is one of the most , 
uncomplaining contraptions that man has pro- 
duced. As long as you do not treat it too 
roughly it returns to you with interest exactly 
what you give to it. 

The motto of a well behaved amplifier stated 
in classical language might well be: 

"Small favors thankfully received and 
large ones granted in return." 

It amplifies, some "an hundred fold" and 
then some more. 

TYPES OF AUDIO AMPLIFIERS 

""THERE are two general classes of ampli- 
* fiers in which we are interested. These 
two divisions depend upon the matter of 
coupling two or more together. As the 
Family Tree shows, the first large group is 
made up of those which are "conductively 
coupled," that is, in which the output of one 
amplifier and the imput of the next are actually 
connected together either by a metallic 



A 




conductor or by means of a condenser. The 
second group depends for the transfer of energy 
from one unit to the next upon magnetic 
coupling existing between the two windings 
of a transformer. 

Resistance-coupled amplifiers, of which the 
general type is shown in Fig. 2, have one great 
advantage (if properly constructed) in that 
they are distortionless. On the other hand, 
there is one great objection which has not as 
yet been overcome they require much higher 
voltage B batteries for the same amplification 
than do the transformer or choke coil-coupled 
types. 

If a choke coil is substituted for the resis- 
tance, the B battery objection is partially 
remedied, but the amplifier now has a "fre- 
quency characteristic," that is it tends to 
amplify some frequencies more than others 



A 


{ 




(* 

!o 

| 

o 

1 

S - 


c 


A 


1 


o! 
o 

01 

oj 

Hfc2 


c 

















FIG. 2 
A resistance-coupled amplifier unit 



FIG. 3 

A transformer-coupled amplifier. 
Note the use of the C battery 

with a resultant distortion. This may, how- 
ever, be overcome by proper design. 

TRANSFORMER COUPLING 

AT THE present time, the transformer is 
the all important link between signals 
that are detected and signals that are actually 
heard. Upon its efficiency depend the quan- 
tity and the quality of the music we hear. 
Unfortunately, quantity and quality seldom 
come in the same package, and in the case of 
the usual amplifier, when you have one you 
want the other and vice versa. And it is 
possible to have both. 

Fig. 3 shows the customary transformer- 
coupled amplifier. In this diagram, the trans- 
former looks like a simple and guileless piece of 
electrical apparatus just two coils of wire on 
an iron core but as the quaint saying goes: 



LU 



Q 
UJ 



o 
o 

>] 

UJ 



UJ 

s 

e* 

o 

tL 
CO 



o 
o 

5 

UJ 

p 
o 



o 
n: 
o 



o. 

n: 

CO 



CD 



UJ 



UJ 



of 
o 



CD 



CD 



co 



The Ways and Means of Audio-Frequency Amplification 



29 




FIG. 4 
How an output transformer is used 

" You haven't heard the half of it." 

QUANTITY VERSUS QUALITY 

THE two aspects of the amplification 
problem quantity and quality are in- 
dissolubly bound up in the transformer. The 
first is controlled to a great extent upon what 
is known as the "turn-ratio." For instance, 
if the secondary has ten times as many turns 
of wire as the primary, the turn-ratio will be 
ten, and at the secondary terminals will ap- 
pear ten times the voltage that was applied 
to the terminals of the primary. 

If we use a vacuum tube with an amplifica- 
tion factor of six, the overall amplification 
of this combination theoretically at least 
ought to be six times ten or sixty. Actually, 
this is not realized since half of this voltage 
is consumed in the tube itself. 

At this point, the question naturally arises, 
why not use a turn ratio of fifteen or twenty? 

The answer lies in our discussion of the 
second amplification problem, "quality" or 
clarity, as it is often called. 

QUALITY AMPLIFICATION 

THE "frequency characteristic" of a trans- 
former is a measure of how well the device 
will transmit various frequencies. 

When we realize that we are amplifying 
musical sounds of frequencies that may lie 
anywhere between 100 and 5,000 cycles per 
second, and that each individual frequency 
should be reproduced for us exactly as they 
are transmitted, we see the value of a "flat 
characteristic." 

Fig. 7 shows the characteristics of two audio 
transformers, the other apparatus being the 
same in the two cases. One transformer 
transmits all frequencies very much alike, 
while the other gives a tremendous amplifica- 
tion around a thousand cycles. Such a trans- 
former would not give accurate reproduction 
and would probably present any soprano as 
nothing better than a terrible squawk. 



Any one can make a transformer that will 
have a "hurnp" around 1,000 cycles. In 
fact the majority of cheap transformers enjoy 
such camel like humps. 

The difficulty is to make an instrument with 
a flat frequency characteristic. If we strive 
for high quantity amplification, we must 
use many turns on the secondary, and that 
means a large distributed capacity which in 
turn means that the high frequencies will be 
lopped off and will not get through. If we 
make a cheap transformer, we economize 
on core and wire, and as a result the primary 
has a low inductance. Accordingly, the low 
frequencies are cheated. 

And there you are. 

To make a good transformer costs good 
money and the manufacturer must compro- 
mise. He is between the devil and that awful 
deep sea. If he is reliable, he makes a low 
ratio coil, which keeps down the distributed 
capacity and amplifies the high frequencies, 
and puts as many turns on the primary as he 
can afford, which brings in the bass viols and 
drums, and then juggles the remainder of the 
apparatus until he gets a good characteristic. 

If people were willing to pay, say ten or 
more dollars for a transformer, they might 
get quantity and quality at once, say a high 
ratio transformer with, a flat characteristic, 
but, in the immortal words of the prophet, 

"What a pity we weren't all born rich." 

OVERLOADING 

THERE is another important aspect to 
the high turn-ratio coil that deserves more 
attention than is usually paid to it. .This is 
the phenomenon known as "overloading," 
which takes place as soon as the grid of an 
amplifier tube becomes positive. Figs. 4 
and 5 show one method of overcoming this 
trouble which is evidenced by "blare" and 
flattening of notes when an especially loud 
signal comes through. 

Suppose, for example, that the grid of an 
amplifier is normally maintained at a negative 
potential of five volts. As soon as the voltage 



ourwr 




FIG. 5 

The way a resistance-coupled 
push-pull amplifier unit is built 



Radio Broadcast 



o 

o 
o 
o 
o 

o 




OUTPUT 



FIG. 6 

A transformer-coupled push-pull amplifier. This 
type is quite generally used and produces much 

volume 

applied to this grid is greater than incoming 
signals by five volts, the grid becomes 
positive during one half cycle. The result is 
that the positive and negative halves of the in- 
coming signals are not amplified alike and 
distortion occurs. 

Here is where the C battery comes in, as 
shown in Fig. 3. It serves two purposes, to 
place a negative potential on the grid and 
thereby to advance the overloading point, 
and to decrease the. drain on the B batteries. 

It is worth while to note at this point that a 
high ratio transformer with a hump near 
1,000 cycles may overload at that point only 
which may explain some of the wondrous 
squawks that occasionally greet us. Often a 
horn has a resonance point in the same neigh- 
borhood as the hump of the transformer, and 
what a wicked racket these two phenomena 
may produce! 

Listen to any of the cheap horns that hang 
outside the average dinky radio shops, and 
then judge for yourself, if you can still think 
after the experience. 

Another method of eliminating distortion 
due to overloading, is to use large tubes, say 
a Western Electric 2i6-A, and then more C 
and B battery voltage. Or, a push-pull 
amplifier of the resistance, or transformer- 
coupled type, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5. A 
resistance-coupled push-pull amplifier, which 
has no frequency characteristic and also quito 
a power capacity because of the push-pull 
feature, makes a good last stage in such an 
amplifier unit. 

HOW MUCH AMPLIFICATION HAVE 1 ? 

"""PHE overloading limit, then, is the input 
* voltage at which the grid goes positive. 
This point is controlled by the kind of tube, 
the C battery, and the turn-ratio of the coup- 
ling transformers. 

In general, the following rule may be a safe 
one to follow: 



Any signal that can be heard with the 
phones plugged into the detector circuit will 
overload the last stage of a properly con- 
structed two-step amplifier using "five-to- 
one" transformers. Fig. 7 shows exactly 
what this means. 

Suppose each tube has an amplification 
factor of 6, and the turn-ratio is 5. Then the 
overall amplification, taking losses into ac- 
count, may be around 150. An alternating 
current then flows in the plate circuit of such 
an amplifier which is 150 times that which 
flows in the detector circuit. If only .006 
volt alternating current exists in the de- 
tector, then we must use about 9 volts 
negative potential on the grid of the second 
amplifier. 

POWER AMPLIFIERS 

SO FAR, we have spoken only of "voltage 
amplifiers." Now, then, what is a 
power amplifier? One hears the term very 
commonly used. Now it is power that runs 
our loud speakers, not voltage alone, and 
power is usually represented as the product 
of a current squared and a resistance. For 
example, if the resistance of a loud speaker 
element is 1,000 ohms and we have .001 
ampere flowing through it, the power 
P = i,ooo x (.ooi) 2 = .oo4 watts. 

That means that an amplifier that is to 
deliver music for a large hall must have a 
comparatively large plate current output. 
This means large tubes with large plate 
currents, for it is the fluctuations of these 
plate currents that actuate the receiving 
device. 

The last stage of a good amplifier may well 
be a power amplifier employing a low ratio 
coil, say three to one, and a large tube such 



GOOD TKAMSFOKMEK 




FKEQUEhCY CYCLE5 
_J I 



2000 



A curve which shows the difference between a good 
audio-frequency transformer and a poor one. As 
the curve shows, a good audio transformer should 
amplify well over the entire range of audio frequen- 
cies, an end extremely difficult to attain 



The Ways and Means of Audio- Frequency Amplification 



as the Western Electric 2i6-A. Better still is 
the push-pull already described in RADIO 
BROADCAST which has a very high overloading 
limit and a larger power output. 

If one is to listen-in after the first stage of 
audio-frequency amplification, the high ratio 
coil should come first, but if a horn is to be 
used at all times on the second stage, it matters 
little the order of the transformers. If there 
is enough voltage to overload the last tube, 
it will take place regardless of whether the 
high ratio coil is in the second stage, or 



whether the coils are switched. The ampli- 
fication is there in either case. 

As stated previously, the ideal arrangement 
would be a single stage of resistance coupling 
followed by a push-pull amplifier with plenty 
of B and C battery. Finally should come a 
good loud speaker, usually coupled to the 
amplifier with an "output" transformer. 
Neither of these two stages of amplification 
would introduce noticeable distortion, and if 
a good horn is used, reproduction should be 
as faithful as is normally possible. 



i 



'^DIOLATRT 

By ARTHUR GUITERMAN 



rrv 
1 A 



1HE worst oj all idolaters 
Are jealous radiolaters 

Who wreck the peace of erstwhile 

happy homes 
With drool oj variometers, 
Detectors, galvanometers, 

Antennae, switches, batteries, and ohms. 

Their eyes devoutly glistening, 
They'll sit for ages listening 

With clumsy rubber muffs upon their ears, 
And hail the shrieking mordancies 
Of far-away discordancies 

As though they were the music of the 
spheres. 

They'll stand for prosy summaries 
And monologues and mummeries 

Of folks you couldn't wheedle them to see, 
The rant of revolutionists, 
And awful elocutionists, 

Because they come from Newark, XYZ. 



They'll take the driest serial 
So long as it's aerial; 

They'll take the saddest sentimental gush, 
The ambient may squeak to them; 
But if you dare speak to them 

The only sound you'll get from them is, 
"Shush!" 

In Nome or sweet Lafcadio 
There's no escape from Radio ! 

Then, since you cannot dodge the atmos- 
phere, 

My songs shall cheer or trouble you 
From station PKW, 

Because, at least, I'd rather talk than hear! 

| 

EPILOGUE 
(With the kind assistance of Mr. Longfellow) 

/ breathed a song into the air; 
That little song of beauty rare 
Is flying still, for all I know, 
Around the world by Radio. 



(Reprinted by permission of the author from his The 
Light Guitar, copyright, 1923 by Harper and Brothers) 



iniiiinnnnn iiiniiiiiinnngmnmii**! 








Courtesy American Architect 

THE WINNING DESIGN FOR THE PARIS PRIZE 

Of the Society of Beaux Arts. The problem set was the design of a transportation institute, devoted to 
the study of all means of transportation. The institute was to contain experimental laboratories, museums, 
and a hall for experiment with current inventions. The plan illustrated is the work of H. K. Beig, of the 
Armour Institute of Technology, Chicago. The feature of the plan is the great central mast which is 
designed for a radio station and a mooring mast for aircraft. Mr. Beig's application of a radio tower to a 

large building is an unusual piece of design 



THE MARCH OF RADIO 



BY 




President, Institute of Radio Engineers 



International Revision of Wavelengths is Necessary 



WE HAVE just received a copy of 
a letter written by Alfred M. 
Caddell, Secretary of the Amer- 
ican Radio Association, which 
is an illustration of the good work this organ- 
ization is carrying on. 

As we have repeatedly stated in these col- 
umns, the amount of spark interference en- 
countered in the broadcast range is certainly 
more than is necessary. Dot and dash 
signals, with lots of power, come in on almost 



any kind of a set tuned-in on the lower wave- 
lengths of the radiophone channel. And how 
unnecessary much of this traffic seems. The 
power used is frequently enough, it seems, to 
reach to Chicago even though the traffic is 
being carried on over a span of perhaps fifty- 
miles. 

The boats of the New England Steamship 
Company have frequently been the culprits 
in the matter. They sail from New York and 
a short distance up the New England coast, and 



The March of Radio 



33 



they surely seem to have lots to say over the 
radio channel. Naturally the authorities of 
the steamship company think that this traffic 
is important. In this case, it seems that their 
opinion cannot be considered very seriously 
in view of the hundreds of code-reading lis- 
teners who hear everything said by their 
ships. Many of these listeners know the code 
and the proper procedure for carrying on radio 
traffic perhaps better than their own operators. 
The tone of Mr. Caddell's attitude toward 
the steamship company is well shown by the 
following paragraph from his letter. 

Undoubtedly you know that there is a national 
regulation that specifies that all communication 
must be carried on with the least possible power, 
but qualified observers who have logged this Long 
Island Sound traffic, report that your operators use 
a considerable excess of power. And this, com- 
bined with the obsolete spark system employed 
results in a very coarse, poorly tuned signal 
that blankets the upper scale of the broadcast 
wavelengths and hashes up the finest programs. 

In his answer to Mr. Caddell's letter, C. J. 
Pannill, General Manager of the Independent 
Wireless Telegraph Company, which con- 
trols the offending ships, disclaimed responsi- 
bility for the situation, stating that it was a 
question of wavelength assignment only, as 
the 600 meter (calling wavelength) and 706 



meter (traffic wave) channels were too close 
to the broadcast channels so that it was im- 
possible to carry on his traffic without the in- 
terference complained of. The letter made 
no comments regarding the alleged improper 
practices of his operators. Apparently the 
broadcast listener is not the only one who feels 
that the Radio Corporation is charging all the 
traffic will bear, as one sentence in Mr. Pan- 
nilFs letter indicates- 
You ask that the company change the apparatus 
at present employed (spark) to tube transmitters, 
but this is not possible owing to the prohibitive price 
asked for these transmitters. 

His letter, even though it did not promise 
any relief from the interference caused by the 
ship traffic, did bring up a question which will 
certainly bear investigation at this time, that 
is, the general matter of wavelength assign- 
ments. When the present allocation of wave- 
lengths was made by international convention 
in 1912, radiophone did not exist to an extent 
worthy of attention, so naturally no consid- 
eration was given to the probable demands 
of the broadcast channels. Broadcasting was 
undreamed of then. 

It is just possible that the marine radio 
traffic may well becarried out on a much longer 
wavelength than at present, as Mr. Pannill 




RADIO IN THE GRAND CANYON 

Of the Colorado. A recent exploring party of the United States Geological Survey brought with them a 
radio receiver. A 2oo-foot antenna, secured to one of the walls of the canyon, brought in signals from many 
broadcasting stations. Station KHJ, Los Angeles, broadcast them nightly news and weather reports 



34 



Radio Broadcast 



suggests, and it is also possible, in our opinion, 
that the naval service is monopolizing an alto- 
gether too wide a frequency band. In time 
of war, of course, the naval service should have 
any and all wavelengths it needs. In peace time 
there is no reason for shutting other services 
out of such a wide frequency band as is now 
done. A reasonable curtailing of the fre- 
quencies now set aside for the army and navy 
would not seriously interfere with the needs 
of these services. Certainly it would make 
available channels much needed for other 
purposes. 

Real Romance In Radio Science 

IN THE most recent list of "Standard wave- 
length stations" published by the Bureau 
of Standards, station WBZ, of Springfield, 
Mass., appears. This station has shown a 
maximum deviation from its assigned fre- 
quency of 890 kilocycles of zero per cent, 
since the Bureau began their measurements in 
May of this year. The physicists of the Bu- 
reau measure and record their readings to 
o.i per cent, and as WBZ is recorded as zero 
per cent., this means that the observed fre- 
quency was never as much as 0.05 per cent, 
away from its assigned value. 



To a technically trained man, such a per- 
formance means much more than it does to the 
average broadcast listener, who has never had 
to make any accurate measurements. To 
illustrate what this precision means, let us 
suppose that we are ordered to cut off lengths 
of copper wire exactly one inch long. Could 
we do this as accurately as the radio station 
engineer maintains the specification for his 
frequency? And remember that measuring 
an inch with a rule, or whatever else we use, is 
apparently a much easier task than to measure 
the frequency in hundreds of thousands of 
cycles per second, of an electric current which 
cannot be either seen or held while the mea- 
surement is being 'made. And remember also 
that the current to be measured is generated 
in Springfield, Mass., while the measurer is 
stationed in Washington, hundreds of miles 
away. 

What would it mean to be able to cut the 
piece of copper wire an inch long, an inch 
within 0.05 per cent.? Well, this would require 
that the wire would have to be an inch long to 
within one half of one thousandth of an inch. 
If your hair is light in color, one hair is about 
0.003 mcn m diameter, whereas if you are 
fortunate enough to have red hair it is as much 




THE WORLD AT THE EDGE OF A MAINE LAKE 

This radio set did yeoman service in breaking the deadly quiet of long summer evenings in a Maine 
Camp. The home-made birchbark loud-speaker horn gives plenty of camping "atmosphere" 



The March of Radio 



35 




OFFICERS OF THE RADIO MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 

Recently organized in Chicago. The association was formed for the purpose of "improving and stabiliz- 
ing the industry" and more than one hundred million dollars of capital is represented. H. H. Frost, Presi- 
dent, is in the center, Frank Reichmann, Vice President, at the left, and A. J. Carter, Secretary, at the right 



as 0.005 i ncn i n diameter, so we can say that 
the piece of wire would have to be cut to the 
right length to within one tenth of the diameter 
of a red hair! 

Pretty difficult to carry out, you will admit, 
yet this percentage of error allowed is the same 
as that within which the radio station keeps 
when the Bureau of Standards specifies that 
its frequency is as accurate as they find it for 
WBZ. 

The engineers of the Western Electric Com- 
pany talk nonchalantly of measuring the fre- 
quency of a radio station to within o.oi per 
cent., and are actually making measurements 
to within o.ooi per cent, with only a small 
probable error! Sometime in the future a 
note on this remarkable achievement will be 
included in these columns, as this work surely 
is indicative of the March of Radio. 

Pershing's Farewell Address 

TREATS of broadcasting occur so often 
' these days that their recording excites 
but passing interest. When broadcast- 
ing began, the charmed and thoroughly in- 
terested listeners were content to marvel at 
the mystery that allowed them to sit in the 
fastness of their own libraries and hear the 
voice of a distant singer or speaker. But now, 
and broadcasting is still young, the world's 
folk have accepted radio in the sense of broad- 
casting, and made it a part of their daily lives. 
If one were inclined to doubt that, a little more 
than casual glance at the daily newspaper 
would convince him how true this is. When 
cartoonists are using radio loud speakers and 
variously labelling them "Loud Politician," 
"Public Appeal," and the other tags so dear 
to the cartoonist, and newspaper humorists 



phrase their daily fun in radio terms, they are 
truly reflecting the thought of the. times. 

So when John J. Pershing, the retiring Gen- 
eral of the United States Army, made his fare- 
well speech on September I2th from eighteen 
broadcasting stations, fairly blanketing the 
nation with his voice, there were probably 
not many who listened who marvelled at the 
event. Stations from New York to Cali- 
fornia, and from Illinois to Texas were linked 
together by the wire lines of the Bell system to 
a microphone in the office of Secretary of War 
Weeks, where the ceremonies took place. 
There is probably 'not a town in the United 
States where the signals did not penetrate. 

When Washington made his farewell to that 
handful of officers and men gathered at Rocky 
Point, New Jersey, in 1783, his voice was heard 
by that scattering few only. But now, the re- 
tiring General of our Army speaks to the 
Nation. 

The linkage of these stations was a feature of 
the much-discussed National Defense Day and 
has furnished an excellent example of the 
service broadcasting may be to the Nation in 
time of national need. One wonders if the 
country would have been more deeply and 
perhaps quickly influenced in 1917, could they 
have heard Woodrow Wilson give his famous 
message to Congress, urging it to declare 
a state of war against Germany. It is certain, 
anyhow, that through radio broadcasting, the 
whole Nation can be linked to Washington, 
and brought into the very halls of government 
when necessity arrives. 

We think it a bit unfortunate that the radio 
amateurs were not given an opportunity to 
show what they could do. The American 
Radio Relay League is now so well organized, 
and has so many expert member-stations, 



Radio Broadcast 




Underwood & Underwood 



THOMAS EDISON 
-Inventor; East Orange, New Jersey 



" There is not much in the radio being used 
for political campaigns this year. People like 
ja^ music; they like to hear about contests such 
as the Democratic Convention, hut to sit and hear 
a political speech I'll tell you a story. 

"A reformer -went to Sing Sing to deliver a re- 
form talk to the prisoners. He started in with 
that reform talk, you know, and kept up talking 
and talking until he had them all bcred to death. 
He talked for an hour, and then some one a 
colored man let out a yell. A guard lit him 
over the head and knocked him senseless. When 
he came to in about an hour, the reformer -was 
still talking. The man called the guard and 
said: 'Hit me again, boss, I can still hear it.'" 



most of which are efficiently run and well 
equipped, that the organization should have 
been recognized in the same fashion as have 
the broadcasters. 

Censorship in Radio Broadcasting 

THE suggestion that the broadcasting 
stations of the Radio Corporation arc 
censored, with all the sinister thoughts 
that such an idea arouses, soon drew an em- 
phatic denial. The statement was made in 



one of the newspapers that "Officials of the 
Radio Corporation of America explained that 
it was their custom to require written copies 
of proposed radio addresses in advance of 
delivery, and to forbid any utterance that they 
considered unsuitable for transmission." 

The next day, the President of the Corpora- 
tion, General Harbord, wrote a letter to the 
paper in question stating that "it is not at all 
the policy of the RCA to censor the political 
speeches of the accredited political represen- 
tatives in the coming elections." He further 
states that "when we have asked for an ad- 
vance copy of a scheduled broadcast speech 
it has been when the subject was of a commer- 
cial nature, or other than political, and with one 
of the ends in view, either when it was desired 
to give advance publicity to the speech or 
when it was desirable to make certain that the 
speech was of a nature at once acceptable to 
the listening public." 

Shall Prisoners Have. Radio? 

THE day has gone by when prisoners are 
hung up by the thumb or stretched 
on the rack periodically to convince 
them that the way of the law is best. We 
nowadays see to it that prisoners have light 
and fresh air two of life's necessities without 
which any human being is soon transformed 
into a society-hating beast. Theoretically, 
any influence which will instill into the prison- 
er's mind the idea that law breaking doesn't 
pay, that the life of unharried freedom outside 
the prison walls is the only one worth while, 
should not only be allowed in the prison but 
should be incorporated as part of its regular 
regime. 

What then about radio sets being allowed in 
prison cells? The contact with the outside 
world which radio makes possible for the pri- 
soner cannot do him any harm, the social 
reformers say, and may do him some good. 

A recent letter to us suggests that we ex- 
press an opinion on the use of radio in prison. 
Having the normal amount of sympathy for 
the fellow who has been unfortunate enough 
to break the law and get caught (there are 
many law breakers who are not caught) one's 
natural reaction is to say, "Surely, let radio do 
its bit to make the prison life a little brighter." 
About the time we reached this conclusion, 
along came an announcement from the warden 
of the Pennsylvania State Penitentiary that 
a prisoner who had been allowed to have a 
radio set in his cell had been receiving code 
messages from one of his pals on the outside 



The March of Radio 



37 



as to how dope would be smuggled into the 
prison. The scheme, according to the story, 
had been working successfully. 

All of which goes to show that one's sym- 
pathy may lead to an unjustified decision. 
So now we would say let the possession of a 
radio receiving set be allowed for "good con- 
duct" to be immediately taken away for in- 
fringement of the prison rules. Such use of 
radio might prove quite an incentive to good 
behavior. 

Telephoning to England 

WE ARE always inclined to think of 
the United States as the one place on 
earth where things are planned and 
carried out on a tremendous scale. We have 
ranches in the West which have more space 
in one field than that in the largest farm in the 
little island across the sea; our buildings have 
fifty stories, our corporations have a capitaliz- 
ation of a billion dollars, we have more tele- 
phones in two of our cities than there are in 
four of the world's continents, and so on. 
Naturally we have thought of radio in America 
in larger terms than that of England and other 
nations. According to information of the De- 
partment of Commerce, we are surely to be out- 
done, in no uncertain way, in the size of radio 
stations. The English are putting up a 



station with an antenna a mile and a half 
long and half a mile wide, supported on 
twelve masts each 820 feet high! Each of 
these masts weighs 300 tons, and are being 
moved in sections so large that the transpor- 
tation can be carried on only at night. With 
each mast an elevator is installed, large enough 
to take up four men. 

It is understood that with this station the 
American Telephone and Telegraph Company 
expects to establish transatlantic radiophone 
communication. With the radio link estab- 
lished, the feat of telephoning from one's 
home to that of a friend in England will be an 
every day possibility. 

Radio Invades the Apartment House 

THE tendency to make the modern 
apartment house thoroughly up to date 
is well illustrated by the attempt on the 
part of the builders to incorporate radio re- 
ception as part of their service. In many 
apartment nouses the antenna question is 
acute and is becoming more so every day. 
One of our friends told us the other day that 
he had succeeded in discovering which of his 
fellow cliff dwellers persisted in using a blooper 
for a transmitter of unassigned and variable 
wavelength. Having been told by the oscil- 
lating set owner (after judicious questioning) 




Henry Mille 
SENATOR ROBERT M. LA FOLLETTE 



News Picture Service, Inc. 



Independent Progressive nominee for President, rehearsing a speech for Dr. Lee De Forest's "talking mov- 
ies." All of the Presidential candidates intend to use this device in the 1924 campaign. It should be 
possible to use this device for radio speeches, such as Senator La Follette gave on Labor Day 



Radio Broadcast 



where the offending antenna was located on the 
roof of the apartment house our friend crept 
up in the quiet darkness of that evening and 
with a vigorous tug, dislodged the pole on 
which the howling receiver antenna was 
fastened. To his surprise he learned the next 
day that he had also pulled down seven others. 
Evidently such a situation, and there are 
many like it, bids fair to start a real intra- 
mural war. 

To avoid just such a situation, one apart- 
ment house has just been fitted with four an- 
tennas and receiving sets located in a "radio 
central" with an operator in charge. Each 
apartment has wires leading to the radio room 
and these can be plugged into any one of the 
four stations which the operator has tuned-in. 
It is necessary for the apartment house 
dweller to buy for himself an audio amplifier 
and loud speaker. This service will be ap- 
preciated by those who listen to complete 
programs. The real radio enthusiast we fear 
will have to buy a super-heterodyne, or a 
"knock-out" set of some sort, in addition 
to the apartment house set. Many are 
the listeners who still spend interesting 



hours in the absorbing chase of the DX signal. 
Maybe the stuff is no good when he gets 
it, but getting it that's the thing that still 
fascinates. 

Radio in the Modern Hospital 

AT THE new Hunts Point Hospital, in 
the Bronx, New York each room is 
equipped with a radio plug. On the 
roof of the hospital, is the operator and the 
radio set. The audio output of the set can 
be received in each of the rooms by the use of 
head phones, which is the only feasible scheme 
of reception in a hospital where loud speakers 
are out of place. 

The President of the hospital board, in 
commenting on the installation said: 

We have spent $500,000 in making this hospital 
the most modern institution of its kind in the 
Bronx. Its equipment, from the operating room 
down through the entire plant, is the most modern 
and scientifically perfect obtainable. But I do not 
believe that there is a single modern feature that 
can compare in its ultimate effects for good on the 
patient with the radio installation. 




Underwood & Underwood 



HUNTS POINT HOSPITAL 



New York, which is completely equipped with radio. A central receiving set whose output, greatly 
amplified, furnishes broadcast programs to each bed, through individual head phones. The hospital 
officials expect the radio to do much to break the tedium of the weary and often lonely hours of convales- 



The March of Radio 



39 



Interesting Things Interesting 
People Say 



SIR ROBERT DONALD (London; former 
editor, The Daily Chronicle, speaking be- 
fore the London Rotary Club): "In 1913. I 
predicted that the chief competitor of the 
newspaper would be new developments in the 
dissemination of news. What I did not fore- 
see was the development of broadcasting. In 
the future, I think that broadcasting will be- 
come the chief competitor of the newspaper. 
News that can be broadcast is limited in many 
ways, for broadcasting can give the facts and 
no description, which is an advantage, because 
many newspapers give a description and no 
facts. However, if people who hear speeches 
over the radio do not find them reported to a 
sufficient extent in the newspapers, they may 
be disposed to ask the reason why. This will 
stimulate the newspaper." 

CRANK E. SEAVY (Somerville, Massachu- 
P setts; Department of English, Tufts 
College, in a letter to WGY): "When I think 
of the thousands of homes into which you are 
sending excellent music daily, homes in which, 
three years ago, no music above street songs 
was known, I feel that your work in education 
is vastly more important than ours." 

pAPTAIN H. J. ROUND (London; En- 
\~; gineer, British Marconi Company, in the 
London Morning Post, regarding the use of 
loud speakers): "The engineer (in developing 
loud speakers) has to be satisfied if he can retain 
intelligibility in all cases with not too great a 
divergence from the human quality. . . . One 
cannot forecast the feelings of the electorate if 
politics becomes merely a matter of noise." 

C C. MORTIMER (New York; "Topics 
r of the Times" in the New York Times): 
"It has been noted as a curious fact that 
several minutes before more than a small part 
of the enormous crowd gathered at Epsom 
Downs knew the name of the Derby winner, 
it had become old news to many people in 
such far away lands as India, South Africa, and 
South America. That, of course, was an- 
other of radio's many miracles, for it took 
only a fraction of a second for the mysterious 
vibrations to reach the other side of the 
world. . . . Anybody could survive wait- 
ing a few minutes for the winner's name, and 
the episode may be taken as illustrating anew 
that fact that, in respect to most of the ma- 
terial broadcast by the new device, chief 
interest lies in its manner of transmission." 

CDWARD S. VAN ZILE (New York; in 
JLJ the New York Times Book Review): "If 
more books are being distributed in this coun- 
try than ever before, it follows that the out- 





WILL ROGERS 
Humorist and Rope-Twisting Monologist 

"// you- have a radio, now is a good time to 
get it out of fix. All you will bear from now on 
until the 4th cf November will be: 'We must get 
our government out of the hands of Predatory 
Wealth.' ' The good people of this Great Country 
are burdened to death with Taxes; now what I in- 
tend to do, is. . . .' What be intends to do 
is try and get elected. That's all any of them in- 
tend to do. Another one that will hum over the 
old static every night will be: ' This country has 
reached a Crisis in its National Existence. Can 
we afford to stand aloof from our worldly obliga- 
tions? . . . Of the defeated candidates, I 
am the only one that had the nerve to remain in 
New York.'" 

(, 1924, the McNaught Syndicate. Inc.) 



standing new features in our social and family 
life, namely, the motor car, the movie, and the 
radio are exerting not a centrifugal, bi^t a 
centripetal force on the library. . . . The 
fact is ... that the radio has tended 
toward the integration rather than the dis- 
integration of the family. . . . The aver- 
age American family is more united in its hours 
of leisure than ever before. . . . The 
cosmopolitan impetus to the mind vouchsafed 
by the radio inevitably intensifies the interest 
of the average American household in the en- 
lightenment to be got from books. . . . 
Why, then, despair about the Republic?" 

CAPTAIN ECKERSELY (London; Chief 
\_> Engineer, British Broadcasting Com- 
pany): "The present receptive range of the 
average crystal set is approximately twenty- 
five miles. My belief is that by transmitting 
from a sufficiently powerful station, this range 
can be increased to one hundred miles at least." 



How to Build a Six-Tube Second- 
Harmonic Super-Heterodyne 

Whose B-Battery Consumption is Exceptionally Low A Set 
for the Constructor Interested in Efficiency and Economy 



By ALLAN T. HANSCOM 



POR some time we have been looking for a super-heterodyne which required fewer 
* tubes and was more economical to operate than those we have described here- 
tofore. Mr. Hanscom brought one of his six-tube receivers to our laboratory and demon- 
strated its superiority to our entire satisfaction. It is easy to tune, selective, sensitive, 
and produces exceptional volume with clarity far above the ordinary. 

This receiver, because it is necessary to make rather than purchase some of the coils, is 
somewhat more difficult to construct than those standardized receivers we have previously 
described. Receivers of this type are going to improve beyond our powers of imagination 
and this improvement is indicated very clearly in Mr. Hanscom's work, which we feel is a 
long step in the right direction. THE EDITOR. 



THE purpose of this article is to outline 
the theory of operation and to describe 
in detail the construction of a receiver 
that can be built successfully by the 
fans who like to make their own sets. 

There are several types of super-heterodynes 
available, and in most cases the results are 
accomplished by using eight tubes or more, 
with corresponding large drain on A and B 
batteries. This is the factor that has caused 
the super-heterodyne to be called the "Rolls- 
Royce." The receiver performs excellently but 
at exceedingly high first cost and high main- 
tenance. 

The super-heterodyne designed by the 
writer is not an expensive set to build, it is not 
a freak, and it will bring in all stations that 
any good set will with a B-battery consump- 
tion of less than fifteen milliamperes using 
2OI-A tubes and an eighteen-inch loop. When 
we consider that commercial types of five- 
tube neutrodynes draw about twenty milli- 
amperes from the B battery, it is apparent 
that this super-heterodyne is not an expensive 
set to maintain. 

The biggest advantage that a super- 
heterodyne has is its ability to operate on a 
loop. A good set of this type will positively 
get down to the sound level of the atmospheric 
electrical disturbances when using a loop, 
and it is therefore of no advantage to use an 
outdoor antenna. A poor super-heterodyne, 



with a low factor of amplification, will work 
better on an antenna, but so will any type of 
set, for that matter. 

WHAT A SUPER WILL DO 

WHAT you will hear with a super- 
heterodyne is exactly what you will 
hear with any good set, except that the direc- 
tional effect of the loop will prevent some 
interference and the ease of tuning makes 
the stations easier to obtain. A super- 
heterodyne will not amplify a signal if the 
signal isn't there. By that I mean that a 
broadcasting station a thousand miles away 
cannot be heard unless the carrier wave is 
stronger than the static disturbances when it 
reaches the receiving set. But for the ability 
to go out and get a lot of stations quickly and 
easily when conditions are right, the super- 
heterodyne can't be surpassed. 

Radiation, sometimes incorrectly called 
"re-radiation" is a fault of many super- 
heterodynes. In general, any circuit which 
has an oscillating vacuum tube coupled to a 
loop becomes a miniature transmitter. This 
condition is greatly aggravated by the use of 




INPUT 



FIG. I 



How to Build a Six-Tube Second-Harmonic Super-Heterodyne 41 



a large antenna. The super-heterodyne de- 
scribed herein does not radiate because the 
oscillator isn't coupled to the loop. In addi- 
tion, the oscillator frequency is nowhere near 
the frequency of the received signal, because 
the principle of the "second harmonic" is 
used. 

ADVANTAGES OF THIS SUPER 

AT THIS point it may be well to consider 
the essential parts of the super-hetero- 
dyne as shown by Fig. i . 

The only reason for this type of set is the fact 
that it is better to amplify on the long waves 
than at the usual broadcasting frequencies. 
Assuming a 3OO-meter wavelength which has 
a frequency of 1,000,000 cycles per second, the 
super-heterodyne changes this frequency to 
the exact value that will pass through the long- 
wave amplifier (see Fig. i). The frequency 
of this long-wave amplifier is not variable, and 
because it is in the neighborhood of 40,000 
cycles per second, the amplification per stage 
is very high. Because the amplifier is designed 
to pass only a narrow band of frequencies, 
the selectivity is also high. 

The manner of creating this new low fre- 
quency is a puzzle to many people, but it is 
accomplished by a combination of the signal 
frequency with a new frequency which is 
generated within the set. Arithmetically, 
the case is as follows: Assuming the incoming 
carrier wave with a frequency of 1,000,000 
cycles, if we generate a frequency in the set of 
1,040,000 cycles, the difference between the 
two will be 40,000 cycles. If the generated 
frequency is 960,000 cycles, the difference 
between that and 1,000,000 cycles is still 
40,000. Because the two frequencies are 
combined, the resultant frequency is the differ- 
ence between the two. There is also a 
frequency equal to the sum 
of the two, but this is not 
utilized. 

PRINCIPLE OF THE SECOND 
HARMONIC 

ANY frequency has cer- 
tain harmonics. By 
this we mean that a 
frequency double or triple 
the original will bear a 
certain fixed relation to 
it at all times. If we as- 
sume the case of a man 
and a small boy walking 
up the street together, t hit- 
man may be taking strides 



of exactly thirty inches. Now, if the boy is 
taking two steps to the man's one, and the 
boy's steps are exactly fifteen inches, then they 




TUB* 4 



FIG. 2 

will always be in line. In this case the man's 
step is the second harmonic of the boy's 
step. 

In applying this principle to the super-heter- 
dyne, the arithmetic gives us this: 

Incoming signal . . . i ,000,000 cycles 
Second harmonic of this . 500,000 
Generated frequency . . 480,000 



The difference 



20,000 



But 20,000 cycles is the second harmonic of 
40,000 cycles, which is the frequency of the 
long-wave amplifier. By this method we 
generate a frequency in the set which is so 
different from the signal frequency that for 
practical purposes it is entirely independent 
of it. 

It must be understood that the amplifier 
frequency does not have to be exactly 40,000 
cycles. The lower this value is, the closer it 
approaches the audible frequencies, which 
extend up to about 12,000, while as it goes 
higher, the problem of amplification becomes 
more difficult. 

Fig. 2 shows the path of the signal through 
the first four tubes. The dotted lines repre- 
sent the frequency of the received signal, the 
solid line shows the amplifier frequency. 

The incoming signal is amplified at radio 




THE FRONT OF THE PANEL 
Extreme simplicity of control is a notable feature of this receiver 



Radio Broadcast 



frequency by tube No. i, and passed into tube 
No. 2. This tube is oscillating and generating 
a frequency which combines with that of the 
incoming signal to produce a new low fre- 
quency which is fed back into tube No. i and 
amplified. This is known as reflexing. From 
No. i the output now goes to No. 3, where it is 
again amplified and then detected by tube 
No. 4. 

ABOUT REFLEXING 

WHAT are known as reflex receivers are 
those in which the audio frequencies 
are fed back through the tubes which are 
already amplifying radio frequencies. In this 
type of super-heterodyne, the audio frequencies 
are not reflexed, but the same conditions ap- 
ply. 

It is obvious that a tube may be reflexed 
for both radio and audio frequencies, but the 
intermediate frequency which is utilized in 
the super-heterodyne must necessarily be 
above audibility. 

Fig. 3 represents a typical reflexing arrange- 
ment where the fixed condensers are used to by- 
pass the radio frequencies. Most people do not 
realize that the shortest path for radio fre- 
quencies is the best path. This is shown in 
Fig. 4, which is exactly the same as Fig. 3 
except that the radio frequencies are bypassed 
directly back to the filament. 

As will be seen in the circuit diagram, the 
first tube acts as a radio-frequency amplifier 




FIG. 3 

while the second tube is an oscillator and 
detector. The output of the second tube 
consists of three frequencies: first, the fre- 
quency of the incoming signal; second, the 
frequency of the oscillator; and third, the beat 
frequency, which is the difference between the 
other two. 

The higher frequencies are bypassed back to 
the filament of the oscillator tube but the 
beat frequency is fed into the primary of 
the first intermediate-frequency transformer. 
The secondary of this transformer is connected 
in the manner indicated by Fig. 5 which is done 
in order to neutralize the tube capacity which 
is accomplished by means of the neutralizing 
condenser N. 

The coils A, Fig. 5, are the secondary of an 
intermediate-frequency transformer. If they 
are equal and the condensers C are equal, 
then the tube is neutralized, provided the 
condenser N is equal to the grid-plate capacity 




REAR VIEW 
Of the receiver, showing the method of mounting the fixed condensers between the tube sockets 



How to Build a Six-Tube Second-Harmonic Super-Heterodyne 43 



of the tube. The high-frequency voltage 
from the loop cannot pass a current through 
the coil A, because of its high impedance, and 
the low-frequency voltage generated in A 
cannot pass a current through the loop because 
of the condenser C in series with the loop. 
And because the first tube is neutralized, it 
cannot oscillate and no potentiometer is 
required. 

AIR-CORE TRANSFORMERS 

MANY super-heterodynes use transformers 
with iron cores, and in most cases they 
use one sharply tuned transformer or filter to 
make the intermediate frequency sharp enough 
for good selectivity. The disadvantage is 
that the iron-core transformers are not as 
efficient, but the difficulty with the air-core 
transformers has been that the tuning is apt 
to be too sharp. This has been overcome in 
the set pictured by a special design of coils 
with a provision for moving the coils to tune 
each stage for the most efficient amplification. 
By this means great selectivity is obtained as 
well as great amplification with an absence 
of the hissing sound which is so prevalent in 
some super-heterodynes. 

As might be expected, the tuning of the set 
is very sharp. A 5OO-watt station ten miles 
away can be completely tuned out in less than 
one point on the oscillator scale. The dial 
readings are always the same for the same 
station, and with the proper number of turns 
in the loop the settings of both condensers 
are approximately the same for any particular 
wavelength. 

HOW TO BUILD THE SET 

WITH the foregoing explanations, the 
circuit diagram, Fig. 6, may be easily 
understood. It is not essential that the ap- 
paratus be mounted as closely as shown in 
the photographs, but it is absolutely necessary 
to keep all grid and plate leads as short as pos- 
sible and remember that the fixed condensers 
are bypassing objectionable radio frequencies 
back to the tube where they come from. Keep 
these condenser wires short and direct. 
The materials needed are as follows: 

i Panel 9" x 18" x ,Y' (Don't use wood) 

i Panel 8" x 18" x A" (Don't use wood) 

i Panel 4" x 10" x ,Y' 

3 Hard rubber strips \" wide, A" thick, 
2" long 

5 Hard rubber strips i" wide, A" thick 
3 4" long (2 for oscillator, I for terminals) 
2 3" long (i for oscillator, i for loop 
terminals) 



6 Sockets Composition, not metal 

2 Jacks i double circuit, i single circuit 
2 Rheostats i 6 ohms, i 30 ohms, any good 

make 
2 Variable condensers .0005 mfd. Any good 

make with vernier dials or knobs (not 

separate vernier plates) 

7 Fixed Condensers 2 .0005 mfd. 2 .00025 mi &. 

3 .002 mfd. 

1 Grid leak and condenser combined, .00025 

mfd. and from 2 to 5 megohms. 

2 Audio-frequency transformers (low ratio) 

6 Binding posts 

Square tinned bus bar, A screws and 
nuts, etc. 

9 Coils for intermediate-frequency trans- 
formers 

4 Coils for oscillator 

i Dubilier Duratran radio-frequency trans- 
former 

i Neutralizing condenser 

i Bypass condenser, i mfd. 

The first step in the construction of the set 
is the assembly of four sockets on the 4" x .10" 
rubber panel as indicated in Fig. 7. After 
mounting the sockets the F connections are 
joined with bus bar and the +F connections 
of tubes i, 2, and 4 counting from the left are 
joined. This is shown in the photograph of 
the top view of the set. 

The next consideration is the intermediate- 
frequency transformers. Each transformer is 
made of three small honeycomb coils which 
are clamped on the rubber panel by strips of 
hard rubber and small screws. The center 
coil is the primary and the two outside coils 
form the secondary. The coils are mounted 
at an angle of 55 degrees as indicated in Fig. 

7 with a space of about iV between adjacent 
coils. By loosening the screws which hold 
the small hard rubber strips, the coils may be 
moved endwise for accurate tuning after the 
set is finished. 

It is very important that the wires from the 
coils be connected in the right direction. 
The inner ends of the two outside coils are 
connected and the coils are mounted so 
that the outer ends of these two coils face 




FIG. 4 



44 



Radio Broadcast 



LOOP 




FIG. 5 

in opposite directions. Looking at the end 
of the coils, if the wire runs clockwise starting 
at the outside of the first coil, it must continue 
to run clockwise starting at the inner end of 
the coil in series with it. See Fig. 8. The 
center coil, which is the primary, may be 
mounted either way. 

After this, the Dubilier transformer is 
mounted midway between sockets i and 2 
on the under side of the panel with the F and 
+ B connections at the rear. Then the grid 
leak is mounted on the under side of the panel 
near the grid connection of socket No. 4. At 
this point it is optional whether the mounted 
parts are wired or the wiring left until the 
socket assembly is fastened to the front 
panel. 

The photographs clearly show the arrange- 
ment of parts on the front panel (9" x 18") 
and the base panel (8" x 18"). Owing to the 
different parts which may be used, it is not 



possible to give absolute dimensions. Look- 
ing at the front view of the set, the left-hand 
dial tunes the loop and the right-hand dial 
tunes the oscillator. The left-hand lower 
knob is the rheostat which controls all the 
tubes and the right-hand lower knob is the 30- 
ohm rheostat which controls the filament of 
the third tube for the regulation of the volume. 
It is suggested that the audio stages be wired 
before the base panel is joined to the front 
panel, although this is not absolutely neces- 
sary. 

The bus bar may be rigidly secured to the 
sub panel by boring a small hole and bending 
it as in Fig. 8A. 

In soldering, use only resin-core solder. 




FIG. 7 

If panel-mount sockets are used, it is possible 
to fasten the four-tube assembly to the front 
panel of the set by using the socket mountings, 
otherwise use brass angle irons. In fastening 
the front panel to the base panel, it is possible 
to drill the edge of the base panel and tap 
for ^g- machine screws, but this may also be 
avoided by using brass angle irons. 
The variable condensers should be connected 




FIG. 6 
Complete diagram of the six-tube super-heterodyne 



How to Build a Six-Tube Second-Harmonic Super-Heterodyne 45 




.SECONDARY-' 
FIG - 



so that the fixed plates go 
to the grids of the tubes 
and the movable plates are 
connected to the C-battery is 
negative. 

To avoid errors, it is an 
excellent plan to draw over 
the wiring diagram with a 
colored pencil as each wire is 
connected. 

The C battery is fastened 
to the base panel with a piece of bus bar as 
shown in the photographs. 

NEUTRALIZING THE FIRST TUBE 

IT WILL be seen from the photographs 
that the coils in the first intermediate 
transformer are not evenly spaced. This is 
because with a fixed value of neutralizing 
condenser the neutralizing can best be done 
by moving the coil A in Fig. 9. The value of 
the neutralizing condenser is about equal to the 



BUS BAR 




HARD RUBBER 



FIG. 8A 



full capacity of a neutrodyne condenser when 
the rod is connected to one terminal and 
the sleeve to the other. See Fig. 10. 

A flexible wire connection may be made to the 
metal tubing to allow further variation. Once 
set the position of the metal tubing may be 
fixed with a drop of wax. 




HOW TO MOUNT THE OSCILLATOR COILS 

The wrong way is shown at the top of the photo- 
graph and the correct way at the lower part of the 
cut. Both windings should be placed so the wires 
run in a similar direction 



THE OSCILLATOR 

THE oscillator is composed of four coils, 
two in series in the grid circuit and two 
smaller coils in series in the plate circuit. 
The manner of connecting these coils is very 




TOP VIEW OF THE RECEIVER 
Which shows quite clearly the mounting and position of the intermediate transformer and oscillator coils 



Radio Broadcast 




important, and is indi- 
,COILA ca ted in the photographs. 
They are connected so 
that the direction of the 
current if clockwise in 
one coil will be counter- 
clockwise in the coil in 
series with it. This is 
done to provide a closed 
magnetic field as indicated 
in Fig. 1 1. 

To make the tube 
TUBE * 1 oscillate it is also neces- 

FIG. 9 sar Y to place the grid 

and plate coils together 
so that the direction of rotation of the grid wire 
is opposite to that of the plate wire in the 
other pair of coils. See Fig. 1 1 . 

The manner of mounting the oscillator is 
clearly shown in the photographs. It is sup- 
ported by the bus wire leads which are fas- 
tened to each corner of the lower rubber strip. 
The intensity of the oscillations can be varied 
by changing the thickness of the spacer be- 
tween the pairs of coils. For best results this 
should be about T V'- 

OPERATING THE SET 

AFTER the set is completed and the tubes 
are in place, connect the A battery and 
light the tubes. If they light, then turn them 
off and connect the - B battery to the + A 
binding post. Then touch the + B wire to the 
+ B binding post. This may spark the first 
time it is touched because of the capacity of 
the bypass condenser, but it should not do so 
more than once. Then the + B 45 may be 
connected and the set is ready for adjusting. 
Turn the volume control rheostat full on and 
then light the tubes to normal. With phones 
plugged in the last jack, it ought to be possible 
to tune-in a powerful station after connecting 
the loop. Oscillation in the first tube may 
be noted by a series of bird-like whistles as 
the dials are turned. This may be stopped by 
moving the coil A, Fig. 9, to the proper point, 
or by varying the neutralizing condenser. 
If the set is wired properly, this adjustment 
is not very critical. 

CAUSES OF FAILURE TO OPERATE 

AMONG the various causes of trouble in 
operation of this receiver, some of those 
most apt to be encountered are: 

i Wrong wiring 

2 Faulty tubes 

3 Short-circuited fixed condenser 

4 Wrong polarity on C battery. 



&US BAR TO COIL A 



It will be found that a station can be tuned- 
in at several places on the oscillator dial, but it 
is usually heard best at a setting about the 
same as the setting of the loop-tuning dial, 
provided the loop is of a value that will bring 
a 36o-meter station at about 35 on the con- 
denser scale. 

THE LOOP 

\ A/1TH the various loops now on the mar- 
* ' ket, it is easier to buy one ready made 
than to make one, although a suitable loop 
can be made of single 
lamp cord (stranded) 
of 13 or 14 turns on a 
frame 18 inches square, 
with the turns spaced FIG. 10 

from ^ to |" apart. 
Don't use fine wire and green wood. The largei 
the loop, the fewer the turns for a given wave- 
length and the greater the signal strength. 
The writer has used a variometer for a loop 
on stations 200 miles away with enough in- 
tensity to operate a loud speaker, but don't 
penalize the set with a poor loop. Get a 
loud signal and then control it with the 
rheostats. 

A HINT TO HOME CONSTRUCTORS 

DON'T solder lugs on the end of bus bar 
when it is going to be connected to 
terminals on sockets or transformers. It is 

far better to 
invest in a pair 
of round-nosed 
pliers and bend 
an eye on the 
end of the bus 
bar. Don't screw 
down the termi- 
nals with your 
fingers, because 




TO PLATE 



MAGNETIC FIELD 
FIG. I I 



they will not stay tight, 
wrench. 



Use pliers or a 



A TEST PERFORMANCE 

IN OUR laboratory in Garden City we were 
able to bring in Philadelphia and Schenec- 
tady in daylight with good loud speaker 
volume, using this set and a small loop and 
five tubes in daylight. 

During two tests made at night, each of two 
hours duration, using five tubes and a loud 
speaker, the following stations were logged. 
The dial settings were as indicated, and may 
be generally helpful to those who duplicate 
the receiver just described. Some idea of the 



How to Build a Six-Tube Second-Harmonic Super-Heterodyne 47 



selectivity of this receiver may 
be had by noting the number of 
stations logged between WEAF 
and wjz, both of which are l % ess 
than twenty miles from Garden 
City. Both were operating most 
of the time during which the four 
distant stations were logged. 



DIAL WAVE 

SETTINGS LENGTH 

LOOP OSCILLATOR 



WNYC 78 

WIP 75 

WEAF 66 

WHAA 65 

WOC 64 

WDAF 6} 

WCAP 59 

wjz 55 

WSB 5! 

WLW 48 

CFCA 48 

WTAM 41 

WGY 39 

WMAF 38 

WEBH 37 

WJAR 33 

WLS 32 

WHN 32 

WCBD 32 

WBZ 30 

KDKA 28 

WTAS . . 22 



83 

81 
73 



7* 

69 
66 
62 

52 
64 

54 
65 
50 
42 
42 
37 
35 
38 
36 
34 
32 
26 




Many stations not included in this list were 
heard but were not logged because call letters 
were not heard. It is to be noted that 
most of the stations on this list are not 
local. 

This particular receiver we used is not a 



SIDE VIEW 
Showing the output end of the set 

freak. We have tried two. and Mr. Hanscom 
has made several others. They all have the 
same characteristics. 

We were so favorably impressed with this 
new departure in storage battery tube outfits 
that we contemplate using one at the tempo- 
rary receiving station we are going to equip 
somewhere on the coast of Long Island for our 
International broadcasting tests. Another re- 
ceiver of this type will be used by Mr. Hanscom 
at his home in Woonsocket, Rhode Island, for 
the same purpose, and he will arrange to report 
reception directly to our Garden City Labor- 
atorv. THE EDITOR. 




THE material appearing in this magazine is fully protected 
by copyright, and editors of periodicals are advised that 
unauthorized publication of circuit diagrams, technical de' 
scriprions, and parts or the whole of articles, without due 
permission and credit is an infraction of the law. Those 
who wish to reprint material appearing in these pages are 
asked to communicate with the editor. 



(L>ennie Irene 




Is Radio Standardizing the American Mind? 



THE discussion that has of late been 
carried on in this department, regard- 
ing the relative adaptability of the 
masculine and feminine voice to radio 
broadcasting, is still calling forth opinions 
from many of our readers. These opinions 
are often supple- 
mented by others 
having to do with 
various different 
features of broad- 
casting. This goes 
to prove that some 
radio listeners are 
doing their own 
thinking, and are 
not, as President | 
Faunce of Brown | 
University recent- 
ly said, becoming 
possessed of the 
"mob mind." 

This ''mob 
mind," according 
to President 
Faunce, is being 
created by the ra- 
dio because, day 

after day and ETHEL MILLER 

night after night, Mezzo soprano. Miss Miller was soloist at one of the series 
of concerts given by the Kudisch Ensemble from station wjz, 
New York. The programs by this ensemble have proved 
one of the most successful among the musical features intro- 



hundreds of thou- 
sands and at times 
millions of people 
listen to the same 

speeches, music, drama, stories all of these 
features brought down to the level of mass in- 
telligence. This is rapidly creating, in his 
opinion, a standardized taste along educational 
and amusement lines. A standardized mass 
taste means mediocrity. This is not a direct 
quotation of his statements, but is the gist of 
their meaning. 



If the radio were never to rise above the 
level of its present daily achievements, all 
that President Faunce has said. would be true. 
But there are many indications that, as soon 
as owners of radio sets lose the desire to 
listen-in simply for the novelty of the thing, 

a portion of the 
public will demand 

)**&& 4^. something better 

than the sort of 
education or enter- 
tainment that ap- 
peals to the mob 
mind. And as soon 
as they make this 
demand it will be 
granted. The fact 
that such people 
are among the lis- 
teners-in, proves 
that ultimately 
the radio will not 
standardize the 
American mind. It 
may seem to be 
doing so now. In- 
deed, President 
Faunce can find 
much to support 
his opinion. But 
he very likely is 
not closely in 




duced at this station 



touch with the in- 
ner workings of 

this new and great medium of enjoyment. If 
he were, he would realize that a goodly num- 
ber, instead of swallowing all that they hear, 
whole and without thought, are listening with 
discrimination, and voicing whatever objec- 
tions they feel in no uncertain terms. 

Radio music, justifiably, comes in for the 
largest amount of such criticisms, and next 




Trinity Court Studio, Pittsburgh 
ETHEL WHITTLESEY 
As she appeared when featured in a costume recital of old time songs at station KDKA 



Radio Broadcast 



to music come the speeches. It is not the 
quality of the speeches that brings forth this 
criticism, but rather the manner of their 
delivery. The large majority of radio speeches 
are, of course, read from manuscript, which is 
as it should be, for reasons too obvious to 
mention. But why should they sound as if 
they were read? As you listen, you can fairly 
see the speaker's eyes fixed on his manuscript. 
The effect is even worse 
than when a speaker in a 
public auditorium reads an 
address without the manu- 
script being in evidence in- 
stead of delivering it. If a 
man once read a public 
address in the monotonous 
tone employed by radio 
speakers he would never get 
an engagement twice in the 
same town. 

Radio Speeches Are Too 

Much a Colorless 

Monotone 




A MYTH ING even ap- 
proaching oratory 
is obnoxious over the 
radio. Familiarity is worse. 
But why a colorless mono- 
tone? Many speeches orig- 
inal in construction which 
contain ideas well worth the hearing, sound for 
all the world as if they were being read verba- 
tim out of an encyclopedia. An announcement 
of tremendous import broadcast would sound 
like a platitude if given in a pedantic tone. 
The spoken message by radio can never rise 
above the quality of the speaker's voice and 
diction. 

As for the diction of most radio speakers, 
it is well to let one who has frequently broad- 
cast, and who has given much thought to 
this subject, express his opinion. This opinion 
was received by the present writer in a letter 
commenting on various matters discussed in 
this department. The writer of the letter is 
Richard K. Morton of South Boston, Mass., 
who has broadcast speeches from stations 
WBZ, WJAR, WGI, and WEAN, his subjects 
including historical and scientific themes, 
citizenship, humor, and biographical sketches. 
He has also conducted musical programs at a 
number of broadcast stations. So, taken 
altogether, he knows whereof he speaks when 
he expresses an opinion on radio talks. He 
writes: 



HELEN KLOUGH 



Motion picture correspondent and screen 
star, has been heard with distinct success 
through station WOR, Newark, N. J. 
One of Miss Klough's most popular talks 
is on "How I Interview Famous Stars, 
and What they Say" 



I believe that the radio is showing us how few 
speakers have really good voices and delivery. It 
is showing the effect of a decline in forensic art, in 
practice of reading aloud, and, above all, in careful 
articulation and enunciation. We are lip-lazy, and 
we clip our syllables and sounds. We do not have a 
pleasant variation in tone quality. We mumble 
down our shirt fronts. We do not know when to 
breathe while speaking. We affect a sanctified 
monotone or an excited staccato, in our delivery. 
Any listener-in can add faults 
to this necessarily brief list. 
There are few listeners-in who 
do not fervently await better 
radio phonetics. 

All who do their own 
thinking, and there are a 
goodly number of them in 
radio audiences, will hail 
with joy the day when the 
faults just quoted are elim- 
inated from broadcast 
speeches. But the short- 
comings in this feature of 
radio are not wholly due to 
the speakers, according to 
Mr. Morton. Note what he 
has to say about studio 
management. 



What can the radio station 
do in this matter? It can test 
voices before putting them on 
the air. A sign, "Careful 
Enunciation," would be more 
valuable to a studio than the injunction, "Quiet." 
Fit power of the transmitter to the locality. Place 
the microphone better. Prevent stuffy atmosphere 
in the studio. Do not permit many to be close by a 
speaker while he is on the air. Remove from 
speeches difficult words and phrases, ambiguities, 
poor transitions, and current banalities. Prohibit 
too many freak broadcasts, and cheap humor. The 
best radio stations demand an advance copy of all 
proposed talks, but, from experience, I know that 
they should also have a guarantee as to the nature 
of the voice which they propose to put on the air. 
. . . Through good radio phonetics, public 
interest will be maintained in worthwhile radio 
speeches. The radio will then have a better chance 
to serve the community. 

To all of which many of our readers will no 
doubt give their unqualified approval. 

Some of the Worst and Some of the Best 

FOR radio nuisances, we desire again to 
go on record with the statement that the 
worst of them all is the announcer with 
that nice, chummy, familiar manner, who takes 
you into his confidence. Who tells you that if 



The Listeners' Point of View 



you will stand by for a moment he is going to 
give you, oh, something just too sweet, or 
lovely, or funny for anything. Who says, 
"Well, here we are again, feeling fine. How're 
you?" Who tells you, "Say, this man is go- 
ing to sing the latest love song about a sweet 
young thing, and he's been married twenty 
years! Hope wifey isn't listening-in." Who 
signs off with, "Good night. Sleep tight. 
. . . Turn off the 
switch, George." 

Time cures many 
evils, and time will 
cure this one. The 
instant you hear an 
announcer at a sta- 
tion you know what 
class of station it is, 
and in what sort of 
town it is located. 

Of late, this de- 
partment has been re- 
ceiving numerous 
comments, all lauda- 
tory, anent the an- 
nouncing of "Uncle 
John," of KHJ, the 
station conducted by 
the Los Angeles 
Times. Uncle John, 
whose full name is 
John S. Daggett, bids 




fair to rival the cli- 
mate of California as 
a source of praise 
from people all over 
the state, which is 

equivalent to saying that this praise is all in 
superlatives. Yet there is always a good rea- 
son given for the praise, which is more than 
can be said about the eulogies of the 
climate! 

In a letter containing much of interest 
about the men and women heard over the 
microphone in California, Mr. J. M. McKey 
has this to say of Uncle John: 

Our most popular station here in southern Cali- 
fornia is KHJ. While some of this popularity is 
undoubtedly due to the fine quality of the programs, 
one of the main reasons is none other than their 
announcer, known to listeners as "Uncle John." 
I have never heard any one speak anything but the 
highest praise for this man. His announcements are 
always made in a clean-cut, even voice and are to 
the point. He seems to have no enemies on earth, 
and is never perturbed or tiresome. 

This, following a good many similar com- 
ments not only from California but from other 



HOUDINI 

Who has talked on the art of magic from station 
WOR. But even he, the greatest of living magicians, 
cannot tell us whence comes the mystery called- 

Radio 



states as well, prompted us to send to Uncle 
John for his photograph to be published this 
month. But it did not arrive in time. 
Why not have sent it by air mail, Uncle John? 
From KGO, California, came a letter via air- 
plane. Why not a picture from KHJ? 

Upon second thought, perhaps the airplane 
route did not occur to Uncle John because he 
was too modest for it to enter his head that his 
likeness could be of 
that much importance 
to any one. If this is a 
true surmise, then it 
but goes to prove that 
even the best of an- 
nouncers can some- 
times be mistaken. 
And directors, too. 
Mr. Daggett serves in 
both capacities at 
KHJ. 

Of a certain woman 
announcer in his vicin- 
ity, Mr. McKey 
writes, "She is invari- 
ably long-winded and 
tiresome, as she goes 
into details in which 
the public is not in- 
terested, and always 
uses a patronizing 
tone which disgusts 
the listener." And of 
a certain man an- 



nouncer, " He is good 
and knows it. In fact 
he will almost tell you 

how much better he is than the artists ap- 
pearing on various programs and what an 
awful dub you are." 

As for the discussion about women speakers 
that has called forth so many opinions, Mr. 
McKey adds his views briefly and to the 
point: "With few exceptions our stations 
out here employ men announcers, and they 
are always far superior to the women. I have 
heard some very fine talks rendered by 
women, but will say I prefer men all the 
time." 

Yes, there are radio listeners who think for 
themselves and will never have the "mob 
mind." By the same token, there are others 
who, either through intellectual incapacity 
or laziness, follow the mob in radio as in all 
other things. They are the ones who, as 
President Faunce so aptly put it, "will accept 
the platitudes which are acceptable to all 
mankind." 



Radio Broadcast 



Good Things Are In Store for Radio 
Audiences 

WHILE it is the custom of this depart- 
ment to speak of individual per- 
formances heard over the radio, such 
mention is omitted this month because little 
of outstanding merit has been heard since our 
last number appeared. This was no doubt 
due to the inevitable letting down of the 
programs during the late summer and early 
fall. But now that the regular season for 
music and like entertainments is advancing, 
material for such comment should be ample 
for many months to come. The advance 
announcements of the broadcast directors 
show that some good things are in store for 
the radio audiences. 

But, as usual, the music promises to be the 
least improved of all the features which are an 
established part of broadcast programs. It 
looks very much as if, after listening to a 
speech on some big subject given by one of 
authority, we shall still have to hear the 
announcement: 

"The next number on our program this 
evening will be: 'What Does the Kitty Mean 
When She Says Meouw?' played by the XYZ 
Orchestra." 

Can you imagine such a thing happening in 
a lecture hall before a real audience? Then 
why should it continually happen to a radio 
audience? 

The director will say that he must please all 
kinds of listeners. Very well, let him please 
all kinds of listeners. No one is objecting to 
that. But why try to please them all during 
one program? One might as well try giving a 
Shakespeare drama in the theater in conjunc- 
tion with the latest musical comedy. 

However, enough of this for the present 
but only for the present. For this is one of 
the most discussed subjects among owners 
of radio receiving sets. 

Franz Schubert and Robert Burns 

THE explanatory remarks that often 
precede the broadcasting of classical 
musical numbers are frequently ex- 
tremely well prepared and given, and then, 
again, are somewhat confusing. As a case 
in point, there was the statement made from 
station WGY, preceding the performance of a 
Schubert number, that Franz Schubert was 
the Robert Burns of music. 

Granted that we know much more about 
Schubert's music than we do about the 



poetry of Burns, nevertheless we cannot see 
how the one can be likened to the other. 
Burns was always the Scotsman, and often 
colloquial, given to the interpretation of 
life as he saw it in his rather limited scope of 
vision. Schubert, although born the son of a 
schoolmaster and raised in bourgeois sur- 
roundings, was, as a composer, among the 
aristocrats of music. As a writer of songs he 
stands forth as the noblest of them all, and 
it is significant that he chose, as the texts for 
these songs, poems of enduring literary quality 
and some of them masterpieces. With all due 
credit to Robert Burns, when did he ever 
conceive, to say nothing of achieving, poems 
to be classed with such Schubert songs as 
Der Erlkonig, Die junge Nonne, Der Tod und 
Das Mddcben, Der Atlas, Der Doppelgdnger, 
Gruppe aus dem Tartarus? 

In the thirty-one years of his life he was 
born in 1797 and died in 1828 Schubert 
raised song writing to a height that has never 
since been equalled. Two of his symphonies, 
the piano Impromptus and Moments Musicals 
would alone place him among the Immortals. 
To compare him with Robert Burns is an esti- 
mate incomprehensible to those of us who 
know his music well. 



AN ANTI-PROHIBITIONIST claims that 
the man who made up a certain short 
program recently given at station WGY, must 
also be an anti, for it contained the following 
numbers: 

The Importance of Appetite 
Any Old Port in a Storm 
The Old, Old Love 
In Cellar Cool 

These Radio Listeners Had Good Taste 

ALONG as a subject remains of interest 
in the public mind, it justifies comment 
among current events. So it is in order 
that mention should be made at this writing 
of the winners who contested for honors at one 
of the closing concerts given by the New York 
Philharmonic Orchestra at the Lewisohn Sta- 
dium of the University of the City of New 
York during the latter part of August. 

It will be recalled by those who listened-in 
to this concert that five young musicians 
entered this competition which awarded to 
the two best among them a debut recital in 
New York this fall. As such a debut costs 
anywhere from $750 to $ 1,000, the competi- 
tion was worth while to these aspirants for a 



The Listeners' Point of View 



53 



concert career in this country. Before each 
contestant's performance, and after it as well, 
announcement was made that from the votes 
of the audience present at the Stadium close 
to ten thousand people and of the radio au- 
dience, the decisions would be made. 

It seemed as if any listener-in who had 
heard enough music to have mature judgment 
could not hesitate in making these decisions. 
Ignace Hilsberg, pianist, and Miron Poliakin, 
violinist, being the ones that quite eclipsed 
the others through their all-round proficiency. 
But what would the public think? That 
was the question. There were two singers on 
the program, and it is the general belief that a 
vocalist of average excellence is always more 
popular with the masses than an instrumental- 
ist of exceptional merits. 

But it was not so in this case. The pianist 
and the violinist just named won by a large 
margin. 

Yet people are forever saying that you must 
bring yourself down to the level of the public 
if you would succeed. The truth is, the public 
practically never fails to respond to the best 



if given opportunity to pass judgment upon it. 
There is a moral in this for makers of radio 
programs, a moral so obvious that it does not 
need expression in words. 

Another Plan to Pay Radio Artists 

THE announcement made recently in 
the Musical Courier, "Radio Perform- 
ers Are Hereafter to Be Paid," was 
somewhat premature. It was based on the 
published opinions expressed by the com- 
mittee appointed last spring by Mr. E. F. 
McDonald, Jr. of Chicago to devise some plan 
whereby this much needed reform could be 
brought about. One of the chief proponents 
of the plan is Mr. Paul B. Klugh, executive 
chairman of the National Association of Broad- 
casters. In its public statement, the commit- 
tee went on record as endorsing the paying of 
radio performers as a means toward raising 
the standard of broadcast programs, and sug- 
gested a way whereby this change might be 
brought about. 

But the desired goal has not yet been 




Thomas Coke Knight, New York 

JOSEPH KNECHT'S WALDORF ASTORIA DANCE ORCHESTRA 

Talk about a performance of Hamlet without the Melancholy Dane! What about an orchestra sans the 
instruments? It's up to those who see this picture to guess Who's Who so far as who plays what is con- 
cerned. The only easy guess is the man at the piano, who is Mr. Knecht himself. The men look as if 
playing a joke on us by trying to make us think that one instrument can make an orchestra although one 
swallow never made a summer. They are frequently heard through station wjz, New York 



54 



Radio Broadcast 



reached. It will be, however, and soon. There 
is absolutely no question as to the dissatis- 
faction of large numbers of people with radio 
programs as they are now transmitted. The 
committee that is trying to solve this problem 
is working along the right track, though 
there is some question as to the practicability 
of the plan. 

Ho! For a Contest of Dramatic Readers! 

MRS. R. J. QUIEN, dramatic reader 
of Camden, N. J., who has broadcast 
from various stations in that vicinity, 
has risen up in wrath at the statements made 
in this department by our contributors against 
women radio speakers in general and dramatic 
readers in particular. She tilts her lance 
especially at Mr. Corley Kirby of station wwj 
who came out just as hard against the women 
readers heard through his station as those 
heard through other stations. Knowing Mr. 
Kirby, we are quite sure that he would stand 
his ground and give good reason for it against 




MYRNA SHARLOW 



An American dramatic soprano who has gained many admirers 
among the patrons of the Chicago Civic Opera Company, of which 
she has for eight years been a member. She has broadcast a number 
of times from Chicago stations and is among those who believe 
that the radio will become a great musical factor in American life 



the onslaughts of an army of critics. And 
enjoy the controversy too. 

"I wish," writes Mrs. Quien, "that Mr. 
Kirby could read some of the letters I have 
received about my broadcast performances, 
and then perhaps he would not be so prejudiced 
against all women readers who broadcast, 
and remember the old saying, 'All rules have 
an exception.'" 

But this is not all. Mrs. Quien comes forth 
with a challenge. We quote her regarding 
this discussion that has been going on and is 
still being merrily waged in this department 
by our readers: 

Since there seems to be so much discussion, why 
not suggest to WEAF, New York, or some central 
station to have a dramatic readers' contest? / 
should love to appear some evening with a male 
competitor and both cover the same line of dra- 
matic work, humor, pathos, and melodrama. Let 
the public decide whether they like it. I would 
contest with any male competitor. 

So much for the challenge. Now the ques- 
tion is who will accept it? We await the 
answer. Or should we say "an- 
*zis swers"? 



The Impressive Hour When 
Pershing Spoke 

ON THE morning after 
Defense Day, the ma- 
jority of the papers 
throughout the country carried 
front page stories of how the two 
Chicago murderers, Nathan 
Leopold and Richard Loeb, 
spent their first day in the peni- 
tentiary, even what they ate for 
dinner being told in detail. And 
in some of these papers, no men- 
tion whatever was made of the 
fact that on the evening of De- 
fense Day probably the greatest 
achievement in human commu- 
nication ev.er known in the 
world was accomplished. This 
was the conversation carried on 
by General Pershing at Wash- 
ington with four generals of the 
United States Army, located re- 
spectively at New York, Chi- 
cago, Omaha and San Francisco, 
heard by millions of radio lis- 
teners. 

History was made during that 
hour when General Pershing as 
their commanding officer bade 



Moffet, Chicago 



The Listeners' Point of View 



55 



farewell to these generals with whom he had 
long been associated. But it was considered 
insignificant as a news item compared with 
the dinner menu of two murderers. Yet 
it will remain in the memory of some of us 
as about the most impressive hour ever lived 
through. All those who listened-in owe a 
lasting debt of gratitude to the American 
Telegraph and Telephone Company and to the 
various broadcast engineers who brought 
about this miracle as their contribution to 
Defense Day. 

"Thank You For Thanking Me" 

IT IS not unusual to hear people complain 
that they have written this or that broad- 
cast station telling of their enjoyment of 
this or that feature, and received no reply. 
If they would look at the matter in a general 
rather than a personal way they would realize 
that a broadcast station would need to em- 
ploy, at much expense, a special staff to an- 
swer such correspondence. And, for that 
matter, when we thank a person for doing 
us a favor we do not expect the reply, "Thank 
you for thanking me." Why then expect 
this of a broadcast director? 

Among Other Things. 

AT STATION WBZ, Springfield, Mass., ex- 
* periments have been made to find out 
whether the radio listener does or does not like 
to hear the noise of the crowd when big public 
events are broadcast. So far as our personal 
experience and knowledge of the radio public 
goes, the answer is "Yes!" If the noise of 
the crowd is not heard now and then the real 
atmosphere of the event is wholly lacking. 
So let us hear the audience every time, WBZ! 



let it be said that the announcers 
at all the broadcast stations conducted 
by the General Electric Company are unex- 
celled in the quality of their work, which is 
always clear, concise, and characterized by 
that good breeding one has a right to expect 
but does not always find in a broadcast an- 
nouncer. This being so, one error made by 
these announcers is conspicuous. Why do 
they say, "Gen-a-ral //-lec-tric" instead of 
"Gen-^-ral E-lectric"? 

U never can tell how reforms may be 
brought about. Sometimes the uncon- 
scious indirect method does what the consci- 
ously applied direct method fails to accomplish. 
All of which is preliminary to saying that if 




MAJOR A. G. RUDD 

The polo expert of the U. S. Army who broadcast 
the International polo games direct from the Mea- 
dow Brook Club. Authority sits well upon him and 
we would trust him to get away with anything he 
undertook. We've an idea he's tackled easier 
jobs than broadcasting a polo match. Some speed, 
that takes, before the microphone 

broadcast stations keep on giving occasional 
programs of old-fashioned dance music the old- 
fashioned dances may come back into favor. 

MOTION picture stars are, with rare ex- 
ceptions, better seen than heard. It 
is a bit risky for them to reach the public 
through the radio because their glory "is 
dimmed as soon as they open their mouths. 
A case in point is the famous film star who, 
speaking not long ago through a Chicago 
station said, "Being as there's no motion 
picture studio in this city" etc. 

ANY day or evening you can tune in and 
hear from one station or another some 
of the latest books discussed. It may in- 
terest the broadcast directors to know that 
many people enjoy this feature who are not 
among those inclined to write letters ex- 
pressing their commendation. 

THE young woman who, each evening at 
7.30, from station WBZ, Springfield, talks 
to the kiddies is one of the star radio enter- 
tainers along this line. She gives the children 
such worthwhile stories that they are also en- 
joyed by grown-ups, which is the test that all 
stories for children must meet before they can 
be called literature. 



r 



RADIO ADVENTURING IN THE 'ARCTIC 



By 
Yred 
James 




NEITHER Greenland's icy mountains 
nor India's coral strand are now 
remote and isolated. Folk there- 
abouts are likely to be pretty familiar 
with the latest, from the up-to-the-minute 
developments in the presidential election 
campaign to the harvest returns in all parts of 
Canada. Such is the extent of the mystic 
Bond of radio. 

Since the Canadian Government ship Arctic 
left her berth in the St. Lawrence River at 
Quebec early last July, en route on a trip to 
the Arctic Archipelago, she has been in touch 
with the outside world from the time she left 
and will continue to be so until she returns 
next October, assuming, of course, that no 
serious accident happens. This stout little 
vessel, built back in 1900, has been tripping 
up the Arctic Seas these twenty years. This 
year the Arctic has her two regular radio 
equipments consisting of a standard 600 meter 
2 KW spark equipment and a continuous 
wave transmitter working on 2,100 meters, 
with which they keep in touch with the long 
wave ship station at Louisburg, Nova Scotia, 
and in addition a short wave icw outfit 
which will transmit on wavelengths between 
100 and 150 meters. The installation of this 
short wave equipment is for the purpose of 
carrying on tests with the United States and 
Canadian amateurs to ascertain how short 



wave signals come through from the far north 
during the full daylight period in the land of 
the Midnight Sun. 

The operator on the Arctic is Bill Choate 
of Toronto, owner and operator of Canadian 
amateur station 3 co. An enthusiastic youth 
is this Bill Choate, so his superiors say. He 
hoped when he left to meet another Canadian, 
Donald Mix, the operator on Donald Mac- 
Millan's ship Bawdoin, somewhere tolerably 
near the North Pole, but up to the end of Au- 
gust he had not been able to do so. 

The interesting facts about the watch the 
CGS Arctic is maintaining on short waves are: 

Call Sign VDM 

Wave Length 120 meters, 

Eastern Standard Time, 

Daily except Wednesday n p.m. to Midnight 

Saturday only 1 1 P.M., to 3 A.M. 

The radio branch of the Canadian Govern- 
ment, Department of Marine, has authorized 
all Canadian amateur stations to use a wave- 
length of 1 20 meters during the foregoing 
hours for the purpose of communicating with 
VDM. 

The test transmitter comprises two ad- 
miralty T4A tubes, operating on 8,000 volts 
on the plate with an output rating approxi- 
mately 500 watts per tube, using a standard 
Meissner circuit. In order to make the 



Radio Adventuring in the "Arctic" 



57 



transmission as penetrating as possible, no 
filter system is being used and the character- 
istic 480 cycle note will enable amateurs to 
place VDM immediately they hear Bill Choate's 
note, even if they do not get his call sign. 

THE MISSION OF THE "ARCTIC" 

THE cos Arctic went into the Arctic Archi- 
pelago, whose islands measure more than 
500 square miles, and spread over an area of 
more than 520,800 square miles, to relieve 
outposts of the Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police and other Canadian Government officials 
who have spent one or two years in the 
Arctic Circle. She 
will establish new 
police posts, cus- 
toms houses, post 
offices, and com- 
plete numerous 
surveys and com- 
parisons of previ- 
ous observations. 

There is, it seems, 
an abiding passion 
on the part of the 
Government of 
Canada for estab- 
lishing and main- 
taining the ma- 
jesty of the law 
even to its most 
remote outposts. 
Establish a police 
post at the North 
Pole or anywhere 




ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE 

Going aboard the Arctic, bound for the far North, to take duty 

at one of the solitary posts there. The admiring crew on the 

dock may be speculating as to whether or not these stalwart 

three will "get their man" 



else with a red-coated mountie in charge and 
law and order will prevail. The Eskimos 
have learned this. Noo-Koo-Lah, one of 
these Eskimos, killed a Newfoundland trapper 
in the neighborhood of Pond's Inlet in Baffin 
Bay two years ago. Last year he was brought 
out of the Arctic and is now languishing in a 
Canadian penitentiary. The Canadian Gov- 
ernment also has some commercial interests 
in the Arctic that need protection. There 
are reindeers and musk ox by the millions up 
there that may some day play a part in the 
world's food supply. Trading companies 
under different flags are getting busy in some 
favored places and they need, it seems, both 
protection and watching. 

The expedition this year is in charge of 
F. D. Henderson of the Northwest Territories 
Branch of the Canadian Department of the 
Interior. He will go as far north as Ellesmere 
Island, 823 miles from the North Pole, the 
farthest point reached last year by the Craig 



expedition in the Arctic. Captain J. E. 
Bernier, the master of the Arctic, is now mak- 
ing his two hundred and fifty-eighth voyage. 
For fifty-five years he has been sailing and 
steaming up and down and across the seven 
seas and many of the waterways running 
into them. 'For twenty years he has been 
going into the far north on the good ship 
Arctic, a three-mast top-sail schooner of 650 
tons gross and 436 tons net, 165.4 f eet ' on g 
and 37.2 foot beam. She has a triple expansion 
engine of 275 horsepower and can make seven 
knots under steam in clear water. 
She has three masts, 80 feet high, and this 
year a short top- 
mast has been 
added to the main- 
mast to give more 
clearance between 
the antenna wires 
and the mass of 
rigging wires which 
sailing ships are 
compelled to carry. 
The working of 
the radio set in a 
ship fitted with sail 
is not as satisfac- 
tory as in a steam- 
ship on this ac- 
count. The an- 
tenna wires have 
to be erected in a 
position where 
they will not foul 
the sails, booms, 

or running rigging, and the heavy steel guys 
necessary to support the spars drain away 
a lot of the energy which would otherwise 
be radiated. Since the Arctic is built of 
wood, Bill Choate has to cast an anxious 
eye over the side as soon as they run into 
Arctic floe ice. And his chief concern is the 
welfare of the 200 square feet of copper 
plate, on the ship's bottom, which constitutes 
his main ground connection. If he is lucky, 
he escapes. If the ice nicks off the copper, he 
has to rely on the engines and propeller for 
his connection, and there will be a lamentable 
drop in the efficiency of the transmission. 

RADIO EXPERIMENTS IN ARCTIC SEAS 

TN ADDITION to the regular tests with 
I Canadian and American amateurs, special 
tests have been arranged with station KDKA 
through the courtesy of Mr. George Wendt of 
the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company. Experiments occur every Monday 



Radio Broadcast 




night on their short wave set. KDKA 
is using its experimental call sign 8xs 
when working with Choate. The rer 
suits obtained from the short wave 
set while the Arctic was proceeding 
down the Gulf of St. Lawrence were very 
satisfactory, American amateurs as far west 
as Oklahoma having been worked. They have 
heard KDKA on short wave transmission, eleven 
degrees from the North Pole. 

Great rivalry exists between the Pacific 
and the Atlantic Stations. Amateur operator 
Jack Barnsley at Prince Rupert has rather put 
it over the Atlantic Division in working 
with Mix in the Bowdoin, but IAR and other 
notable amateurs in the vicinity of Halifax 
have been holding Bill Choate to the last gasp. 

In addition to the regular code apparatus 
aboard the Arctic, the Westinghouse Com- 
pany has provided her with special short 
wave receiving equipment for receiving the 
concerts transmitted on KDKA'S short wave. 
Recent tests have indicated that Captain 
Bernier and his crew have been able to enjoy 
the short wave concerts long after the regular 
broadcast transmissions on the higher wave- 
lengths have faded away. 

The Northwest Mounted Police Posts in 



the far north at Craig Harbor and Pond's 
Inlet were equipped with radio receiving 
apparatus last year but until the Arctic re- 
turned early in this year no data was available 
as to what concerts, if any, they were able to 
receive up there last winter and the full details 
will not be known until the Arctic is back in 
Quebec. 

CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE USE RADIO 

E battery problem is a serious one in 
the case of these sets in that supplies 
are only taken in once a year. The receiving 

WHAT HAPPENED TO ONE POLAR BEAR 
When the crew of the Arctic went bear-hunting. It 
does not seem such a difficult task to hoist a fairly 
weighty bear over the side, as the photograph shows. 
The "three men in a boat" appear to enjoy the 
rather novel occupation of towing the defunct bear 




sets at the Police Posts are equipped with 
Northern Electric peanut tubes and use special 
batteries prepared by the Eveready Battery 
Company for filament lighting. In addition 
they are provided with 300 ampere hour 
Edison-Lalande primary batteries with ample 
refills to see them through. For B batteries 
they are provided with both Burgess and Ever- 
eady standard units and in addition an ade- 
quate supply of what are termed "inert 
cells," which are made up specially for the 
Canadian Department of Marine and Fish- 
eries by Siemans Brothers in London, England. 
These latter are small dry cells containing no 
liquid. To put them in operation, the cells 
are filled with water when they are good for 
the normal life of an ordinary B battery. 

It will be interesting to hear how these 
different batteries have made out under the 
severe climatic conditions prevailing in those 
latitudes. 

The Police Station is also supplied with the 
portable long wave receivers specially built for 



Radio Adventuring in the "Arctic" 



59 



surveyors by the Radio Branch, Department 
of Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa. Strong 
long wave signals are received up north from 
the high power stations in the United States 
and Europe on this receiver, and with the 
numerous press schedules in effect the Police 
Posts frequently receive news items actually 
before they appear in our own newspapers. 
Last year the report of the death of President 
Harding was received by the Arctic within 
a few minutes of its occurrence. By some 
accident the Bowdoin did not receive this press 
message and it was not until she encountered 
the Arctic about a week later that her crew 
became aware of their country's great be- 
reavement. 

While the Arctic plans to be back at Quebec 
sometime in October, she has aboard supplies 
sufficient to last for more than a year. About 
the first point of call she made on her outward 



voyage was Godhavn, Greenland, where there 
is a Danish settlement, where she arranged 
to leave mail for Captain Donald A. Mac- 
Millan, the American explorer on the Bowdoin. 
Among the party on the Arctic are six men 
of the Rojal Canadian Mounted Police, who 
are going to man a new post farther north 
than any police post has yet been established. 

NO CRUSHING CROWDS HERE 

THE Arctic Archipelago is one of the 
greatest realms of unexploited treasures 
of natural resources in the world. Whether 
the Arctic Archipelago will ever be of economic 
value is still uncertain, but it is quite prob- 
able that before very long a radio station 
will be established in the farthest north which 
will be in communication with the uttermost 
ends of the earth. Meanwhile try your luck 
through the ether and listen for VDM. 




THE CANADIAN COAST GUARD SS "ARCTIC" 

Her Captain Bernier (upper left circle), and radio operator Bill Choate (lower right). The sturdy little 
vessel, which has voyaged up the Arctic seas for twenty years, is now on another trip, more notable than 
preceding ones because of extensive radio experiments being carried on with broadcasting stations and 
amateurs on short wavelengths. The top photograph shows the transmitting equipment which is a 2100 
meter, one kw continuous wave set, and a 120 meter cw, two kw transmitter. The receiving equipment 

is shown in the lower photograph 



Will This Circuit Ever Work? 

Theoretically, the Receiver Described in this Article is Possible: the 
Addition of Super- Regeneration to the Roberts Circuit If it is Possible, 
the Circuit Should Surpass any Receiver Now Known, Using Two 
Tubes Here is the Technical Problem: Can You Make it Work? 

BY WALTER VAN B. ROBERTS 



ONE of the questions most fre- 
quently asked about the two- 
tube circuit described by the 
writer in the April, 1924, number 
of RADIO BROADCAST is: "Will that receiver 
work with a loop antenna?" Unfortunately, 
the circuit is not sufficiently sensitive to 
produce good loud-speaker results with 
a loop antenna except in the case of very 
strong signals. Not only is this true, but if 
the loop is placed near the set, unwelcome 
oscillations occur 
when the loop is 
turned so that suffici- 
ent magnetic coupling 
is established between 
it and the other coils. 
Hence, the circuit as 
it stands cannot be re- 
commended for use 
with a loop. 



LOUD-SPEAKER VOL- 
UME ON A LOOP AND 
TWO TUBES? 



Not a How-to-Make-It Article 



THE idea, how- 
ever, of obtaining 
good loud speaker vol- 
ume with two tubes 
and a small loop is 
very intriguing and it 
is proposed to outline 
an arrangement that 
looks as if it might 
turn the trick. The 

writer has tried out the arrangement only in a 
very sketchy fashion, and although the results 
were very promising, it must at present be 
considered as founded upon theory alone. To 
make a thorough investigation into the best 
method of actual construction for this circuit 
would take much more time than the writer 
has available, and so it is hoped that some of 
the many enthusiastic and able experimenters 
who read this magazine may take up the 



Walter Van B. Roberts, whose articles on 
trie super-heterodyne, super-regenerative, and 
remarkable reflex circuits have been a feature 
of RADIO BROADCAST for many months, is, 
without question, one of the most capable of 
our practical radio engineers. 

He has vision, and his vision is tempered 
by a scientific background which adds prac- 
ticality to his ideas. In this article, Mr. 
Roberts outlines some very interesting and 
exceptionally valuable fields of experiment 
for those whose knowledge and experience is 
sufficient for such work. 

This is not intended to be a how-to-make- 
it article. We cannot undertake to answer 
questions about it. Unless the experimenter 
is able to figure proper inductances and 
capacities and similar problems of radio 
design, we do not advise that he attempt the 
solution of this problem. THE EDITOR. 



constructional development work and in due 
time add another to RADIO BROADCAST'S list 
of Knock-Out, non-radiating receivers. 

Briefly stated, the idea is to make the above- 
mentioned two-tube set (described in this 
magazine for April, and May, 1924, and with 
other modifications, in August and September) 
sufficiently sensitive for loop reception by 
substituting super-regeneration for regenera- 
tion in the second tube, and to take measures 
to prevent magnetic coupling between the 
loop and other coils in 
the set. It may also 
prove necessary to 
take special pains to 
by-pass as nearly as 
possible all the inter- 
ruption -frequency 
current around trfe 
audio - frequency 
transformer in order 
to avoid overloading 
the first tube with 
this frequency. The 
circuit would then be 
something like that 
shown in Fig. i . The 
chief characteristics 
to be expected of such 
a circuit when prop- 
erly built are: 

1. It would make a 

truly portable 
set. 

2. Its sensitivity 

could be made 

greater than that of a simple super- 
regenerative circuit on account of the 
stage of radio-frequency amplification. 

3. Its selectivity would be greater than that of 

any ordinary super-regenerative circuit 
because the loop circuit is never damped. 

4. Its volume, for any signal reasonably 

above the static level, should be ample 
for a medium-sized room, and 

5. Its quality should be good because its 

sensitivity should be so great that the 



Will This Circuit Ever Work? 



61 



super-regenerative action would rarely 
need to be pushed very far. 

In general, this circuit, if properly built by 
a constructor who is familiar with the prin- 
ciples involved, should be satisfactory for 
signals above the interference level, and where 
the utmost selectivity is not required. For 
very long distance work, however, it probably 
would not give as good year-round results as 
the present two-tube regenerative arrangement 
using a good outdoor antenna. 

PROBLEMS CREATED BY THE LOOP 

THERE are several methods by which 
magnetic coupling between the loop and 
other coils may be prevented. If this coupling 
is not completely eliminated, or if the capacity 
coupling is not completely balanced out by 
the neutralizing condenser, the strong oscilla- 
tions in the circuit of the second tube will force 
oscillations in the loop circuit, and these 
latter oscillations, persisting in the low-resis- 
tance loop circuit will re-excite the super- 
regenerative circuit after its periodical inter- 
ruption, even in the absence of any incoming 
signal, and thus render the set inopera- 
tive. Hence the necessity for the care in 
eliminating all the coupling between the two 
circuits. 

Moving the loop some distance from the 
set is not an elegant solution of the problem, 
and it would be difficult mechanically to 
place the loop on the set so that it could be 




FIG. 2 

One form of the Armstrong super-regenerator which 

every one admits does more work with a single tube 

than any other known circuit 



rotated without introducing any coupling in 
any position. It might be possible, but not 
easy, to wind all coils on toroidal forms or their 
equivalent, so as to eliminate all external 
field. Shielding, of course, may be added to 
any scheme used, provided the shielding itself 
does not introduce coupling. Probably the 
simplest and best method of all would be to 
make the loop an integral part of the set, 
fixing its position once for all, then rotating 
the whole set whenever during operation it is 
desired to rotate the loop. 




FIG. I 



Here it is, all in a nutshell. Tuned radio frequency of the neutralized type super-regeneration of the 
single tube type audio amplification by the reflex method. This circuit has infinite experimental pos- 
sibilities that should result in the development of a remarkable receiver. Can you make it behave ? 



62 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 3 

Here is a circuit which Mr. Roberts offers as a possibility. No constants are given because they are 
unknown and must be determined by experiment. The left hand half of this circuit is almost a direct 
copy of the R. F. section of Mr. Roberts's now famous two-tube set the right half is a super-regenerative 
circuit of practical design. After these two have been joined satisfactorily you may start on Fig. i, 

which is the last word 



HOW TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM 

IN WORKING up a circuit such as this, 
1 the difficulties should be overcome, one 
by one, whenever possible. A good procedure 
would be to start with the super-regenerative 
circuit alone, as shown in Fig. 2, which differs 
from that published by the writer in the May, 
1923, number of RADIO BROADCAST, in that 
provision is made for varying the grid and 
plate circuit couplings to the interruption 
frequency oscillation circuit independently 
of each other by means of a large number of 
taps on the inductance. Local stations can 
readily be received without a loop, the grid 
coil being sufficient to pick them up. After 
this one tube "super" is working perfectly, it 
is time to put the radio-frequency amplifier 
ahead of it, as Fig. 3 suggests. This, when 
properly adjusted for zero coupling, should 
make a tremendous difference and the set 
should now give loud-speaker volume with 
greatly improved selectivity. 



When the builder is satisfied with the oper- 
ating characteristics of this set, the final step 
may then be taken. This is the reflexing to 
obtain a stage of audio-frequency amplifica-. 
tion. At this point, it may prove necessary 
to try some such filter arrangement as shown 
in Fig. i. It may even be necessary to shift 
the position of the primary of the audio 
transformer in the circuit so as to bring it to 
ground potential. In this figure, C is as large 
a capacity as can be used without spoiling the 
quality, and L is the inductance required to 
annihilate the reactance of the shunt circuit 
LC at the interruption frequency. The 
series resistance may help to make the by- 
passing more complete. 

The above hints on construction and ex- 
perimental procedure are rather indefinite 
and unaccompanied by values for the various 
quantities, but they will be more than sufficient 
for experimenters capable of doing such work 
successfully. It is not desired to lure others 
into so difficult and tedious an undertaking, 



HOW A PACK RADIO SET FINDS TROUBLE 

DOBERT H. MARRIOTT, a former President aj the Institute of Radio Engi- 
neers, now an engineer on the Pacific Coast, has written a very interesting 
story about how he uses a pack radio set to "shoot" such radio troubles as arise 
from radiating receivers and bad power lines. The article is written in Mr. 
Marriott's interesting style and is full of ideas and suggestions. It will appear 
in an early number. 



The Story of Powel Crosley 

Often Called the Henry Ford of Radio How the Search 
for a Child's Radio Set Started an Immense Business 



BY MYRA MAY 



SOMETIMES it really pays to gratify 
your children's desires. There have 
been several instances in which the 
wish of a child has resulted in the 
discovery of a good toy, or the invention of 
some delight to the heart of some youngster. 
Who knows but that through the doll Jane 
wants or the bicycle Jimmy dreams of, fame 
and fortune may seek you? Consider the 
case of Powel Crosley. 
Crosley's little boy 
wanted a radio set 
and, like all fathers, 
Crosley agreed to buy 
one for his son. The 
boy was only nine 
years old but already 
he was on familiar 
terms with antennas, 
inductances, grids, B 
batteries, and the 
rest of the jargon of 
the true radio fan. 
He planned a set that 
would bring in dis- 
tance and anticipated 
hearing all the base- 
ball games right at 
home ; he even invited 

his young friends to enjoy the broadcasting as 
his guests. 

So on Washington's birthday, 1921, Crosley 
and his son set out to buy the long promised 
outfit. The Precision Equipment Company 
offered them a small receiving set for $130, far 
too expensive a one for a father in moderate 
circumstances to buy his son. There was 
nothing cheaper to be had and the father broke 
the news to the youngster that they would 
have to postpone buying the "toy." The 
boy, remembering his nine years, winked 
back the tears and mastered his disappoint- 
ment. For a compromise, however, Crosley 
bought the child a practice key buzzer and a 
text book on radio. 

Thereafter father and son spent their eve- 
nings mastering the intricacies of wireless. 
The boy studied his lessons in the afternoons 



It All Started With an Idea 

Powel Crosley, as Miss May tells in this 
story, found that radio equipment a few 
years ago was entirely too expensive. And 
so, after some business troubles, he started 
out to make radio sets which could be pur- 
chased by the "average man." Some of 
Mr. Crosley's admirers have called him the 
Henry Ford of radio. What is certainly 
true is that the idea of large scale production 
of not-too-expensive radio equipment sat- 
isfies a decided public demand. Mr. Crosley 
is an interesting person, both because of 
himself and of what he has done; and Myra 
May has quite caught the spirit of his per- 
sonality. THE EDITOR. 



so that the evenings might be free for the 
alluring radio. Crosley himself fell under 
the spell of these after dinner sessions. Within 
a short time they had a working knowledge 
of the principles of wireless. Crosley soon 
bought a simple crystal set. His antenna 
was made of hay wire. 

"Every rock crusher around town came in 
like a ton of brick," Crosley says of that out- 

fit. "Wecouldn'.t 

get any music so we 
added an audion de- 
tector and heard a 
concert seven miles 
away! That evening 
is one of the red 
letter days in my life. 
I don't know whether 
my son or I was 
prouder of the per- 
formance. I uncon- 
sciously joined the 
class of radio bores. 
I told everyone I met 
about the distance 
our home-made set 
had covered. 

"Finally the boy and 
I, by this time hope- 
less radio fans, bought a three-barreled multi- 
control set. When the wind was blowing in 
the right direction, we frequently heard 
Pittsburgh a remarkable achievement from 
our home in Cincinnati, we thought. Our 
total outlay on our set that the boy and I 
had made, had been only $35. The new out- 
fit was an extravagance we permitted our- 
selves now that we were going deeper into the 
mysteries of wireless. Moreover, we had 
gained a good knowledge of radio, could rig 
up a set and were able to diagnose our trouble 
when the apparatus wasn't working properly. 

THE HENRY FORD IDEA IN RADIO 

ON THAT Washington's birthday, I 
wondered how other men on salaries as 
small as mine could afford to buy radio sets 
at the prices I was asked. I knew that ex- 



6 4 



Radio Broadcast 



pensive equipment such as I had been shown 
was out of the question. I knew that many 
men lacked the mechanical ability or the 
desire to make their own outfits. Yet I was 
confident that radio was not a rich man's 
toy and I believed that it should be within 
the reach of everyone. 

"As my boy and I tinkered with our home 
made set, the idea was born in my brain that 
a big market awaited inexpensive radio 
equipment. The possibilities of cheaply man- 
ufactured apparatus on a production basis 
appealed to me more and more. I was sure 
that here was an untrodden field in a brand 
new industry. There the opportunity was, 
waiting for someone to realize its value. I 
decided to go into the radio business on a very 
limited scale." 

Crosley, at this time, had a small wood 
working factory where he manufactured 
phonograph cabinets. The slump of 1920 
had hit his business so hard that trade was 
practically at a standstill. It was a godsend, 
therefore, to be able to use the idle machinery 
to turn out radio cabinets. For a time he 
made the cabinets for other companies, but 
his son's enthusiasm for radio finally convinced 
the father that this new art was no fad, that 
it was an invention here to stay and that it 
had unlimited possibilities. Instead of mak- 
ing cabinets for other concerns, he began to 
sell them direct. 



Through contact with the manufacturers 
of radio parts, he discovered that there was 
no popular priced equipment on the market. 
From the time that he and his son had bought 
a book of directions, and started to make their 
own set, Crosley had seen the need of inex- 
pensive parts. The lack of a moderate priced 
vacuum tube socket particularly impressed 
him. Although a novice at radio, he was a 
trained automobile mechanic, so using his 
knowledge in a new capacity, he designed a 
socket made of porcelain. Its success led 
him further in this new field. He produced a 
book-type variable condenser made with two 
flat pieces of wood and working on a hinge. 
Then he manufactured a special switch. 
Now that he turned out cabinets, sockets, 
condensers, taps, and switches, the next logical 
step was to make a complete set. 

"Our first outfit," Crosley relates, "was a 
simple crystal set." It was a very simple set, 
but it laid the foundations of a million dollar 
concern and carried out a precept that said 
experience had taught him. He had learned 
the wisdom of beginning a new business on a 
small scale, although it had taken several 
failures to do it. 

At the time he graduated from college, he 
wanted to go into the automobile business. 
His father was a wealthy attorney of Cincin- 
nati, and wished his son to join his firm. Young 
Crosley, accordingly obediently went to law 




A CORNER IN THE TESTING LABORATORY 
Of the Crosley Manufacturing Company. Mr. Crosley is 
testing the operation of a radio receiver picked from the stock 



The Story of Powel Crosley 



school. Once out of college, however, he 
announced that he was going to make mechan- 
ics his life's work. His father answered this 
by telling him he must make his own way in 
his chosen profession. 

So this likely young lawyer with automo- 
tive leanings got a job as a chauffeur for a 
private family. Crosley did just that. He 
had some valuable experience for a few 
months and learned what it is that endears a 
motor to a mechanic 
and a chauffeur. And 
he acquired the con- 
sumer's point of view. 

CROSLEY AS AN AUTO- 
MOBILE PROMOTER 

THEN on his 
twenty-third 
birthday he decided 
to test an idea that 
he had had for some 
time. He believed 
that there was a big 
market for inexpen- 
sive six cylinder auto- 
mobiles that would re- 
tail for about $1,700. 
So he organized a 
company and manu- 
factured his first car. 
Interest was aroused 
everywhere. The 
young man seemed to 
have hit on an idea 
that the world had 
long awaited. It 
seemed as though 
success must crown 
his efforts. But that 
first car was the one 

and only that the company ever manu- 
factured. Not long afterward, the defunct 
corporation was buried with appropriate 
ceremonies. 

"Not enough capital," Crosley explains 
succinctly. "I had already borrowed money 
to organize the company and I could not 
secure additional funds. I think that failure 
was the greatest diappointment in my life. 
I have never counted on anything so surely and 
taken a reverse to heart the way I mourned 
that automobile disaster. From the time I 
was in college, I had planned to be firmly 
established and on my way to becoming a 
millionaire at the age of thirty. I had fondly 
imagined that I had found a short cut to 
fame and fortune and that at twenty-three I 




ON A TOUR OF INSPECTION 

Mr. Crosley's plant is one of the largest of the inde- 
pendent radio manufacturers. Three years ago, 
he came to this same plant to purchase a radio re- 
ceiver for his son. He now owns it. The story of 
how that came about is most interesting 



could go to my father and say 'I have suc- 
ceeded!' But then I was utterly discouraged. 
Never had the future looked so dark. 

"Still despondent, I drifted to Indianapolis. 
That city was just showing signs of becoming 
a great automobile center. Here I got a job 
as a driver for the Carl Fisher Company. 
You may have heard of it; they are promi- 
nently identified with the Prestolite business. 
My knowledge of motors and sheer nerve put 
me on the payroll of 
the concern and when 
the great Indianapo- 
lis Speedway was 
opened, the company 
selected me for one 
of their entries. 

"A few days before 
the race I broke my 
arm cranking an au- 
tomobile and thus 
was unable to drive 
a car. Lady Luck 
seemed to have 
turned her back on 
me forever. As for 
Opportunity, I de- 
cided that she had 
forgotten my address 
and so couldn't knock 
at the door. In quick 
succession, I worked 
as assistant sales 
manager, copy writer, 
and manager for sev- 
eral automobile com- 
panies." 

Crosley was trying 
to find himself, search- 
ing desperately for the 
right place. But as he 

neared the thirty mark, he was not a whit closer 
to the millionaire class than when his own 
company had gone broke, nearly seven years 
before. He was still not established; he was 
still not ready to go to his father with the 
news of his success. If any one had wanted 
to bet that Powel Crosley was to be a mil- 
lionaire in five years' time, he could have had 
100 to i odds and the sympathy of the on- 
lookers for wasting his money that way. 

It did not seem that he was ever to realize 
his ambitions. Returning from his wander- 
ings in Indiana to Cincinnati, his home town, 
he again organized an automobile company. 
This time the chances for success looked 
good. He arranged to handle the designing, 
the production, and the sales end of the pro- 



66 



Radio Broadcast 



posed business while the other partners ad- ciently engaged, he took over a wood working 

factory where he made phonograph cabinets. 

Every time a new business loomed up on 
Crosley's horizon, he saw the pot of gold. 
The idea of supplying an inexpensive article 
was inherently sound, though he applied the 
principle in many different trades. He 
seemed to be drifting when he went from one 
line of work to the other; in reality, he was 
learning the limitless possibilities of medium 
priced goods, in high priced lines. 

After each successive failure, he would 
rebound from the disappointment with the 
conviction of still another business which 
would make the fam- 



vanced the money. It was an ideal combina- 
tion with only one drawback. They lacked 
sufficient capital. For the second time, a 
company he had organized died for lack of 
money. Crosley, who had lost his youthful 
illusions about any short cut to success did 
not take his second defeat as hard as the 
first. 

SUCCESS AT THIRTY? 

HIS ambition to be firmly established by 
thirty looked as far off as ever. Undis- 
mayed he once more tried to capture the 
elusive fortune. In 
1913, the popularity 
of cycle cars seemed 
to offer a splendid 
field for a new inex- 
pensive make. Cros- 
ley organized another 
company, but the 
concern languished 
and died just as its 
predecessors had 
done. The autopsy 
revealed [the same 
fatal lack of capital 
as the cause. 

"It was then that 
I woke up" Crosley 
says. "I thought that 
I could finance million 
dollar corporations on 
small amounts of cap- 
ital that did not even 
belong to me. I prom- 
ised myself then and 
there not to attempt 
more than I could 
safely manage, not to 

run my business on other people's money, and 
above all, to be strictly independent in my 
financial dealings. I made up my mind that I 
would finance myself even though I had to run 
a popcorn stand and that I would quit trying 
to fly too high on wings that were too big for 
me." 

But Crosley was a born organizer. Al- 
though he stuck loyally to his resolution to 
manage his own affairs without outside help, 
the popcorn stand was not in his scheme of 
life. He started a mail order business and 
when it prospered he bought out one of his 
clients who sold automobile specialties. Next 
he purchased a printing plant where he ran 
off the advertising matter required in his other 
lines. And as if he were not already suffi- 




POWEL CROSLEY AND GEORGE LEWIS 
Mr. Lewis is the general man- 
ager of the Crosley Company 



ily fortune. When 
this new company be- 
gan paying surtaxes, 
he would buy his 
wife the long prom- 
ised Rolls Royce and 
chinchilla coat, and as 
the day of hisultimate 
success seemed far- 
ther and farther re- 
moved, his wife never 
lost faith. She was 
sure that some day 
Powel Crosley would 
join the millionaire 
class and then she 
would have the Rolls 
Royce and the chin- 
chilla coat. Her belief 
in him set him on 
the road to gratify 
his ambitions. 

With all of the ven- 
tures he was running, 
Crosley was still not 
satisfied. He entered 

still another field. This time he found the 

one that led to the pot of gold. 

THE CROSLEY IDEA 

HE TRANSFORMED his wood working 
factory into a plant to make inexpen- 
sive radio parts. Then he introduced the 
making of medium priced parts and grad- 
ually built up his gigantic concern. But 
he was perfectly content to start in a 
small way and gradually increase the busi- 
ness as finances warranted. He has learned 
the value of the humble beginning and has 
clung to his resolution to manage his own 
affairs without outside help. 

Just two years after he had taken his little 
boy to buy the promised radio set, at the 



The Story of Powel Crosley 



67 




AT WORK AND AT PLAY 

Mr. Crosley tracing the intricacies of a blu e print in the shop office of his plant at Cincinnati. 
The circle shows the radio manufacturer and a very good friend, in a moment of repose 



Precision Equipment Company, Powel Cros- 
ley bought out the concern. 

" I worked out the details of the transaction 
at my sister's wedding and bought the com- 
pany the next morning," he chuckles reminis- 
cently. "When I'm figuring on some sort of 
deal, I can't put it out of my mind no matter 
how great the occasion. I believe in intensive 
work, however, and find you can accomplish 



much more by that means. Work hard while 
there's work to be done and then when the 
leisure comes, make the most of it. 

"Any one can accomplish whatever he 
sets out to do. If he doesn't succeed at 
first, he will succeed eventually, provided 
he has ambitions and ideals and thrusts 
aside everything that interferes with his own 
progress." 



SHOULD A CITY BROADCAST? 

TS THERE a legitimate field for the city in broadcasting, or should that form of entertain- 
ment and instruction be left to commercial enterprise? James C. Young has prepared 
a highly readable article on the subject. He tells particularly what they are doing at WNYC, 
the new New York City station. It will appear in an early number 




A MIDGET ONE-TUBE REFLEX 



A THIS issue of RADIO BROADCAST 
reaches the hands of the reader, it is 
just one year ago that we published 
the original article on the building of 
the single-tube reflex receiver the "Knock- 
Out." The passing year has seen the interest 
in this phenomenal receiver increase rather 
than wane, and while it is now essentially what 
it has always been the finest one-tube set 
possible suggestions from our readers and 
research in this laboratory have greatly in- 
creased the possibilities of the set. Almost 
every issue of IN THE R. B. LAB, since the 
article last November, has contained addi- 
tional data on the construction and improved 
design of this receiver. The latest possibili- 
ties of the one-tube "Knock-Out" to be 
brought to our attention are embodied in the 
midget edition built by E. L. Faler, of Phoenix, 
Arizona, and are 
illustrated in the 
accompanying photo- 
graphs. 

The tuner unit is 
pictured in Figs, i 
and 2. This is pri- 
marily a vacation set. 
Compactness with 
the accompany ing 
ease of transportation 
was the first con- 
sideration of Mr. 
Faler. With the not 
incorrect idea that 
portability of this re- 
ceiver varies indi- 
rectly with the size, 
he has greatly com- 
pressed. 



What the Lab Offers You This 
Month 

How to build a midget one-tube reflex re- 
ceiver according to the famous Knock-Out 
design. 

How to wind tiny inductances for a cigar 
box receiver. 

How to install pilot lamps to record the 
filament lighting of tubes in de luxe equipment. 

Facts about resistance-coupled amplifica- 
tion with dry cell tubes. 

How to choose the right rheostat for your 
tube. 

How to build an ultra efficient inductance: 
a combination honeycomb and spider web coil. 

Suggestions for the amateur laboratory. 

Hints on radio construction and operating. 



The over-all dimensions of the set are ap- 
proximately those of the average cigar-box. 
In fact, the designer started out with the 
definite idea of confining the set to this size, 
and the cabinet might well be one of these 
boxes improved with a little sandpapering 
and stain. A second cabinet, of the same size, 
was provided to hold the batteries flashlight 
A cells for the uv-igg tube, and four small 
block B batteries. 

Fig. 2 shows the back-of-panel construction 
and gives a general idea of how compactness 
is achieved. The radio transformers, Ti and 
T2, are the Midget Harkness coils manufac- 
tured by the Phoenix Radio Laboratories. A 
Hedgehog audio frequency amplifying trans- 
former takes the place of the usually rather 
bulky T3, and the flat Variodon condensers 
are substituted for the conventional inter- 
leaving plate vari- 
ables. This last, 
however, is a rather 
doubtful innovation, 
as the air condensers 
are necessarily more 
efficient and desir- 
able. The interested 
constructor is advised^ 
to employ the usual 
1 5-plate variable con- 
denser, which, with 
the judicious placing 
of the remaining 
parts, should not in- 
crease the over-all 
dimensions of the re- 
ceiver. An Erla fixed 
crystal is used in the 
detecting circuit. 



In the R. B. Lab. 



69 



The hookup of the receiver will be found on 
page 497 of RADIO BROADCAST for April. 

MAKING YOUR OWN MIDGET COILS 

THE reader interested in building a 
midget one-tube reflex may very easily 
wind his own small-size inductances. 
Fig. 3 shows the coils manufactured by the 
Phoenix Radio Laboratories, while Fig. 4 
illustrates an antenna coupler (Ti) wound in 
this laboratory on a thread spool, which works 
very well in the single-tube circuit. Referring 
to the diagram shown on page 497 of RADIO 
BROADCAST for April, 1924, the following 
winding specifications hold for Ti and Tz. 

The average spool has a diameter of about 
three quarters of an inch and a winding sur- 
face of a little over one inch. Spools of these 
dimensions were used in the RADIO BROAD- 
CAST Laboratory. The secondaries of both 
transformers are wound with 112 turns of 
No. 32 enameled wire. The primary of Ti 
has 28 turns while that of T2 is wound with 
65 turns. The primaries may be wound with 
slightly larger wire than are the secondaries, 
if desired. In our experiments, the primaries 
were wound first, followed by a layer of paper, 
a'nd then the secondaries. As the secondaries 
take up practically all the winding space, the 
result is a little more neat than if the smaller 
windings are superimposed upon the larger. 



The leads from the primary are brought out 
through small holes in the winding surface of 
the spool, while the ends of the secondary are 
passed through holes in the sides. 

If slightly larger spools are used, subtract 
two to five turns from the primary and secon- 
dary, and add them in case of a smaller spool. 
While these midget coils compare well in 
operation with the standard size, the latter 
are to be preferred when they are equally 
convenient. 

RESISTANCE COUPLING AND DRY- 
CELL TUBES 

THE growing and what we believe to be 
permanent popularity of the resistance- 
coupled amplifier has given rise to 
questions concerning the resistor and con- 
denser values for different tubes, particularly 
in reference to the possibilities of the dry-cell 
bulbs. 

Experiments in the R. B. LAB. indicate that 
the resistance-coupled audio amplifier can 
be used successfully with any amplifying 
tube on the market to-day. The dry-cell 
tubes function very nicely, and the resistor 
and condenser values are exactly the same as 
those recommended by RADIO BROADCAST 
for use with the uv-2oi-A. For the uv- 
2OI-A, the uv-igg, the wo-12 (and the 
corresponding Cunningham and De Forest 




FIG. I 



The front of the midget receiver. The cabinet is the size of a cigar box 



7 o 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 2 

Behind the panel. The compactness is achieved through use of midget transformers 



bulbs), the Meyers tube (an exceptionally 
good amplifier for this circuit) and the West- 
ern Electric N tube, ioo,ooo-ohm coupling 
resistors should be used in each stage. The 
isolating condensers are most conveniently .006 
mfd. Micadons. The proper grid leaks, re- 
spectively in the first, second, and third stages 
are: 1,000,000 ohms, 250,000 ohms, and 
50,000 ohms. The circuit for a three-stage 
resistance-coupled amplifier 
will be found on page 103 
of RADIO BROADCAST for 
June. 

None of the above 
mentioned tubes are recom- 
mended for a fourth stage, 
as the power handled will 
often exceed the capacity 
of the tube, with resulting 
distortion. A power tube, 
such as the Western 
Electric 2i6-A is suggested, 
using a coupling resistor of 
100,000 ohms, a grid leak 
of the same value and a 
.006 mfd. isolating con- 
denser. On distant and 
low-power stations, the 
uv-2Oi-A will function 
satisfactorily in a fourth 
step. Excepting that a 




FIG. 3 

A manufactured 

midget coil, for 

the Knock-Out 

reflex 




5O,ooo-ohm grid leak is recommended, the 
values are the same as those given for the 

UV-2I6-A. 

Using the 2i6-A throughout the amplifier 
(a very fine arrangement) the values are the 
same as suggested for the lower-power tubes, 
excepting that the grid leaks for the first three 
steps should be 2,000,000 ohms, 500,000 ohms, 
and 100,000 ohms. 

The plate voltages should be at least the 
maximum potential recommended by the 
manufacturer of the tube, which may be 
safely doubled with considerable increase in 
amplification. The plate resistors effect a 
drop in the battery potential. 

SIGNAL LIGHTS ON DE-LUXE 
EQUIPMENT 

THE day of exposed sockets or peepholes 
is fast disappearing, and fashionable 
radio sets (for engineers are actually 
bowing to mode) postulate completely en- 
closed bulbs. In many cases, lack of room 
for tube mounting in evenly spaced lines of 
visibility provides a more legitimate excuse 
for the hiding of the tubes. Such reasons, 
however, by no means obviate the desirability 
of knowing what tubes are burning, and in 
case of trouble of immediately either elimi- 
nating the A battery circuit as the source of 



In the R. B. Lab. 




FIG. 4 

A home-made 
small edition 
coil wound on 
a thread spool 



difficulty, or affirming that 
the trouble lies there. 

Instant knowledge of fila- 
ment circuit conditions is 
made artistically possible 
through the inclusion of signal 
lights in the set small pilot 
lamps placed in the filament 
circuits and behind colored 
jewels on the front of the 
panel. 

There are two possible 
methods of connection in 
parallel with the individual fila- 
ments, and in series with them. In the parallel 
arrangement the signal lamps are wired from 
the sockets on the bulb side of the rheostats. 
The burning of the shunt bulb indicates the 
perfect condition of the A battery circuit as 
far as the tube, but does not necessarily mean 
that the bulb is lighted. Unless special 
lamps can be secured, this method is the better 
of the two. 

Low amperage lights (that is, those which 
draw between ^ and \ amperes) should be em- 
ployed, having approximately the same volt- 
age as the tube. Lower voltage lamps may 
be used in conjunction with small fixed resist- 
ances. Connected in this manner, the pilot 
lamps draw an additional current from the A 
battery about one ampere for three indica- 
tors. This may or may not be a negligible 
disadvantage. 

In the second or series connection, the pilot 
lamps are placed in series with each filament, 
being used as ballasts in place of rheostats 
which are completely eliminated. 
Connected in this manner, the extra 
lamps place no additional drain on 
the A battery, but operate on the 
energy which ordinarily would be 
dissipated as heat in a rheostat. 
The correct lights for this highly 
efficient arrangement should operate 
on the normal current of the tube 
and on a voltage equal to the 
voltage of the A battery, minus 
the operating voltage of the tube 
(the potential drop across the usual 
rheostat). Special ballast-indicat- 
ing lamps for all popular tubes 
are being manufactured and are 
available to the fan in small 
quantities. If ordinary indicating 
bulbs are employed, the compara- 
tively small potential drop through 
the filament of the cold tube, when 
the current is turned on, will place 



a disastrously high voltage on the pilot 
lamp. 

This system indicates very definitely just 
what tubes are lighted. This function and 
the economical character of the arrangement 
recommend the series connection. 

The lamps are screwed into special sockets 
that are easily made by breaking up the usual 
miniature porcelain base. The metal parts 
are salvaged, and the 
long terminal strip is 
bent over into a con- 
venient bracket. Fig. 5 
illustrates the manner 
of mounting the skele- 
ton socket on the panel. 
The jewels, which can 
be obtained in a variety 
of colors from any 
manufacturer of switch- 
board supplies, are the 
smallest size, fitting 
tightly a -f$ inch hole 
in the panel. 

Figs. 6 and 7 show 
a resistance- coupled 
amplifier with automatic 
filament and amplification control in which 
pilot lamps have been incorporated. With 
the control switch in the middle, all lights 
are off. To the left, the output is switched 
to one stage of amplification, and the left- 
hand jewel flashes. With the switch to the 
right, all bulbs are lighted, the output is 
transferred to the last tube and the three 
jewels glow accordingly. 




PANEL 



FIG. 5 

How to mount the 
pilot lamps. All the 
necessary parts may 
be had by breaking 
up a miniature base 




FIG. 6 



Front view of an amplifier designed in the R. B. 
Lab. in which signal lights are incorporated 



Radio Broadcast 



THE RIGHT RHEOSTAT 

THE association of high-ohmage rheo- 
stats with the uv-199 and similar three- 
volt .06 ampere tubes, has given rise to 
a mistaken idea in regard to the proper 
resistances for dry-cell, quarter-ampere tubes. 
High-resistance rheostats, in the neighborhood 
of thirty ohms, are not required for the correct 
operation of such bulbs unless the battery 
voltage is considerably in excess of the oper- 
ating potential of the tube. 

A rheostat is included in the filament circuit 



to drop the battery potential to the operating 
voltage of the tube. It accomplishes this 
through a very fundamental electrical func- 
tion the voltage drop which necessarily 
takes place when a current passes through a 
resistance, and which is numerically equal 
to the resistance in ohms times the current 
in amperes. 

The correct value of the rheostat for any 
tube is very easily determined. The best 
operating voltage of the bulb is always speci- 
fied by the manufacturer. Subtract this 
from the voltage of the A battery from which 




FIG. 7 

Back view of the de luxe amplifier, showing method of 
mounting lamps. Parallel connection is used in this set 



In the R. B. Lab. 



73 




An ultra efficient homemade induc- 
tance. It is easily made and will 
improve the operation of many sets 



you will operate it. This gives you the re- 
quired voltage drop. The current consump- 
tion of the tube in amperes, at the correct 
A-battery voltage, will also be found in the 
operating directions. Divide the required 
voltage drop by the current. The result is 
the minimum resistance that will permit the 
most efficient operation of your tube. For 
instance: 

Operating a Cunningham C-3OI-A from a 
six-volt storage battery. The correct opera- 
ting potential for this tube is five volts. 
6 5 = i the required voltage drop is one. 
The 0-30 1 -A is a quarter-ampere tube, 
therefore, 1^-5=4 i.e., at least four ohms 
should be used. Thus a six- or ten-ohm 
rheostat will be sufficient. 

In cases where the adjustment of the fila- 
ment temperature is at all critical (using the 
uv-20i-A as a detector in regenerative cir- 
cuits, for instance) the lower resistances will 
permit a finer variation of current. 

The inter-relation of volts, amperes, and 
ohms, in regard to filament resistances and A 
batteries, will be found treated with especial 
regard to the principle of this very fundamen- 
tal law in the October 1923 issue of RADIO 
BROADCAST. 

A NEW-TYPE HOME-MADE 
INDUCTANCE 

IN A recent issue of the Lab Department, 
we stated that the ideal inductance would 
be a self-supporting coil wound with 
uninsulated wire on air. Like many ideals, 
this arrangement is hardly practicable. Never- 
theless, it can be approached, and in Fig. 8 
we have what is probably the closest practical 
approach to this ideal condition, a coil wound 
by one of our readers, Mr. Horace A. Wood- 
ward, of New York City. The Sickles 
coil is a commercial form of this type of 



winding. It is essentially an exaggerated 
honeycomb. 

The winding form is a disk of wood about 
three inches in diameter and three quarters of 
an inch wide. Into the periphery of the disk, 
one eighth inch from each edge, two rows of 
twenty-five evenly spaced pins are driven. 
Two-inch, No. 14 finishing nails are convenient 
for this purpose. Notches, which facilitate 
the last part of the work, should be cut be- 
tween the pegs (Fig. 9) with a three-cornered 
file. 

The coil is wound by passing the wire over 
two right-hand pins, diagonally across and 
over two left-hand pins as illustrated in Fig. 9. 
When the last turn is wound, the coil is sewn 
with a waxed thread and a flexible needle 
made of a short length of twisted wire. The 
needle is passed beneath the coil through the 
filed notches, taking the direction shown by 
the black thread in the photograph. If the 




NOTCHES -'--'' 



FIG. 9 
The winding form for the low-capacity coil 

experimenter prefers, collodion may be used 
as a binder and the sewing dispensed with, 
though this is theoretically inferior to the 
method employed by Mr. Woodward. 

The nails are finally removed and the coil 
slipped off. The inductance is self-supporting 
and will withstand an extraordinary amount 
of mechanical abuse. The ingenuity of the 
individual experimenter will suggest the most 
convenient manner of mounting. 

These coils may be substituted for single- 
layer inductances in any circuit with probably 
an increase in efficiency. Mr. Woodward 
finds them decidedly superior to the spiderweb 
coils in the Roberts set. Assuming a three- 
inch diameter for the usual flat wound coils, 
the same number of turns on the improved 
inductance will give approximately the same 
wave range. 

BUILDING YOUR OWN LAB 

ONCE again we are rather prodigal, 
and for November we recommend two 
purchases to the owner of the growing 
lab an automatic center punch and an ad- 
justable square, shown in photographs Figs. 



74 



Radio Broadcast 



10 and ii. (These tools cost $1.44 and $1.05 
respectively. 

The center punch is an efficient substitute 
for the comparatively noisy and laborious 
older type on all materials but metal, and is 
from twice to three times as fast. The point 
is placed on the marking and the punch pressed 
down with the hand as far as the spring ar- 



FIG. 10 
The automatic center punch. 'A speed tool 

rangement permits. This will result in a 
definite and satisfactory indentation. 

The square is an improvement over the 
ordinary fixed carpenter's tool. It consists 
of an accurate rule which is adjustable as to 
length, with readings in both directions on 
each side. An angular surface on the grip 
also permits the drawing of lines at an angle of 
45 degrees to the straight edge. 

Both tools are made by Starrett and add 
quickness and accuracy to the work of the 
radio builder. 

HELPFUL HINTS ON BUILDING AND 
OPERATING 

DON'T BLAME everything on static. 
There are many similar noises that are 
produced in your set. Disconnect your 
antenna. If the sounds stop, it is genuine 
static, and nothing, as yet, can be done about 
it. The nature of static and bona fide signals 
are so similar, and a static eliminator must 
necessarily also eliminate signals. 

CHIELDING A RECEIVER is bad 
*P practice. It is only a pound of cure. 
It in no way affects the fundamental cause of 
capacity troubles, and it adds resistance to the 
circuit with resulting inefficiencies. 

Mount tuning coils and inductances as far 
behind the panel as possible, and always 
connect the stationary plates of a variable 
condenser to the grid. 



FIG. I I 

A combination square that 
adds its bit to efficiency 



A properly designed receiver needs no 
shielding. (This does not apply to the 
individual shields about the intermediate 
stages in the super-heterodyne, though even 
here the successful elimination of the metal 
would probably be an improvement.) 

[N CONSTRUCTING or designing radio 
* apparatus endeavor to keep inductances 
and tuning coils away from the panel and 
necessary metal supports. Eliminate all 
metal work that can possibly be done away 
with. Precautions of this sort will add 
selectivity and sensitivity to the receiver. 

NOT all bus wire is tinned. The real tinned 
bar is satisfactory for wiring purposes 
but very often nickel-plated wire is palmed off 
on the unsuspecting purchaser. This kind is 
not desirable since the nickel-plating increases 
the resistance of the circuit. Resistance is all 
right in its place in rheostats and potentio- 
meters but otherwise it should be kept at a 
minimum. 

THAT old, discarded three-cornered file 
may be resurrected and with a few 
changes will serve as a tool of many uses in 
the radio lab. On a grindstone remove all 
traces of the file ribs and sharpen the three 
edges to a keen knife-edge. Panel holes may 
be enlarged with this instrument or with a 
handle on both ends it will serve as a scraper 
to smooth the rough edges of panels. 

NO MATTER what size holes are to be 
drilled in a panel, drill all with a small 
drill first then enlarge with the proper size 
drill for the holes to be made. This results 
in evenly centered holes and will reduce the 
wear and tear on your larger drills. Put a flat 
block of wood underneath the panel to prevent 
the holes from chipping around the edges. 

MANY of the binding posts now on the 
market are made of some sort of compo- 
sition, easily affected by heat. Before solder- 
ing connections to a binding post, remove the 
top, or cover the entire post with a wet cloth. 
This will prevent the post from melting or 
otherwise losing its shape. 



AN OUNCE of prevention is 
worth a pound of cure, so 
follow the practice of the manu- 
facturers and see that all socket 
nuts, transformer bolts, and 
other like parts are securely 
tightened before the units are 
permanently mounted in a set. 




What News on the Radio Rialto? 

Experiences Social, Radio, Mechanical, and General, of the Crew of 
RADIO BROADCAST'S COVERED WAGON, Direct from the Roadside 

BY CAPTAIN JACK IRWIN 



ON A journey such as the RADIO 
BROADCAST COVERED WAGON is 
making, it is difficult to confine 
oneself strictly to radio topics. 
The writer feels that his readers would rather 
read about some of the side-issues which 
can be counted as some of the most inter- 
esting features on a transcontinental tour 
such as ours. 

Are we meeting with 
conditions that we antici- 
pated? Yes and no. In 
the congested area sur- 
rounding Greater New 
York and extending be- 
yond Philadelphia, we 
found the same happy, ar- 
gumentative fans who re- 
joiced to meet us and swap 
stories of various circuits 
they had tried. We lis- 
tened to variations on the 
same theme over and over 
again. In this area, prac- 
tically the only source of 
complaint was of "bloop- 
ing" receivers. Indeed, 
they have reason to com- 
plain. Throughout New 
Jersey and in the vicinity 
of Philadelphia, there was 
hardly an occasion upon 
which we set up our super- 
heterodyne receiver that 
we did not have constant 
interference from radiat- 
ing receivers. It was im- 
pressed upon us that the campaign against that 
type of interfering receiver which this maga- 
zine is making must be extended. Education in 
the use of non-radiating receivers, however 
lengthy a process it may be, is the only way 
eventually to eliminate this annoying source 
of trouble. A concerted educational cam- 
paign, together with close cooperation from 
manufacturers and reputable dealers would 
go far toward remedying the situation, which 
in the districts this WAGON has traversed are 




HOW THE LAUNDRY IS DONE 

Captain Irwin spending part of a Sunday 
in necessary work. Earlier in the day 
from this camp in Pennsylvania, he lis- 
tened to the services from St. Thomas' in 
New York. Dr. Stires preached on the 
subject "Cleanliness and Godliness Com- 
bined" 



almost intolerable. Here is another method 
an appeal to the better nature of the offend- 
ers. This fall and winter we will have in- 
numerable radio shows and expositions 
throughout the United States. Those in 
charge of the exhibitions ought to make an 
effort to organize a campaign during the 
period of the radio exhibition season to bring 
the "blooper" users to see 
the error of their way. 
Again radio broadcasting 
stations could better con- 
ditions by periodically 
calling attention to the 
annoyance these sets cause 
to those in their vicinity. 
One thing this mobile lab- 
oratory has discovered is 
that nine tenths of those 
employing radiating re- 
ceivers do not understand 
that they are offending 
and actually rail against 
their neighbors employing 
the same sets for interfer- 
ing with their reception! 
We have endeavored, 
daily, to educate such in- 
nocent "bloopers" and 
point out that, if they are 
unable to change their re- 
ceivers, they can at least 
so adjust their regenera- 
tive sets that a minimum 
of interference to their 
neighbors will result. Few, 
indeed, realize that the 
maximum amount of satisfactory regeneration 
is reached at the point just before the tube os- 
cillates and that it is almost criminal, to allow 
persistent oscillation while searching for DX. 

THE TRAIL WESTWARD 

AFTE.R leaving the Metropolitan area ot 
Philadelphia, we hit the Lincoln High- 
way directly on the trail westward. Begin- 
ning with Lancaster, Pennsylvania, we found 
radio folk were up against real hard luck. 



Radio Broadcast 



When we pulled in to the above mentioned 
city, almost the first fellow to greet us was a 
disgruntled fan who offered to buy our din- 
ners if we could obtain results right where 
we were parked in the main thoroughfare of 
the town. Our eight-tube super-heterodyne 
was working like a charm. In other localities 
we dissipated the idea that such things as 
"dead spots," existed, we immediately took 
him up with the expectation of a good, free 
meal! A half hour later this fan went on his 
way, chuckling at us. We found the greatest 
source of "man-made" static we had ever 
heard. It was impossible to diagnose the 
cause, it was just one jumble of discordant 
noises which made the air crackle hideously. 
We learned later that this condition was gen- 
eral in the business and downtown residential 
districts of the city. The lighting and power 
plant is an ancient one with all overhead 
conductors. The only source of comfort the 
resident fans of this perturbed district have, 
is the rumor that the plant is to be modern- 
ized with underground conductors distributing 
both light and power. One enthusiastic ex- 
perimenter had just graduated from a crystal 
receiver, to a six-tube super-heterodyne for 
which he spent several hundred dollars. He 
complained to the writer of the extraneous 
noises he had obtained, totally obliterating 
good strong radio signals. Another friendly 
fan had erroneously diagnosed his trouble as 



B battery faults, but the writer upon investi- 
gation discovered the noise to be nothing else 
than the old "man-made" static. His set 
was in perfect order, but the conditions sur- 
rounding his residence made it impossible to 
obtain the satisfaction that he should have 
with his excellent receiver. Such are the 
conditions that the good radio users of Lan- 
caster and Harrisburg are up against. The 
same is practically true for the adjacent 
smaller towns. 

RADIO AND REAL ESTATE VALUES 

WHILE pursuing this line of investiga- 
tion in Pennsylvania, I learned to what 
influence faulty generators and power con- 
ductors had when leasing or selling real 
estate was considered. While parked in a 
quiet neighborhood in one of the larger cities, 
a gentleman approached the WAGON and asked 
how the reception was in that particular vi- 
cinity. Upon" learning that it was fairly good 
and freer from interference than in other local- 
ities in which we had demonstrated in the same 
city, he expressed gratification. It appeared 
that he was the real estate operator handling 
property in that district and that prospective 
buyers or lessees invariably asked if radio 
reception was good in that neighborhood. It 
transpired that "man-made" static was so 
prevalent in the town that real estate values 
were affected. This gentleman assured us 



HENRY FORD S SEA GOING YACHT 

The trim Sialia and the COVERED WAGON. A special berth 
at River Rouge, Michigan, near the great Ford plants at Dear- 
born and River Rouge is used for the yacht which, by the way, 
is completely equipped for radio telephone and telegraph. Her 
call is WSY. A group of her crew are inspecting the radio 
equipment of the WAGON 




What News on the Radio Rialto? 



77 




A WAYSIDE CAMP 

Of the COVERED WAGON and its crew of two. George A. Eckweiler, Captain 
Irwin's assistant, is in the foreground, behind an old Pennsylvania tree 



that it was not an isolated inquiry from a 
particularly enthusiastic fan, but that such 
inquiries were very frequent. He thought 
probably the same inquiries were made in 
every community. I had to confess that his 
was the first case of which I had heard when 
the fate of a piece of property depended upon 
radio conditions. This example illustrates 
what poor conditions exist in certain com- 
munities for broadcast reception. The eli- 
mination of the causes of "man-made" static 
will be compulsory once the pocketbook of 
property owners is affected. 

THE INTERFERING CASH REGISTER 

PURSUING the hunt for unnecessary 
* interference in a certain western Penn- 
sylvania city we ran across an amusingcase, but 
nevertheless a serious one from the point of 
view of the man with the receiver. Dis- 
cussing the cause of interference in this par- 
ticular spot with a nearby resident, he ex- 
plained that he had no cause for complaint 
except one. It seemed that he was the for- 
tunate possessor of a well-known make of 
super-heterodyne receiver which gave him 
excellent results until the man in the store 
under him installed a new cash register oper- 
ated by a small electric motor. Since that 
time his satisfaction and contentment had 
disappeared as he now listened to radio 
signals interspersed with the ringing up of 



sales on his neighbor's cash register. He 
further exphained that the busiest time ap- 
peared to be when the best features of the 
various programs happened to be "on the 
air." However, he added that his interfer- 
ing friend closed before DX came on! 

TOURISTS AND PORTABLE SETS 

SPEAKING with several of my friends 
who are radio dealers in New York, I 
gathered that the sale of sets for portable use 
had received a decided boost this summer. 
This was further borne out by the large 
amount of space devoted to these sets in both 
the newspaper radio columns and in maga- 
zines. I have camped with hundreds of well 
equipped automobilists who are touring the 
continent, and to date have found but one 
carrying a radio outfit, and that a simple crys- 
tal unit carried by a boy in a party. If many 
portable sets are in existence, it would seem 
that they are carried to more or less permanent 
camps and that the strictly auto camper has 
no use, or perhaps, space, on his overloaded 
car for what he may regard as a luxury. For 
this reason, the advent of RADIO BROADCAST'S 
Traveling Laboratory into a camp peopled 
with tourists is always a welcome event. 
They are astounded at the results obtained 
from a mobile station and with the apparent 
ease with which loud, clear signals are ob- 
tained without the use of antenna or ground. 



Radio Broadcast 



Many a comment I have heard that "next 
year we must carry a radio." We are be- 
sieged with visitors, often to such an extent 
that it becomes embarrassing. Imagine, for 
instance, when you are changing into your 
other shirt, the flap of the wagon will be swept 
aside and a delightful, cheery voice ask, "Say, 
Mister, how about a little jazz!" But se- 
riously, I have found that the possession of a 
radio outfit in good working order induces a 
wonderful friendliness from your fellow camp- 
ers in quiet spots. The owner of a radio set 
in a tourist camp attracts much attention 
and is the means of meeting some intensely 
interesting people from all over the country. 

AND WE HAVE OUR TROUBLES 

MANY of my friends have assumed, after 
visiting the COVERED WAGON, that it is 
a mission devoid of trouble. Is there a man 
in the radio game who can truthfully say that 
he can manipulate six different receivers, in 
turn, and not run against seemingly inexplic- 
able faults in one set or another? Add to 
those six sets, a housing on four wheels pro- 
pelled over more or less rough roads, and your 
radio troubles will correspondingly increase. 
During the earlier stages of our journey, we 
were comparatively free from such annoy- 
ances, due, of course, to the smooth roads of 
closely populated areas. During that period 



we had no hesitation in coupling up one of our 
sets and expecting instant results. However, 
as our journey progressed, we found the road 
shocks increased and, correspondingly, our 
radio faults occurred more frequently. 

An old friend of mine always insisted that a 
"law of cussedness" existed! I can assure 
him, if these columns meet his eye, that un- 
doubtedly he is correct. Our experience would 
indicate a most pronounced law of that dis- 
cription. Now we never attempt to display 
our wares in public without first staging a 
rehearsal in some secluded spot in order first 
to ascertain how much damage bumps and 
ruts have caused en route. Our instrument 
tables are slung upon springs. An abundance 
of sponge rubber is employed to resist road 
shocks, nevertheless, a broken inaccessible 
connection is very frequent. Invariably this 
occurs at the most inopportune time. An 
instance of this inopportunity recently oc- 
curred when we were the guests of the Kiwanis 
Club of a certain city. This club maintains 
a camp for boys in a most delightful spot in 
their attractive city park. We had been 
accorded the hospitality of the camp and 
the privileges of the "old swimmin' 'ole." 
At noon I had given, by request, a talk to the 
boys and concluded with a promise that we 
would entertain them with a radio concert 
that night at our camp. 




THE WAY A RADIO LECTURE ENDED 

Captain Irwin and a group of the sons of members of a Kiwanis Club of an Eastern city in swimming. 

The boys had previously shown much interest in the radio equipment aboard the WAGON and Captain 

Irwin told them about it, and some of his interesting experiences "in the old days" of wireless 



What News on the Radio Rialto? 



79 




AT DETROIT 

The WAGON parked alongside the Detroit River during the time the September motor boat cup races were 
held. Progress of the event was followed by a broadcaster in a motor boat. Captain Irwin took part in 

the announcing 



"TROT OUT YOUR RADIO" 

AT THE appointed time a half hundred 
real, healthy young Americans descended 
upon us and with lusty cries demanded that 
we "trot out our radio." Anybody who has 
had much acquaintance with youth ranging 
from ten to fifteen years of age will s.urely 
sympathize with us when I confess that the 
alleged expertness of both Mr. Eckweiler, who 
accompanies me, and myself, failed to make 
that set "perk"! There is no more critical 
audience in this world than a bunch of Ameri- 
can youngsters. On this occasion, the in- 
explicable part of the trouble was that there 
was no apparent fault and after the boys had 
departed and retired to bed, the set suddenly 
decided to work wonderfully. To make 
matters worse, the following night found us 
in the same camp with the worst static storm 
I have heard in progress. Do you think that 
group of boys believed our old static alibi? 
But there isn't much need of answering this 
question. 

EPILOGUE AND EPISODE 

NOR are all our troubles on this expedition 
radio ones. Of course tire troubles are 
to be expected. But who would look for a 



punctured tire caused by a gramophone needle 
on top of Mount Tuscarora? Yet that is 
what we experienced. Some misguided tour- 
ist had taken a phonograph along instead of 
a radio receiver and cast the discarded needle 
directly in our path! Another amusing epi- 
sode not connected with the radio side of our 
journey was caused by an innocent enough ap- 
pearing bug called the Japanese Beetle. It 
is not so innocent as it appears. Tae De- 
partment of Agriculture lists it as one of the 
most destructive pests ever to find its way 
into our fields. Just after leaving Philadel- 
phia we were stopped on the highway by state 
police who began to search our wagon. I 
facetiously remarked "We haven't a drop in 
the house" thinking they were searching for 
prohibited beverages! To my huge surprise 
they confiscated all our vegetables which we 
had stocked a few miles back at a ridiculously 
low price! We were then allowed to proceed, 
but only a few hundred yards further on was 
a well stocked vegetable stand, doing a land 
office business! Nobody can convince the 
crew of this wagon that that stand is not run 
by the Pennsylvania State Police ! That night 
a stray dog stole our supply of ham. Yes 
life on the COVERED WAGON is great! 




ITHATOui 
Readers 
Write Us 



A Marvel in a World of Marvels 

NEW receivers and new equipment of all 
sorts and descriptions come piling into 
the office every day, but the technical and edi- 
torial staff was greeted the other day by an 
incoming piece of "new equipment," the like 
of which had never before been seen. We 
have seen many designs of portable receivers, 
but never before has any swimmed into our 
ken which combined the features of the horse 
age, the automobile age, and the radio age. 
The accompanying letter and photograph 
tell the story better, it is quite certain, than 
any of these rather breathless words here. 

Editor, RADIO BROADCAST, 

Doubleday, Page & Company, 

Garden City, L. I. 
DEAR SIR: 

Confident, as you are, that the millenium 
had been reached when you announced your 
"Knock Out" series, we are keenly desirous 
of taking the puff out of your sales by pre- 
senting to you herewith one of ou.r MOXIE 
DX RADIO RECEIVERS. Designed for us by 





THE RECEIVER ON WHEELS 

Complete without reservation, what with horse, 

driver, rubber tires, binding posts to match and a 

shiny crystal 



the Hunchback of Neutrodyne, it represents 
a life's endeavors among the many closed doors 
in the realm of science. It is very much 
more than a toy. It is an electrical instru- 
ment calculated to satisfy the demands of the 
most critical brass pounder and yet orna- 
mental enough to minimize, if not to prevent 
entirely, the "r^-radiation" of the whiniest 
kind of wife. This little MOXIE DX RE- 
CEIVER is a veritable globe-trotter, too. We 
can, if pressed, produce a certified letter 
testifying to the reception of 2LO via Pekin, 
China. Our little set is daily causing the 
users of supers to abandon the Christmas tree 
type of tuner for ours. We do not desire to 
upset a struggling industry, however, and 
do not wish to have our circuit published. 
For quality of reproduction the MOXIE DX 
RECEIVER is unsurpassed. The crystal used 
is a chip from one of the priceless toe rings of 
old King Tutankhamen. Major White at 
the ringside comes in like Mozart's 666th 
overture. We regret exceedingly that we 
cannot place one in the hands of Zeh Bouck 
before he sails to Europe, for our receiver is 
especially efficient on water. If you can 
induce him to design resistance-coupled radio- 
frequency and audio-frequency amplifying 
circuits for it, we are confident that you will 
be able to announce another ;" Knock Out" 
before Christmas. Seriously, though, try 
your antenna circuit with this little gem. 
You are in for a continuous series of surprises. 
Yours very truly, 

The Moxie Company 

F. B.Walker, New York. 

P. S. The writer wishes to take this op- 
portunity to include his check for 15.00 in 
payment of a subscription for RADIO BROAD- 
CAST. It may interest you to know that he 
is doing so largely because of Zeh Bouck's 
barrage attack on the advertisers and users 
of one-tube squealers. 

Wliat are the Ethics of Radio? 

IN THE "March of Radio" for July ap- 
1 peared an editorial about a New York 
church which broadcast a Holy Communion 



What Our Readers Write Us 



81 



service. At the time, in New York, there was 
a considerable amount of criticism. The 
writer of the letter printed below takes ex- 
ception to the editorial, which he thought 
was directed against the broadcastingof church 
services. As a matter of fact, the editorial 
deplored the broadcasting of the Communion 
service and questioned the advisability of 
sending this most sacred ceremony of the 
church into the air. Church broadcasting 
itself seems to be thoroughly established, for 
even in the early days, KDKA, the first broad- 
casting station to go on the air, in the sense 
that we now think of broadcasting stations, 
sent out the services of a certain Pittsburgh 
church. It is a new art, radio, as has often 
been observed, and its ethics are slowly being 
developed. 

Editor, RADIO BROADCAST, 

Doubleday, Page & Company, 

Garden City, L. I. 
DEAR SIR: 

I read the announcement of your $500 
Prize Contest, "Who Is to Pay for Broadcast- 
ing?", in the July RADIO BROADCAST. 

Well, who pays for anything? Who pays 
for the double page ads, in the daily papers 
and magazines that cost thousands of dollars 
for a single insertion? Radio is simply the 
latest method of advertising, as your article 
"Holy Communion By Radio" on page 221 of 



Columbin, Ohio, .. 192 . 



Gentlemen :- 

... and . M. Eastern Standard Time wi 

on my Radiola Super-Heterodyne. It came in 

especially enjoyed.., 



en the hours of 

received by me 

and I 



I thank both you and the artists. 

TIIE COLUMBUS SLATE Co., H. W. WEBB, 
WHOLESALE ROOFING SLATE 233 Preston Road, 
16 E. Broad St., Columbus, O. Columbus, Ohio. 



AN APPLAUSE CARD OF GOOD DESIGN 

the same issue admits. The buying public 
pays, of course, and always has paid, or the 
advertiser goes out of business. Why should 
there be any objection to church advertising? 

At the end of the editorial mentioned, I 
find, "At the risk of being called old fashioned 
and out of date, we venture the opinion that 
this minister did the Church a dis-seryice by 
distributing his Communion service, his most 
precious possession, in places where it wasn't 
welcome." 

Wrong! You cannot force radio where it is 
not welcome. A twist of the wrist and it is 
gone. I catch my news or music just the 



same while church services are going on. Such 
services are no bother to any one who does 
not wish them. You sit back in your com- 
fortable steam-heated apartment and take 
life easy. Consider those who are not so 
fortunate, those who are miles from any 
means of transportation, who haven't even a 
flivver, and if they have one, the roads are so 
bad that they dread a trip over them. These 
folk may have their little radio set and can 
enjoy their religious services, if they are wel- 
come, or jazz, as their wills dictate. After 
all, it is a matter of opinion. 

G. K., San Francisco, California. 

Another Applause Card Design 

ALL radio listeners are by no means as 
lethargic as some of the distressed pro- 
gram managers of broadcasting stations would 
have us believe. One of the best reasons for 
this conviction is the increasing number of 
listeners who are having their own applause 
cards printed. Perhaps the broadcast listen- 
ers have taken a leaf from the well-filled book 
of the amateurs who have long been in the 
habit of sending each other printed cards an- 
nouncing that the station of the recipient 
had been heard. At any rate, the writer of 
this letter sent us one of the cards he sends to 
broadcasters who please him. His design 
may suggest a similar one to other listeners. 

Editor, RADIO BROADCAST 

Doubleday, Page & Company, 

Garden City, L. I. 
DEAR SIR: 

A recent letter in "What Our Readers 
Write Us" on applause cards has made me 
think that the least we of the listening class 
could do is to write the broadcasting stations 
in appreciation. 

I have made a form, as per copy inclosed, 
and have had them printed on postal cards. 
I keep them on my radio table to use when 
anything extra good comes in. 

If enough listeners will do the same, it 
may give the broadcasters and artists the 
proper encouragement. 

H. W., Columbus, Ohio. 

Who Was the First to Broadcast? 

C VERY once in a while the discussion starts 
J-* about who was the first to broadcast. Mr. 
Cannon's letter raises a point which should 
interest other experimenters who were carry- 
ing on wireless telephone tests about the same 
time as he was. We suggest that those who 
are interested write Mr. Cannon directly. 
Without entering into the ; discussion our- 



82 



Radio Broadcast 



selves, it is interesting to recall that Dr. 
Lee De Forest was carrying on experiments 
with wireless telephony from a studio at 103 
Park Avenue, New York, in the spring of 1908, 
when he broadcast "Cavaleria Rusticana" 
from the stage of the Metropolitan Opera 
House. 

Editor, RADIO BROADCAST 

Doubleday, Page & Company, 

Garden City, L. I. 
DEAR SIR: 

One hears off and on quite a bit of dis- 
cussion as to who really ran, in a practical 
manner, the first broadcasting transmitter. 

This interests me, as I have quite an in- 
clination to believe that this station handled 
the first phone of this type. During the 
months of December, 1916, and January and 
February, 1917, I ran quite a regular schedule 
from 9:30 p. m. to 10:30 p. m. Press was 
broadcast. Phonograph records were sent 
out and several instrumental artists con- 
tributed. 

The range of transmission was about two 
hundred miles maximum. The modulation 
compared very favorably with that of the 
stations of to-day. There were only about a 
dozen special tubes in existence I believe, 
and the ones I used would now be rated at 
about fifty watts. Our efficiency was low, 
naturally. 

I have numerous documents to prove the 
above contention and wonder just where my 
station ranks among the first of broadcasters. 
GEORGE C. CANNON, 
Radio Station 2ZK 
183 Drake Avenue, 
New Rochelle, New York 

Captain Irwin and the "America" 

Editor, RADIO BROADCAST 

Doubleday, Page & Company, 

Garden City, L. I. 
DEAR SIR: 

I was interested in Jack Irwin's article 
"At Sea with the America." It recalled some 
pleasant memories to me. Just a short time 
before the America sailed, I was down at 
Atlantic City and rebuilt the United Wireless 
radio station on the Million Dollar Pier. 
Operator Miller, whom Irwin mentions, was 
at that time assistant operator. It is a far 
cry from those days to Radio of to-day. When 
one considers the few stations at that time 
and the difficulty of getting through the New 
York radio traffic jam from a vessel at sea, 
the change is marvellous. I have several 
times come up on a coastwise steamer and 
seen the operator try to get his stuff through 
and finally deliver it by personally taking it 
to the office when the ship docked. In those 
early days when a fellow wanted some wireless 



material, he had to make it. However, I 
remember getting New York regularly at 
Sterling, New Jersey, thirty miles from the 
city, with a paper-tube inductance, a car- 
borundum detector, and an 80 ohm standard 
phone receiver. What a splash a Roberts 
circuit would have made in those days! 

A. A. WEISS, Copperhill, Tennessee. 

Radio Comes to Tennessee 

Editor, RADIO BROADCAST, 

Doubleday, Page & Co., 

Garden City, L. I. 
DEAR SIR: 

I think from the first time I ever heard of a 
radio I was interested and anxious to own one. 
But not so with my husband. He felt that 
it would be money wasted. After some talk- 
ing, I finally persuaded him to buy third in- 
terest in a community radio which we could 
keep only a third of the time. 

We missed the set so much when the other 
partners had it that finally we had a discussion 
at home as to whether or not we could afford 
to buy one right then and there. However, 
all my arguments were settled speedily when 
one night we heard Daniel Macon, that great 
banjo player who is known all over the coun- 
try, as the Dixie Dew Drop. He is an old 
friend of ours, but we had lost account of him 
for a few months. We bought a new radio at 
once and, needless to say, we have enjoyed 
hearing Uncle Daniel playing through our 
listening-in to him, almost as much as we did 
when he was in our own home. 

It is impossible to tell the pleasure the radio 
has given us. There are only six radios in 
our area of thirty square miles. So quite 
often, we invite our friends in to enjoy a good 
program of music or lecture of some special 
interest. The weather forecasts were broad- 
cast last spring when almost everyone around 
had large numbers of little chickens. If there 
was to be bad weather, I would call to my 
nearest neighbors and telephone the others. 
In that way, we could get our chickens up 
and saved much work and worry. 

We have a friend who cannot walk and who 
hasn't been outside her own home for two 
years. Every few Sundays, we carry our set 
to her home. The only way she can hear a 
Church service is when we bring our set to 
her. She says that it seems like Church in 
her own home, not only are the sermons 
splendid, but we get such beautiful singing. 
They are mostly old sacred songs that we all 
know and love. 

My son is only five, but he never retires 
until nine o'clock when we get the chimes 
playing "Old Kentucky Home" from Louis- 
ville. They never grow old. 

Mrs. W. H. T., 

Christiana, Tenn. 



The Importance of the Radio 

Amateur 

The High Place the Experimental Operator Occupies How High and 
Low Alike Have Each Contributed Their Share to Radio Development 

BY Dr. W. H. ECCLES, F. R. S. 



IM IG HT remind you of what you all know, 
that the Radio Society of Great Britain ex- 
ists for the benefit of those who practise 
or study wireless for its own sake, whether 
or not they happen to make any money by 
part of their work in the subject. Meetings 
are held for the inter-communication of 
scientific information, for mutual instruction 
and assistance, for bringing together people 
interested in wireless, and for the circulation of 
ideas of all sorts by all feasible means. During 
the last few years 
the influence of the 
Society has rapidly 
extended as the result 
of the enormous 
growth of public in- 
terest in wireless, and 
also as a result of the 
policy of affiliating 
societies scattered 
throughout the 
country; and thus the 
Radio Society has 
found itself becom- 
ing, almost in spite of 
itself, the center of 
the amateur move- 
ment of the whole 
country. Therefore, in 
addition to the func- 
tions which I have 
just enumerated, the 
Society is confronted 
with the task of 
holding the amateur 

movement together in the most difficult times 
this movement has yet experienced. It is also 
faced with the task of watching political and 
other circumstances that are likely to react 
upon the amateur. Almost simultaneously 
with these duties there came the need for 
taking over the management of an ambitious 
program of work projected by the British 
Wireless Relay League and for helping the 
inauguration of the Schools movement. The 



Fishing in the Electrical Ocean 

Some one is going to write a fascinating 
story some day, and it is going to be called 
" The Romance of the Radio Amateur." 
The realm of wireless has from the very 
beginning been explored by enthusiastic, 
deadly earnest, and often, very gifted persons 
who were held in it much more from the 
love of it than because of any mere money 
they might gain. As Dr. Eccles points out 
in this very interesting article, which by the 
way, was an address to the Radio Society of 
Great Britain, "A man cannot always ex- 
plain to you why he keeps rabbits." No 
more can the wireless amateur tell you why 
he loves the art. Dr. Eccles is a well-known 
and respected English scientist and his story 
will be read with interest by broadcast 
listener and confirmed amateur alike. And, 
to misquote Kipling, all radio amateurs, no 
matter in what country they live, "Are 
sisters under the skin." THE EDITOR. 



former piece of work was separated as the 
Transmitter and Relay Section, and the latter 
has become the Schools Radio Society and 
holds the rank of a section of the Society as 
defined by the new rules. Both these new 
burdens on the Society are nation wide in their 
scope, and meet needs that were strongly felt. 
In carrying out these tasks, the Society finds 
itself in the midst of two great popular currents 
which affect its future very deeply. First, 
there is the increasing use of wireless for public 
and commercial mes- 
sage services and for 
the distribution of 
entertainment by the 
broadcast. The lat- 
ter, of course, is a 
newcomer, and yet it 
overwhelms the cider 
use enormously. Be- 
sides this, there is the 
increased public in- 
terest in wireless 
science chiefly as the 
result of the arrival 
of the broadcast. The 
former current is 
making the spectrum 
of usable wavelengths 
more and more 
tightly packed, leav- 
ing less room for 
each user, including 
the amateur. The 
second current, i.e., 
the increasing popular 

interest in wireless generally, is bringing more 
and more persons into the ranks of the student 
and the experimenter. Many a holder of a con- 
structor's license is turning his attention to a 
study of the subject and is already a recruit, of 
greater or less merit as the case may be, to the 
ranks of the amateurs. Thus we have the 
rather unpleasant result that there are more 
amateurs than ever before, and they have to 
be accommodated inside a narrower region of 



8 4 



Radio Broadcast 



the spectrum than would have been available 
before. 

TWO BIG PROBLEMS 

TT SEEMS to me that in consequenceof these 
I new circumstances, there are two big prob- 
lems immediately in front of the Society. One 
is to ensure that the amateur and student of 
wireless telegraphy obtains his rightful share 
of the spectrum in accordance with his relative 
importance among all the other users of wire- 
less. The other big job for the Society is to 
help in the establishment of order among the 
users of wavelengths appropriated to the ama- 
teur transmitters and the broadcast listen- 
ers. Regarding the rights of amateurs to 
bands of wavelengths, there are many people, 
I believe, who say that amateurs have no right 
at all to any wavelengths, presumably because 
they are not making money out of it. Ours is a 
nation of shopkeepers, and this attitude of 
mind is to be expected from such a nation, but 
it is the duty of this Society to show the nation 
that the work of the experimenter is worthy of 
encouragement from the point of view of the 
long-sighted shopkeeper and the industrialist. 

THE TWO TYPES OF WIRELESS AMATEUR 

THERE are two main types, it seems to me, 
of wireless amateur. First, there is the 
man who wants to construct apparatus and 
see it work; and, secondly, there is the man who 
wants to experiment in and practise the art 
of communication by wireless. The first type 
of man is at home with many other mechan- 
ical and electrical hobbies, and 1 addressed 
this Society last autumn in the endeavor to 
show that he was, in virtue of his hobby, a very 
useful member of the community. The 
second type of amateur follows his hobby 
because he simply dotes upon the doing of it. 
He cannot explain his affection for it any 
more than another man can explain why he 
keeps rabbits, for instance, or still another 
man explain why he goes fishing. I con- 
fess that I myself cannot conceive why 
anybody does either of these latter things 
unless it be that the men in question consider 
rabbits or fish to be delectable articles of food. 
I am always particularly perplexed by the 
angler, though I respect his, to me, unfathom- 
able motives; but I think I can sympathize 
with and understand the passion of the wireless 
amateur who goes fishing in the electrical 
ocean, hoping to draw a congenial spirit out 
of the unknown depths. This type of amateur 
sits in his laboratory and sends out a little 
message, baited with 10 watts, say, and then 



listens with beating heart for a response from 
the void. Usually his cry is in vain. He draws 
a blank. But sometimes he hears, mixed up 
with his heart throbs, a reply from another 
"brass pounder" calling him by his sign 
letters. What a thrill! And when the re- 
sponse is faint and seems to come from very 
far away, with what excitement does he strug- 
gle to maintain touch? I can imagine the 
anxiety and enthusiasm with which he deci- 
phers the Morse, say, of an American amateur, 
is overpowering; and I can imagine the despair 
with which he battles against the demons of 
fading and interference. I can feel it is a very 
exciting and thrilling sport, but it is more than 
that. It teaches a wonderful skill in mani- 
pulation, and it screws up the efficiency of the 
apparatus and the man to the highest pitch. 
The DX man, striving to get across enormous 
distances with minute power, becomes far 
more expert than the professional operator. 

AMATEURS AND THE WAR 

1 REMEMBER very well that men of this 
type altered the whole standard of trans- 
atlantic reception during the War. After the 
United States came into the War the receiving 
stations on the Atlantic coast, particularly 
the large station at Otter Cliffs, which many 
of you have heard of, were manned by young 
fellows practised in DX work. They succeeded 
marvelously, and read a record number of 
words per day. At that time Lyons was 
enlarged by the addition of a bigger arc, and 
Bordeaux, just after the close of the War, was 
brought into operation with another arc, and 
these men succeeded so marvelously in receiv- 
ing the messages transmitted that the Govern- 
ment experts of the United States came to the 
conclusion, and announced very emphatically, 
that at last the Atlantic was conquered, 
and that it was possible to ensure a regular 
uninterrupted twenty-four hour service per- 
day in summer and winter, without delays, 
by the aid of such transmitting stations as 
the arc station at Lyons. Then came demobil- 
ization and the DX men went home from the 
Atlantic coast. Their phones were picked 
up by the orthodox operators, the standard of 
reception fell immediately, and so, as far as I 
know, has not yet risen to its former glory. It 
will not, I think, rise to the same height with 
the same apparatus again. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF DX WORK 

AS ANOTHER example of the utility of 
this DX work, consider the recent results 
achieved by a small band of private workers 



The Importance of the Radio Amateur 



who, during the last month or two, have been 
trying to find lanes under the Heaviside layer, 
across the Atlantic. You all know the success 
which has been attained with short wave- 
lengths throughout an unexpected number of 
hours in the twenty-four. I do not doubt 
that if these amateurs had left the problem 
alone we should to-day be ignorant of its possi- 
bility. It might have been many years before 
these facts would have been revealed in the 
ordinary course of things. The feat is not an 
easy one, as is shown by the fact that if they 

could have done it, 

some of the com- 
mercial wireless 
companies would 
certainly have made 
very profitable ad- 
vertisement out of it. 
Moreover, the gov- 
ernments on both 
sides of the Atlantic 
maintain large staffs 
of men, some of whom 
have very little more 
to do than listen in to 
signals. I am think- 
ing of the naval and 
military and air 
forces particularly, in 
France, in America, 
and in this country. 

These facts escaped their notice and, indeed, 
would have been regarded as incredible. 

From all this I deduce that in wireless, as in 
many other pursuits requiring concentration 
and skill, the best results are often achieved by 
men who are not brought up to work at it for a 
living. This holds good in yachting, in cricket, 
in marksmanship and many other sports. It 
holds still further, in my opinion, in the 
sciences and in the applications of science; and 
especially in the scientific hobbies, including, of 
course, amateur wireless, which, in addition 
to its fascination as a sport, possesses also the 
qualities of immediate importance in com- 
merce and of utility in national emergency. It 
is quite conceivable that these discoveries of 
the properties of short waves may be of great 
commercial service, and certainly might be 
of immense military significance in time of 
war. 

The last time I addressed you last autumn 
I paid most attention to the merits of the 
class of wireless amateur who is fond of his 
hobby because he can make and work some- 
thing, and I tried to show you that he deserved 
the support of every intelligent citizen, and 



certainly of this Society, which is largely 
constituted of him and by him. I said nothing 
of this other kind of man, however, partly 
because there was no time, and partly because 
it did not occur to me that such remarkable 
results could be achieved by him in the im- 
mediate future. I am therefore specializing on 
this other type of wireless man to-night in the 
hope of showing you that the "fisherman" 
type, if I may call him so, is worthy of his salt, 
worthy of our support and encouragement, and 
merits the granting of every possible facility 

that we can find for 

him. 



The Importance of the Radio 
Amateur 



". . . I can imagine the anxiety and 
enthusiasm with which he deciphers the 
Morse, let us say, of an American amateur, is 
overpowering, and I can imagine the despair 
with which he battled against the demons of 
fading and interference. I can feel it is an 
exciting and thrilling sport, but it is more 
than that. It teaches a wonderful skill in 
manipulation, and it screws up the efficiency 
of the apparatus and the man to the highest 
pitch. The DX man, striving to get across 
enormous distances with minute power, be- 
comes far more expert than the professional 
operator. . . ." 



INEXPERIENCED 
AMATEURS 



T HAVE been speak- 
1 ing so far both 
last autumn and this 
evening of the best 
of the amateurs who 
form, I believe, the 
larger portion of the 
membership of this 
Society and the Affili- 
ated Societies. But 
there are others, and 
many of these lack 
skill and produce con- 
siderable interference 
with military and 

naval services and sometimes with broadcast- 
ing services. Amongst these must be included 
the kind of amateur who uses 20 or 30 watts to 
establish communication between himself and 
a friend a mile away, and thereby agonizes 
everyone within 20 miles. Then there is the 
amateur who blares forth, without provocation 
or excuse, recitatives from corrugated gramo- 
phone discs; there is the amateur who never 
listens in either before or after shooting his 
bolt; there is the man who specializes in 
apparatus comprising every possible error of 
design and who emits the broadest possible 
band of waves. Perhaps many of these sinners 
know not what they do; others there are who 
do know, I think, what they are doing, and 
do it almost, one might say, of malice afore- 
thought. Many of this class have no call 
sign, and others use fancy call signs, and there 
are others, again, who use other people's call 
signs, a tribe that is quite unlicensed. Besides 
these there are other nuisances, but I am going 
to refer to them a little later in another cate- 
gory. 

The state of affairs represented by what I 
have just said appears to be getting worse 



86 



Radio Broadcast 



rather than better. You will remember that we 
formed last autumn a Transmitter and Relay 
Section, and that we gradually built up a 
scheme of relay work in different parts of the 
country. The almost inevitable result of the 
attempts to get relay chains working was a 
crop of reports that so-and-so was washed out 
by somebody else breaking in on the same 
wavelength with some gramophone tune or 
something of that kind; or that somebody 
had been interrupted by a person using his own 
call sign illegitimately. The state of affairs, as 

I say, seems to be getting worse rather than 
better. There are three parties interested in 
this matter. There is the amateur who wants 
to do his work in a reasonable manner; there is 
the broadcast listener who is very often on the 
same waveband as these interrupters; and 
then, last but not least, there are chose who are 
using wireless for transmitting messages on 
government service or for com nercial pur- 
poses. Of these three or four pai ties who are 
injured by the erratic type of transmitter, the 
Government and commercial users have be- 
come tolerably free because they have devel- 
oped means of taking care of themselves, and, 
moreover, they can place good apparatus in 
the hands of skilled operators. The broadcast 
listener is the next in order of martyrdom, but 
his interests are being ably protected by the 
British Broadcasting Company, which, in this 
aspect, is a solid single-minded organization 
for looking after the broadcast listener. The 
real martyr is, I think, the true amateur of 
the kind that forms the bulk of our Society. 
This man, when broadcasting began, bound 
himself of his own initiative by a self-denying 
ordinance to refrain from transmitting during 
broadcasting hours on the wavelengths that 
would interfere with broadcasting reception 
anywhere. In addition to this sacrifice of his 
experimental time, he found also that if he 
lived near a broadcasting station he could do 
no experimental reception during the time the 
broadcast station was running, on account of 
the width of band natural to a telephonic 
station. His work, therefore, became post- 
poned until after 1 1 o'clock at night. This 
left the British Broadcasting Company to deal 
with the inconsiderate or anti-social transmit- 
ter who sometimes disturbs the peace. But 
once these people were scared, they trans- 
ferred their energies to the post-broadcast- 
ing hours, with the dire result that the 
self-disciplined amateur finds himself at 

I 1 o'clock at night in the midst of a per- 
fect thicket of noise, in many cities, at any 
rate. 



THE EVIL RADIATING RECEIVER 

p\URING the past year the British Broad- 
*~J casting Company has kept in close touch 
with our late Honorary Secretary, Mr. Mc- 
Michael, and have sent him copies of many of 
the complaints which they have received from 
disturbed broadcast listeners. Mr. McMichael 
started last March a scheme for mobilizing 
local wireless societies in the work of tracking 
and, if possible, eliminating the disturbers; 
but he found, I think, that it would require 
much labor and much money to carry out 
thoroughly any scheme of this kind, and I 
think that in the end his efforts gradually 
tapered off on account of the sheer impossibil- 
ity of the task. Even in districts where it has 
been possible to trace and stop one howler, 
two or three new ones have started up for each 
one stopped. The reason is that the rapid 
expansion of broadcast listening brings in some 
new beginner with a valve set every day or 
every week, according to the district, and the 
beginner requires time to learn the set. Some 
of them learn to adjust it silently and to leave 
it alone within a month; but the weaker vessels 
take six months, and have then not yet con- 
cluded. 

Lately I looked through a batch of recent 
letters of complaint of programs spoiled and 
I tried to diagnose in each case the probable 
source of the trouble. About three quarters 
of the disturbers seemed to be valve learners, 
but they, as a source of irritation, disappear 
in a few weeks or months. A small fraction 
were chronic crystal ticklers who, if very near 
to sensitive neighbors, cause great mental 
distress. I daresay that many of you know 
that if your next-door neighbor insists on 
scratching his crystal while his antenna is oscil- 
lating strongly under the broadcast waves, 
he radiates every scratch to you and spoils your 
music and language. To these people one can 
only quote Lord Palmerston and say: "Why 
can't you leave it alone?" But it seems to be 
too much to ask human nature to leave well 
enough alone, for even after obtaining an ex- 
cellent rendition they say to themselves, "I 
wonder if it would be better if I turned that 
knob a little farther," and so it goes on. 

With these classes of disturbers very little 
can be done by any society like ours, or by the 
Government, or by the British Broadcasting 
Company. We in this Society have seen 
enough of the complaints and looked at them 
carefully enough to be sure that the stopping 
of that trouble is as great a problem as sup- 
pressing the piano-playing of a neighbor or 



The Importance of the Radio Amateur 



suppressing the nocturnal cat. It is just a 
nuisance, and it may have to be tackled in due 
course under the common law as a nuisance. 
As a rule the common law has succeeded in 
adapting itself in due time to deal with all 
newly invented nuisances that civilization 
brings; but to return to the analysis of com- 
plaints of broadcast listeners, I think about 
ten per cent, of the disturbances are due to 
amateur transmitters, and under ten per cent, 
due to wilful interference. You will, I think, 
agree with my seemingly harsh diagnosis of the 
latter category, the wilful interferer, when I 
tell you that in the interferences sometimes 
recorded, the interpolations consist of re- 
marks, at apparently appropriate points of the 
sermon, of such words as "rats!" Now, of 
course, that cannot be accident, it is someone 
with a transmitting set and a gramophone who 
is intentionally creating a nuisance. I say that 
less than ten per cent, of the broadcast com- 
plaints seem to come into the category of 
wilful disturbance. 

MEETING THE COMPLAINTS 

/^ASES like this do, in a sense, concern the 
^ wireless societies, and they must be grap- 
pled with if we can trace them to our mem- 
bership, but the cases where the genuine 
amateur transmitter is interfering with the 
broadcast listener is in a different category 
and requires special consideration. In the 
first place, many of the complaints of the 
broadcast listener arise because his apparatus 
is so badly designed or constructed that though 
it is tuned to 365 meters it is easily disturbed 
by a transmitter at 180 meters, for example. 
From the scientific point of view, the remedy is 



simply a filter circuit in the listener's antenna; 
but from the popular point of view, the amateur 
is a person who is merely playing with wireless, 
and when the would-be listener to the broad- 
cast concerts comes near to him and installs 
poor apparatus, the assumption is that it is the 
amateur who must shut down. This, of course, 
is a gratuitous assumption that the broadcast 
listener has a stronger right to install poor 
apparatus than the transmitter has to transmit 
on a reasonably sharp wavelength. But it does 
not follow that because a man listens in to, is it 
Uncle Jeff (?), that he is therefore a better 
citizen than an experimental transmitter. 
But that kind of thing has always haunted 
scientific inquirers. Entertainment, for in- 
stance, is, to unthinking people, much more 
important than any possible good, national 
or social, that may flow from a scientific 
study or hobby. This has been the attitude 
of the crowd toward the discoverer and in- 
vestigator throughout all history. In all such 
cases those who know better have had to 
combine and fight those who know nothing. 
In this particular case we are combining as a 
society, but we can only meet the unreasona- 
ble complaints of the ill-equipped amusement 
seeker by our being sufficiently strongly 
organized to demand impartial inquiry and to 
insure a just decision. On the other hand, we 
can meet the justifiable complaints of the 
other users of wireless, and can obtain more 
time for ourselves and clearer times for our- 
selves, by getting every well-intentioned ama- 
teur to join our Society or an affiliated so- 
ciety, and after that establish a code of honor 
and a system of self-discipline amongst our- 
selves. 



THE RESULTS OF THE $500 BROADCASTING CONTEST 

LT/7LL be announced in a forthcoming number of RADIO BROADCAST. 
Over eight hundred manuscripts were entered in the contest and the task 
of selecting the best is proving a difficult one for the judges. The contest 
judges are Professor J. H. Morecroft, President of the Institute of Radio 
Engineers, Powel Crosley, Jr., President, the Crosley Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Frank Reichmann, of the Reichmann Company, Chicago, Senator 
Royal S. Copeland, New York, an d Harry Chadler, Publisher, Los Angeles 
TIMES. 




THE WHB RADIO ORCHESTRA 
Whose lilting dance music floats out to receptive radio listeners all over the nation 

"Meet" the Radio Voices from 

Kansas City 



A Bit About Some of the Popular Artists 
Who Broadcast from WDAF and WHB 

BY ERLE H. SMITH 



A 



BITTER war is on in the ranks of 
radio listeners of the "Heart of 
America" city Kansas City. Un- 
consciously and yet not unwillingly, 
groups of these 



whole 

radio partisans have fallen 
into clans. And in many 
homes, radio dealers say, 
arguments have grown so 
heated that it has been 
necessary to install a re- 
ceiving set for each radio 
fan in the household as a 
final effort to lure the dove 
of peace back to a perma- 
nent roost on the domestic 
antenna. 

For it develops that 
the listeners-in of Kan- 
sas City in common with 
those of many other 
cities have their favorite 
ether performers just 




NELL O BRIEN 
Who gained great popularity at 
station WHB. She is a soprano 



as decidedly as theater goers have their stage 
favorites. And when WHB and WMAJ are 
on the air at the same time and Sallie craves 
to listen to the Sweeney orchestra, Bill is out 
of luck for that lecture on 
wave traps over WMAJ. So 
Bill has his receiving set, 
be it ever so humble, and 
Sallie has hers and there 
is peace in the domicile 
of the listeners and, I 
think, a smile on the face 
of the radio dealer. 

LOCAL RADIO FAVORITES 
IN KANSAS CITY 

OUTSTANDING 
among the radio fav- 
orites of Kansas Cityans 
are the Kansas City Star's 
"Nighthawks." The regu- 
lar "Nighthawk" enter- 
tainers, known from coast 



"Meet" the Radio Voices from Kansas City 



to coast and Gulf to Lakes, are the Coon- 
Sanders orchestra and Leo Fitzpatrick, Radio 
Editor of The Star and "Merry Old Chief" 
in charge of 
the midnight 
frolics of 
the "Night- 
hawks " in 
the grill of 
a downtown 
hotel. The 
"Merry Old 
Chief" also 
appears be- 
fore the mi- 
crophone i n 
The Star's 
studio as 
"R. A. Dio" 
in regular 
weekly min- 




strel pro- 
grams. 

The "Night- 
hawk" pro- 
grams were among the first attempts at 
midnight broadcasting on a regular schedule 
six nights a week and have been running 
full blast every night except Sunday for 



THE RADIO TRIO 

Often heard from WDAF, at Kansas City. Carson Rob- 
inson (left), Steven Cady (center), and Harry Kessel 



Ranking second in popularity with Kansas 
City listeners in the ranks of the WDAF enter- 
tainers is the Radio Trio, composed of Carson 

Robinson, 
Steven Cady, 
and Harry 
Kessel. Mr. 
Robinson is a 
pianist and 
whistler, if not 
of note, at 
least of great 
popularity, 
and has writ- 
ten several 
"blues" song 
hits and 
chimes in with 
his effective 
baritone when 
the trio is 
singing en- 
semble. Mr. 
Cady has 
an excellent 




tenor voice, and Mr. Kessel is the trio's "lead" 
and usual soloist. 

Assisted by "R. A. Dio," the trio gives a 
popular program weekly over WDAF, which, 
judging from the hundreds of letters pouring 
into the office of The Star's radio editors, in- 
dicate nation-wide approval. 

The station of the Sweeney Automotive and 
Electrical School, WHB, claims to be the first 
broadcaster west of the Mississippi River to 
employ a regular orchestra. George C. Parrish, 
known among music critics of the Southwest as 
one of the most able and versatile pianists in 
Kansas City, is director of the orchestra. 
The popularity of Mr. Parrish's orchestra is 



LEO FITZPATRICK 
Radio editor of the Kansas City 
Star, WDAF, and "Merry Old Chief" of 
the Star "Nighthawk Frolic" programs 

nearly two years. Listeners-in, picking up 
the "Nighthawk Frolic" and writing or 
otherwise communicating with the WDAF sta- 
tion are enrolled on the membership roster of 
the "Nighthawk" organization and awarded 
membership cards. The roster includes 
thousands of names. 




ELIZABETH R. HINTON 
A popular soprano at. station WHB 



Radio Broadcast 




JOE SANDERS (left) AND CARLETON COON 

Leading lights of the Coon-Sanders "Nighthawk" or- 
chestra who regularly play at station WDAF. Mr. 
Sanders is a pianist and composer. Mr. Coon is the 
trap drummer. Both have excellent voices 



proved by the great quantity of enthusiastic 
letters that are received by the Sweeney station 
weekly from all sections of the western hemi- 
sphere. 

The Sweeney orchestra is probably one of 
the most popular dance combinations with 
Kansas City listeners-in. Far-away owners of 
neutrodyne and super-heterodyne sets nightly 
notify the Sweeney station that they are con- 
centrating on bringing in WHB "strong" to 
provide music for dancing. And then, Mr. 
Parrish and John T. Schilling, the WHB an- 
nouncers, get their heads together and release 
some of the "steppin'est" music that travels 
through the ether from what the local boosters 
call the "Heart of America" city. 



Miss Nell O'Brien and Mrs. Elizabeth 
Ranson Hinton, sopranos, are popular 
radio stars appearing exclusively before the 
microphone of WHB. Both have except- 
ional voices, and nights when they are on 
the programs are certain to be busy ones 
for the telephone operators at the Sweeney 
switchboard, for its "Please have Miss 
O'Brien sing" this and "Please have 
Mrs. Hinton sing" that. 

And so it goes with the radio listeners of 
Kansas City and the surrounding territory. 




JOHN T. SCHILLING 
Announcer at WHB, at Kansas City, 
the Sweeney Automotive School 



They have their radio favorites and they keep 
the telephone wires warm telling the two large 
broadcasting station operators just what they 
desire to hear. 



A REPORT FROM THE RADIO PILGRIMS 

ABOARD the RADIO BROADCAST COVERED 
** WAGON, in charge of Captain Jack Irwin, will 
be a feature of this magazine for December. Cap- 
tain Irwin relates his impressions of radio life in 
the Great Lakes district. His "Log of a Radio Hobo" 
is worth reading. 



Modern Receiving Circuits 

The Function of the Crystal Circuit The Types of Regenerative 
Circuits Receivers Using Untuned Radio-Frequency Amplification 
The Super-Regenerative Circuit and Its Value The Inverse Duplex 

WHAT MAKES THE WHEELS GO 'ROUND: VIII 
BY WALTER VAN B. ROBERTS 



A S AN excellent conclusion to Mr. Roberts's discussion of the workings of 
* the various elements of receiving circuits, the present article, the eighth 
in his series: "What Makes the Wheels Go 'Round," discusses in very clear 
fashion some of the most generally used receiving circuits. This series of in- 
formative and exceptionally lucid explanatory articles can be read with profit 
by every broadcast listener, even he who feels his technical knowledge is perhaps 
a little better than the rest. THE EDITOR. 



FIGURE 44 shows the simplest possible 
receiving set. Tuning is sufficiently 
well accomplished by a switch con- 
necting to different taps on an in- 
ductance coil of any type. A cylindrical 
coil with a sliding contact is often used. 
This type of receiver is very good for re- 
ception of stations up to about 25 miles 
distant provided there is no interference. It 
is about the least selective of any radio cir- 
cuit and cannot tune out interfering signals 





FIG. 44 

A simple crystal receiver. Probably the 
least selective of any circuit in use 

even if on a different wavelength. Fig. 45 
shows a two-circuit or loosely coupled type. 
The sensitivity is about the same as that of 
the single circuit but there is considerably 
better selectivity. Any circuit using a crystal 
is subject to the nuisance of having to keep 
the crystal in adjustment. Some crystals 



jar out of adjustment very easily and a search 
must then be made for a "sensitive spot." 

66. SIMPLE DETECTOR CIRCUITS 

A VACUUM tube may be used instead of 
a crystal in either of the above circuits, 
thus eliminating the trouble of finding a 
sensitive spot. Otherwise the results will 
be about the same, except for a gain in se- 
lectivity. See Figs. 46 and 47. 

67. REGENERATIVE CIRCUITS 

THE chief advantage in replacing the crys- 
tal by a tube is the possibility of using 
regeneration. Figs. 48 and 49 show regen- 
eration accomplished by inserting inductance 
in the plate circuit of the tube. If this is a 




.I/ h 



FIG. 45 

An inductively coupled crystal circuit. Both an- 
tenna and detector circuits are tuned and hence the 
circuit is more selective. Receivers based on this 
circuit were standard for many years until the vac- 
uum tube came into general use about 1915 



9 2 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 46 

A simple vacuum tube circuit, in which the tube 
does not oscillate, but is used as a rectifier, serving 
the same purpose as the crystal detector in Figs. 
44 and 45. Note that the antenna and detector 
(or secondary) circuits are conductively coupled 

small fixed coil it is coupled to the grid coil 
and acts as a tickler. If it is not brought up 
near the fixed coil it must be a variable in- 
ductance, i. e., a variometer. The two cir- 
cuits shown are called the single-circuit and 
the three-circuit method of using regeneration. 
This nomenclature is obviously inconsistent 
but it is customary. The two are equally sen- 
sitive and for differentiating between equally 
faint signals of nearly the same wavelength 
they are almost equally selective, but with 
the three-circuit arrangement, it is possible to 
shut out strong local stations of considerably 




FIG. 47 

The same circuit as Fig. 46 except that 
the antenna-secondary coupling is inductive 

different wavelength while the single circuit 
cannot do this. The single circuit is easier 
to tune properly, but if allowed to oscillate it 
is usually radiating more energy from the 
antenna and hence causes worse interference 
that is, the familiar squeals that are often 
heard while the neighbors are tuning-in. 
For this last reason there is a growing senti- 



ment against the use of single-circuit regen- 
erative receivers in thickly populated regions 
or indeed, anywhere else. 

There are a great many apparently different 
regenerative circuits in use, but the above are 
the standard forms. No one kind is any more 
sensitive than any other if properly built, as 
the sensitivity is determined by the tube. 
Single-circuit receivers are usually built with 
an eye to the best possible selectivity. They 




FIG. 48 

The circuit of Fig. 46 with the addition of a "tick- 
ler" coil, whose purpose is to make the tube de- 
tector oscillate, increasing the sensitivity of the 
circuit. It is a malignant radiator of energy. 
Sometimes called a "blooper" 

are made very "stiff," that is, the antenna is 
tuned with a large inductance and a small 
capacity and a comparatively low short an- 
tenna (not more than 150 feet over all) is 
recommended. 

68. UNTUNED RADIO FREQUENCY TRANS- 
FORMER SETS 

WHERE greater sensitivity is required 
some form of radio frequency amplifica- 
tion is necessary. Fig. 50 shows a typical 
three-stage transformer-coupled R. F. am- 
plifier with potentiometer stabilization. Re- 
ceiving sets of this type are not very selective 




FIG. 49 

Regeneration is secured by the use of the variometer 

in series with the plate of the tube. Simply Fig. 

47 with the variometer added 



Modern Receiving Circuits 



93 





^ ) 1 ) J 1 J ) 


1 


) 1 



FIG. 50 

A radio-frequency circuit with air-core transformer 
between the amplifier tubes. Note the stabilizing 
meter 



as there is only one tuned circuit to do the 
selecting. They are easy to operate as the 
tuning condenser and the potentiometer are 
the only controls. They are subject to the 
limitations imposed by the transformers in 
the matter of range of wavelengths that can 
be received. Unless an arrangement for 
plugging in different transformers is provided, 
the range is usually only about two hundred 
meters. (From 300 meters to 500 meters for 
example.) 

69. THE NEUTRODYNE 

FIG. 51 shows a typical neutrodyne ar- 
rangement. Only two stages of amplifi- 
cation are used because three condensers are 
enough to tune. As each of the three trans- 
formers is fairly selective, the result of using 
all three at once is very good selectivity. An 
open type antenna is used (this, however, need 
not be large. Thirty feet or so strung around 
a picture moulding gives good results except 
for very weak signals) because a loop is likely 
to have energy fed back to it from the trans- 



very selective and hence not very 
good for working through interfer- 
ence, but where the desired signal is 
the strongest incoming ether disturb- 
ance in its region of wavelengths, 
a loop and a single tube can be made 
to work a loud speaker as well as 
about three tubes used any other way. 
The principle of super-regeneration is 
explicable qualitatively by a mechani- 
cal analogy. A clock was used in 
a previous article as an analogy to give an idea 
of the mechanism of an oscillator circuit. 
We shall use the clock again. Suppose it to 



coupling 
potentio- 




W,000~ OSCILLATOR 



NEC. Slt OF Fi.S 
SIGNW. FREQUENCY CIRCUIT 




FIG. 51 

A neutrodyne arrangement 

formers, which are not usually shielded. 
They could be shielded, but they are usually 
cylindrical and set at such angles with each 
other that they do not feed back to each other. 

7O. ABOUT SUPER-REGENERATION 

\A7HERE loud signals are required from a 

* * loop and the number of tubes is limited 

to one or two, super-regeneration rules the 

field. Super-regenerative circuits are not 



FIG. 52 

The Super-regenerator. When the low-frequency 
oscillator grid is negative, the connection "c" 
between the two oscillators has no effect, and os- 
cillations build up at signal frequency. During the 
half cycle when the grid of the low-frequency oscilla- 
tor is positive, oscillations are damped out of the 
signal-frequency circuit just as if its own grid were 
positive. The signal is picked up by a loop con- 
nected across the tuning condenser 

be wound up but the pendulum is placed care- 
fully in its lowest position and left there. 
The clock will not start itself. But now 
suppose puffs of air come along at 
the proper interval to start the 
pendulum swinging slightly. Once 
it starts ever so slightly, the ideal 
spring and escapement mechanism 
we have assumed cause its swinging 
to increase even if the puffs of air 
stop coming in. The oscillations of 
the pendulum "build up" and in 
due time the amplitude of swing 
reaches a limit determined by fric- 
tion, air resistance, etc. But if 
we confine our attention to a 
sufficiently short period of time after the 
swing starts to build up we will find that the 
amplitude attained during this time is pro- 
portional to the strength of the incoming puffs 
of air. At the end of this period let the 
pendulum be stopped and set again at its 
lowest point so that the whole thing can take 
place again. By this arrangement, a great 
deal more swinging is done by the pendulum, 
on the whole, than if the clock were not wound 



94 



Radio Broadcast 



up, in which case the pendulum would only 
swing the very small amount caused by the 
air puffs alone. 

In the electrical case we have a circuit all 
set to oscillate, but "balanced" so to speak 
so that some incoming ether wave is required 
to start oscillations building up. The ampli- 
tude to which oscillations build up during, say, 
one twenty thousandth of a second, is pro- 
portional to the strength of the incoming sig- 
nal. The circuit automatically extinguishes 
the high-frequency oscillations in itself every 
ten thousandth of a second and "rebalances" 
itself for another start. Thus, on the average, 
there is a good deal of high-frequency current 
in the circuit, and as the amount is propor- 
tional to the incoming signal strength at any 
time, its rectification by the curvature of 
the tube's grid potential-plate current char- 
acteristic yields the signal ready for the loud 
speaker (unless it is desired to filter out the 
10,000 cycle note that is due to the periodic 
interruption of the oscillator circuit). 

Another way of looking at the action of 
super-regeneration which may seem simpler 
to some, is to consider the action as mere 
multi-stage radio-frequency amplification per- 
formed by a single tube by the simple process 
of connecting the secondary of the trans- 
former back to the input of the same tube 




FIG. 53 

The super-regenerator. Both low-frequency and 
signal-frequency oscillator circuits are attached tc 
the same tube. The signal-frequency circuit is at 
the top of the diagram. High-frequency oscillations 
pass readily through the bypass condensers B-P. 
The low-frequency circuit (here a Hartley, with or 
without mutual inductance between coil?) is sup- 
posed to be oscillating all the time. During part 
of each cycle the grid and plate potentials favor 
the building up of high-frequency oscillations in 
the upper circuit, but during the other part, con- 
ditions are unfavorable and cause oscillations, if 
any have built up, and die out again 



instead of the input of another tube. A small 
impulse comes into the grid of the tube and 
is amplified and fed to the primary of a trans- 
former, the secondary of which feeds it back to 
the grid. It then makes another round trip, 
and another, and another, and sooner or later 
would grow so great that the tube could no 
longer amplify it any more. But before that 
happens, the interrupting mechanism comes 
into play and wipes it out entirely. The 
interrupting mechanism then stands aside, 
figuratively speaking, and lets the tube 
amplify whatever is supplied to its grid for 
another twenty thousandth of a second or so, 
then steps in and quiets everything down 
again. Thus on the average there is much more 
radio-frequency current than the incoming 
radio waves alone could produce without help. 

The reason that super-regeneration works 
best at short wavelengths is that the time 
between interruptions is then enough for a 
large number of round trips and the current 
can build up to large values before being 
interrupted. The interruption frequency can- 
not be lowered to less than about ten thousand 
per second or it becomes annoyingly audible. 

Three systems for doing the interrupting 
are 

(1) making the grid so positive, once every 
ten thousandth of a second, that the oscilla- 
tions are killed as explained under stabilization 
by potentiometer in radio-frequency amplifi- 
tion, 

(2) by periodically cutting off or reducing 
the amount of plate potential and allowing 
the oscillations to die out, and 

(3) by combining these two methods. 

The first and the third are recommended, the 
third having the advantage of using only one 
tube. The second is difficult as the oscilla- 
tions do not always die out rapidly enough 
by themselves even when the plate potential 
is reduced far below the value necessary to 
make oscillations build up. It is important 
not to have any tuned circuits around in which 
oscillations can persist, as they will re-excite 
the oscillator even if no signals are coming 
in. For this reason the selectivity can not 
be improved by the ordinary loose coupling of 
tuned circuits, although advantage may be had 
by operating the set in the same room with 
the lead-in of a tuned antenna. Fig. 52 shows 
the first system, 53 the third. 

71. PRINCIPLE OF REFLEXING 

WHEN a tube capable of amplifying a 
strong signal is used merely to amplify 
a weak one, its power-amplifying capability 



Modern Receiving Circuits 



95 




FIG. 54 

A simple reflex circuit, using a crystal detector. 

The one tube in the circuit acts both as a radio- 

and audio-frequency amplifier 

is not being made efficient use of. "Re- 
flexing" is a system for getting more out of a 
tube by making it 
amplify two things, the 
incoming signal at radio 
frequency, and the 
detected, or audio 
frequency current. So 
long as the variations 
of grid potential due 
to both frequencies are each of small amount, 
neither interferes with the other. Fig. 54 



FIG. 55 

Diagram of the cur- 
rent flow in a reflex 
circuit 



FIG. 56 

Diagram of the en- 
ergy flow in a reflex 
circuit where the 
energy is amplified 
through two audio 
stages 




shows a very simple 
reflex circuit using 
a crystal detector. The 
radio-frequency cur- 
rent after being ampli- 
fied is fed by means of a 
tuned transformer to 
the crystal. The audio- 
frequency current is 
then fed to the grid and 
amplified, the phones being in the plate cir- 
cuit of the tube. The frequency of the radio 
current is so much great- 
er than that of the audio 
that the two kinds of cur- 
rent are easily separated 
whenever necessary. 
Fig. 55 shows the flow of 
energy in diagrammatic 
form. Fig. 56 shows 
the energy flow in a two-stage amplifier. 

72. THE INVERSE DUPLEX SYSTEM 

A REFINEMENT of reflexing as shown 
** above is the arrangement called the 
inverse duplex, shown in Fig. 57. It is ob- 
vious that the tube carrying the least radio 
frequency energy is the one that handles 
the greatest audio-frequency energy, 
and vice versa. Thus the point of over- 
loading is not reached so soon. Also, 
as the audio energy is not fed directly 
back to the first tube, any accidental 
radio-frequency feed back that might 
occur along with the audio feed back 
will not be so likely to cause oscilla- 
tions. 



FIG. 57 

The inverse duplex 

arrangement, which 

is an elaboration of 

the reflex idea 




T. M. STEVENS 

Assistant Traffic Manager of the Radio Cor- 
poration of America. Mr. Stevens has charge 
of the radio message traffic operation of the 
many passenger and cargo ships controlled by 
this company 



Final Plans for the International 
Broadcasting Tests 

News of Importance for Every Radio Listener in 
the Outline of RADIO BROADCAST'S Tests for 1924 



By ARTHUR H. LYNCH 



THERE is little time left for you to 
get ready for the international broad- 
casting tests which are to take place 
between November 24th and 3oth, 
inclusive. For the first time you will have an 
opportunity to -test the possibilities of your 
receiver for picking 
up long distance 
broadcasting, under 
the best conditions 
obtainable. 

RADIO BROADCAST 
carried on a similar 
series of tests last year 
and hundreds of lis- 
teners in the United 
States and Canada 
were able to pick up 
parts of the programs 
from England, while 
our English friends 
were even more suc- 
cessful in picking up 
our programs. If you 
remember, there were 
man y prominent 
speakers in this coun- 
try who said a few 
words for our English 
friends and prominent 
Englishmen spoke to 
us. The reception of 




the English stations 

in this country could 

hardly be called a 

complete success, 

even though we have had verified reports from 

American listeners who were located as far west 

as Washington State. We have every reason 

to believe that the tests this year will be even 

more successful and, having this in mind, we 

have set out on a rather enlarged program. 

The principal difficulty in connection with 
the tests last year was the very limited 
time we had to get them under way and the 
failure on our part to recognize until it was too 



Navana 
HUGH S. POCOCK 

Editor of the London Wireless World and Radio 
Review, who is working in close cooperation with 
RADIO BROADCAST in directing the second inter- 
national broadcasting test. Mr. Pocock has 
charge of arrangements for England and the Con- 
tinent and is working with Captain A. G. D. West, 
assistant chief engineer of the British Broadcasting 
Company 



late, the terrific amount of detail work the 
tests would involve. Most of communications 
were with Hugh S. Pocock, Editor of The 
Wireless World and Radio Review (London), 
whose hearty cooperation made it possible for 
us to work so closely with the British Broad- 
casting Company. 

The time for pre- 
paration was so short 
that most of our com- 
munication with the 
American broadcast- 
ing stations had to 
be done by telegraph, 
and if you remember, 
even that method of 
communication 
proved futile in sev- 
eral instances because 
the managers of sta- 
tions had important 
events scheduled for 
the hours of the test 
periods. Other broad- 
casters were not con- 
vinced that the listen- 
ers in their audience 
were as much inter- 
ested in attempting 
to pick up London as 
they were in hearing 
some really good 
music from the home 
station. For the first 



few nights of the tests, 
many of the broad- 
casting stations in this country and Canada 
did not shut down and it was only by tele- 
graphing them individually that we were able 
to secure a comparatively quiet ether for the 
last night. 

Then, too, in the larger cities and other 
comparatively thickly populated areas there 
was a terrific amount of interference caused 
by radiating receivers. Interference of this 
nature was so great in the vicinity of New 



Final Plans for the International Broadcasting Tests 



York, Boston, Chicago, and several other 
cities, that even those in the suburbs found 
it difficult to hear anything but the squeals. 
Many newspapers published editorials criticiz- 
ing the "bloopers" unmercifully. 

There were many other reasons for our not 
having scored a complete success, but they are 
of little interest now, other than object lessons, 
and we are making every effort to surmount 
the difficulties and there is every reason to 
believe that we will do it. 

WHY WE LOOK FOR SUCCESS THIS YEAR 

IN ENGLAND, we still have the active co- 
* operation of Mr. Pocock and Captain 
Eckersley of the 
British Broadcast- 
ing Company as 
well as the addi- 
tional effort of the 
Radio Retailers' 
Association, of 
which Clifford and 
Clifford are the 
Honorable secre- 
taries, and the 
Radio Trade As- 
sociation of New 
York. L.A.Nixon 
is Secretary. All 
are working to- 
gether, to make 
every possible 
wheel move in the 
correct direction 
and without either 
lost motion or fric- 
tion. 

In Canada, 
Jacques Cartier, 
Manager of the La 
Presse Broadcast- 
ing station, at 
Montreal is doing 
his best to co- 
ordinate the efforts 
of the Canadian 
stations. 

In Cuba and 
Porto Rico we ha ve 
been able to enlist 
the services of 

PWX, 2MN, 2BY, 

Havana, 6KW, 
Tuinucu, Cuba 
and WKAQ. 

In this country 
no effort is being 



spared. A circular letter, addressed to every 
broadcasting station in the United States has 
resulted in replies having been received from 
most of the important broadcasting stations in 
the country. The larger stations have signified 
their intention to take part in the transmission 
tests and even the smaller stations, which do 
not feel that there is a possibility of being heard 
by European listeners, have very generously 
volunteered to keep off the air during the 
periods during which we will attempt to hear 
from Europe. 

Captain Jack Irwin, who is piloting RADIO 
BROADCAST'S COVERED WAGON across the 
country in an effort to reduce the amount of 




HOW THE NEWS WILL REACH ENGLAND 

The masts of Radio Central of the Radio Corporation of America at Riverhead, 
Long Island. Direct radio telegraph communication will be maintained through 
the Broad Street control office (in the insert) direct from the RADIO BROADCAST 
Laboratory at Garden City to the office of the British Broadcasting Company 
in London. When the English programs are heard, the flash will go from a tele- 
graph key at the magazine's laboratory which will signal the English company 
a fraction of a second later in their London offices 



9 8 



Radio Broadcast 



interference from power lines, etc., has visited 
a number of broadcasting stations and told 
the story of these tests to thousands of listen- 
ers, to say nothing of the manufacturers and 
dealers with whom he has discussed our plans. 

Other members of RADIO BROADCAST'S edi- 
torial staff have visited broadcasting stations 
in the Eastern, Middle Western parts of this 
country and a portion of Canada. In almost 
every instance these 
talks have been 
brought to a close by 
an exortation to the 
listeners to prevent 
their receivers from 
squealing during the 
tests and it is hoped 
that these requests 
will be complied with. 

Since last year the 
British and other 
European stations 
have been improved 
greatly, and there is 
little doubt but that 
many of them will be 
heard throughout 
North and South 
America this year. 

VAST IMPROVEMENT 
IN RECEIVERS 

DURING the past 
year there has 
been a marked im- 
provement in the de- 
sign of receiving ap- 
paratus used in this 
country. For instance, 
there were but few 
neutrodyne receivers 
in operation during 
the tests last year and 
many of them were 

home-made and not very well adjusted. We 
have learned a lot about the neutrodyne since 
that time and there is no reason why hundreds 
of them will not pick up the other side this 
year. This is particularly true, if the detector 
is made regenerative, which may be done with- 
out a lot of trouble. 

Then, it will be remembered that but little 
was known of the super-heterodyne, except by 
the old-timers, and it is expected that there 
will be many "supers" focussed on Europe 
during the coming tests. Many of them will be 
successful. And right here it may be well to 
say a word about the operation of "supers." 



JACQUES N. CARTIER 

Manager of station CKAC, La Presse, Montreal, who 
will work with RADIO BROADCAST in arranging the 
international broadcasting tests as director of Cana- 
dian broadcasters during the tests 



Where it is necessary to use an outside 
antenna with a super-heterodyne in order to 
insure proper signal strength, there is some- 
thing the matter with it. Where an outside 
antenna is used, it is folly to waste tubes and 
batteries with a "super," there are other re- 
ceivers capable of similar results, with a great 
saving. There is every reason to believe, from 
the tenor of the reports we receive from our 
readers, as well as 
from our own obser- 
vation, that many of 
the English stations 
will be picked up this 
year on our own Two- 
Tube Knock-Out Re- 
ceiver. It is gaining 
in popularity because 
it performs extremely 
well, is easy to build 
and is very, very eco- 
nomical. Where an 
antenna is used, it is 
doubtful that many 
home-built super- 
heterodynes will be 
able to boast a better 
performance record. 

Nearly every news- 
paper in the country 
has printed some- 
thing about these 
tests, and we wish to 
express our apprecia- 
tion for this cooper- 
ation. It is also grat- 
ifying to be able to 
tell you that the Gen- 
eral Electric Com- 
pany, which coope- 
rated so thoroughly 
with us last year is 
doing the same thing 
this year. Then, too, 

it would be almost impossible for us to keep 
in close touch with the other side, during 
the tests, without seriously interfering with 
the program, if it were not for the assistance 
given us by the Radio Corporation of America. 
This corporation has arranged to have a direct 
wire connecting our receiving station at Gar- 
den City and its New York office, and thus 
connected with Europe via its high power radio 
telegraph circuit. 

The Westin-ghouse Electric and Manu- 
facturing Company ihas also agreed to take an 
active part in our tests and has promised that 
.all of its stations will conform to our schedules 




Final Plans for the International Broadcasting Tests 



99 



as well as arrange special programs for our 
foreign friends. 

To outline the plans of the various compa- 
nies which are cooperating with us would be a 
tremendous task and space does not permit, 
so it may be well to confine our description to 
a few of the preparations we are making our- 
selves. 

PREPARATIONS AT GARDEN CITY 

RADIO BROADCAST'S Laboratory is 
situated about three hundred feet from 
our main building and was erected principally 
to house the elaborate receiving equipment 
used by those engineers who came out last 
year and set up their outfits beside our own. 
Here there will be a direction finding loop 
antenna, of the Bellini-Tosi type about eighty- 
five feet high. There will also be a number of 
smaller loops, for use with various receivers. 
The Lab. will, as we have stated, be in direct 
wire connection with the Broad Street office of 
the Radio Corporation of America, as well as in 
telephone connection with our main building, 
and radio telephone communication with the 
two or more field stations we are placing on 
the seashore about ten miles from our main 
building. 

At the field stations there will be as complete 
equipment as is necessary, and we expect to use 
several of the Knock-Out Receivers as well as 
a series of super-heterodynes. At these field 
stations there will be radio telephone trans- 
mitters, operated on short waves to communi- 
cate with the Lab. The reason for using radio 
telephone is to permit us to use a shack right 
on the shore and as far from telephone, tele- 



graph, trolley wires, and whistling receivers as 
it is possible to get. The location of our field 
stations has not yet been decided, because 
their choice must be made after covering 
the ground with a portable super-heterodyne 
receiver in an automobile. This work is 
under way and all the preliminary work will 
be done before this magazine gets in circula- 
tion. 

Licensed operators of RADIO BROADCAST'S 
staff will be in charge of the field and Lab 
stations and will keep the wheels moving 
properly. A number of receiving sets are to 
be installed in the field stations by independent 
engineers, in the same fashion as last year, and 
a number of receiving sets of various kinds 
will be located in various sections of the 
country with direct wire connections, so that 
immediate reports may be made to our lab 
station, which will be the center of activity, 
just as it was last year. 

It is impossible for us to keep you properly 
informed of the developments, as they occur 
through our own pages, so we have arranged 
a weekly press release service, which goes to 
all the broadcasting stations and the news- 
papers. From these bulletins you may secure 
all the necessary information concerning wave- 
length, power, and so forth of the foreign and 
American stations taking part in the tests. 
If you are successful in hearing the foreign 
stations, write, or wire Test Editor, RADIO 
BROADCAST, Garden City, New York, giving 
us as much definite information as possible 
to aid us in preparing the official report of the 
tests. We cannot undertake to verify all of 
the foreign programs. 



A SHORT ANTENNA RECEIVER 

C'OR some little while we have been watching for a 
receiver which would perform in good style with 
a short piece of wire for an antenna and employed 
standard coils and parts. Such a receiver would, 
we felt sure, maJ^e a very good portable. We have 
it and it is an extremely good one. It is a 4-tube 
set and will be described in RADIO BROADCAST for 
December, by G. H. Browning of Harvard Univer- 
sity. A how-to-make-it article of great interest and 
value. 



The Facts About Resistance 

Answering Your Unasked Questions about Potentiometers, Grid Leaks, 
and Rheostats in Receiving Sets. A Where, When, Why, and How Article 

By THOMAS O. SHEARMAN 



THERE are three fundamental units 
in radio, upon which are based all the 
various types of receiving circuits. 
They are inductance, capacity, and 
resistance. While inductances and condensers 
have been perfected to a high degree, and are 
used as the important factors in most radio 
circuits, very little has been said about the 
variable resistance, yet if properly utilized, 
it plays a very important part in obtaining 
better results from present-type equipment. 
Resistances are used in receiving circuits as 
Variable Grid Leak B-Battery Control 
Rheostat Radio- Frequency Amplifier 

Potentiometer Audio- Frequency Amplifier 
Audio-Frequency Filter and Tone Modifier 

THE VARIABLE GRID LEAK 

TO UNDERSTAND properly the variable 
grid leak, it is necessary to know just what 
happens when it is placed in the grid circuit of 
the detector tube. This action is as follows: 
When the filament of a vacuum tube is brought 
to incandesence by the A battery, a large 
quantity of negative particles (electrons) are 
liberated from the filament, and if the grid and 
plate connections are left open, the electrons 
will fall back on the filament so that a state of 
equilibrium will exist. If, however, the posi- 
tive terminal of a B battery is connected 
to the plate, the negative charges instead 
of returning to the filament will be at- 
tracted to the positively charged plate in 
accordance with a fundamental law of 
electricity, which states that, "like charges 
repel each other while unlike charges at- 
tract." This invisible stream of electrical 
energy acts as a conducting path for the 
B-battery current which flows steadily 
and uniformly. 

Situated between the filament and the 
plate is the grid element, and it is the ac- 
tion of this member which causes fluctua- 
tions in the plate current by controlling 
the action of the electronic stream. 
When the grid is connected to the antenna 
circuit in the usual manner through the 
grid condenser and the circuit tuned to 



resonance with the incoming radio-frequency 
currents, it will acquire a positive and negative 
charge according to the positive and negative 
cycle of the incoming radio-frequency wave. 

Assuming the first part of the cycle im- 
pressed upon it to be positive, a small 
amount of the electrons given off by the in- 
candescent filament will be attracted to it, 
and the plate current will be unaffected, but on 
the negative part of the cycle when the grid 
acquires a negative charge, the electronic 
stream will be practically blocked. 

This action can be more clearly understood 
by Fig. i, where A represents a radio-fre- 
quency impulse caused by the closing of a key 
in a spark transmitter, thus at O the con- 
denser begins to charge and reaches its maxi- 
mum at point i whence it again decreases 
to zero at point 2, the same action takes 
place at 3 and 4 but is of opposite polarity. 

The positive charge impressed upon the grid 
causes a small amount of the electrons to be 
attracted to it at each positive charge which 
will also cause a negative voltage to accumu- 
late upon it. If the tube is of the high-vacuum 
type and the socket constructed of perfect 
insulating material, there will be no possible 
way for this negative charge to leak off of the 
grid and will completely repel the flow of 



A- 




INCOMING 



OSCILLATIONS 



B- 




FIG. I 



The Facts About Resistance 



101 




FIG. 2 

electrons from the filament, thereby causing 
the tube to "block." This action is shown as 
a dotted line X in Fig. iB. To prevent this 
accumulation of negative voltage upon the 
grid, a high resistance is placed either across 
the grid condenser or from the grid to one ter- 
minal of the filament as shown in Fig. 2 A and 
B, this resistance should be of such a value that 
it will prevent the radio-frequency carrier 
wave from leaking off. It would allow only 
the modulated audio-frequency wave to leak 
off at the proper moment; when this occurs 
the grid potentional curve will follow the 
modulations of the incoming oscillations as 
shown in Fig. iB. 

Because of its high resistance the grid leak 
is measured in megohms, (Meg is the Greek 
prefix for one million,) so when a grid leak is 
said to be of five megohms value it means five 
million ohms. Various types of tubes when 
operated as detectors require different values 
of grid leakage; this range usually is between 
one half to five megohms and for this reason it 
is advisable to equip the receiving set with a 
variable grid leak, but in purchasing this kind 
there are four important points to be con- 
sidered if good results are to be expected, they 
are as follows: 

Mechanically Correct 
Non-Microphonic 
Non-Hygroscopic 
Uniform Vernier Action 

If the variable grid leak becomes micro- 
phonic, a rasping sound will be heard 
when it is adjusted and may continue as ^_ 
long as the set is in operation. When 
the leak is composed of an india-ink 
line or some other hygroscopic material 
and left exposed to the surrounding 
atmosphere a certain amount of mois- 
ture will be absorbed, decreasing its re- 
sistance. 

This effect will be quite noticeable on 
a damp day and will cause the grid leak 
to become quite unstable in operation. 



Quite a few variable grid leaks have been 
placed on the market which are mechan- 
ically imperfect. In some, after a few 
turns on the handle, the resistance range 
was changed entirely since the lever 
rubbed off the resistance material. The 
grid leak soon became inoperative. 
Others composed of a semi-fluid ma- 
terial soon dried out and became use- 
less. Faults such as these in the 
variable grid leak are so hard to find 
that it is advisable to purchase the best 
possible. 

PROPER METHOD OF CONNECTING THE VARIABLE 
GRID LEAK 

THE most satisfactory type of grid leak is 
one which is conveniently mounted on the 
panel with the rest of the controls. The con- 
nection should be as shown in Fig. 2 B where 
the terminal farthest away from the panel 
is connected to the grid and the terminal near- 
est the knob is connected to one leg of the 
filament. In this way the hand comes near 
to the neutral filament side instead of the 
grid and therefore prevents hand capacity 
effects. 

THE RHEOSTAT 

THE most familiar use of resistance in radio- 
receiving circuits is as the rheostat for 
controlling the filament intensity. To under- 
stand the importance of the rheostat one must 
have at least an inkling of its technical func- 
tion; this is briefly as follows. A metal as well 
as all other substances is composed of a vast 
number of electrons which are continuously 
in a state of vibration. When heat is applied 
to the metal the movement of its electrons is 
so increased until they break away from the 
metal and travel away from it at a high ve- 
locity, this velocity depending upon the plate 
voltage. If the amount of energy which heats 
the metal (which in the case of the vacuum 
tube is the A battery) is increased, the number 
of electrons emitted is also increased, until we 

-1 VOLT 




FIG. 3 



102 



Radio Broadcast 



reach the point of incandescence where a fur- 
ther increase in temperature will cause the 
metal filament of the tube to vaporize. When 
this happens the tube "burns out" and is use- 
less. 

The function of the rheostat is to give accu- 
rate control over the voltage and current pass- 
ing through the filament. The temperature of 
the filament governs the flow of electrons from 
it. Thus the rheostat serves two purposes. 
First it protects the vacuum tube, when 
properly adjusted, and prevents an excessive 
amount of current from flowing through the 
filament. For example, the storage battery 
type of vacuum tube operates at five volts 
while the storage battery delivers six volts 
(in practice this will be found to be a little 
less due to the discharge and load applied to 
the battery), therefore the resistance in the 
rheostat must absorb the remaining volt. This 
is shown in Fig. 3 where the rheostat is placed 
on the negative terminal of the storage bat- 
tery lead, and is so adjusted that only five 
volts are applied to the filament terminals A 
and B, while the other volt is dropped across 
the rheostat resistance B and C. The second 
action of the rheostat is that this one-volt 
drop across the rheostat resistance is applied 
to the grid of the tube through the filament 
return lead, and causes the tube to operate at 
its proper point on its characteristic curve, 
provided that the plate voltage is about 45 
volts. When it is more than this it is usually 
necessary to use a greater voltage upon the 
grid, and this is had in the form of a C battery 
of three or four volts. 




The three important factors to be considered 
in purchasing a rheostat are: 

Mechanical Construction 
Current-Carrying Capacity 
Resistance Range 

In the wire-wound type of rheostat, the me- 
chanical construction is quite important, and 
the trouble most often encountered with 
some now on the market is in the action of the 
lever when it passes over the resistance wire. 
If this lever action is not perfectly smooth, 
a clicking sound will be heard, especially when 
controlling the detector tube. And if the con- 
tact of the lever is too light, the surface of both 
the resistance wire and lever will oxidize and 
collect dust which will offer a high-resistance 
contact and cause the tube filament to flicker. 
In the compression type of rheostats there 
should be no side play. The action of the 
thread should be perfectly smooth. 

The current-carrying capacity of the 3o-ohm 
wire-wound rheostat, due to the smaller-gauge 
wire used, is not sufficient to carry the filament 
current of the UV-2oo or other high-current 
consuming tubes. The compression type of 
rheostat in most cases will handle all of the 
receiving tubes now on the market. 

When the voltage and current at which 
the tube operates is known the correct-size 
rheostat can be determined. The normal 
voltage of the UV-2OI-A is 5 and current .25. 
By dividing the voltage by the current we 
obtain the filament resistance, which is 20 
ohms. A rheostat having a maximum resis- 
tance of 20 ohms or more will give sufficient 
working range. If three of these tubes 
were to be used in parallel and all oper- 
ated from one rheostat, the resistance re- 
quired would be about one third or about 
7 ohms. 

In the article entitled "A Knock-out 
Three-Tube set " in the February number 
of RADIO BROADCAST three \JV-igg tubes 
have their filaments connected in parallel 
in the circuit shown, as in the usual 
manner, and have an automatic filament 
jack for each of the tubes, while a lo-ohm 
rheostat is connected to the common 
negative terminal, and the filament volt- 
age indicated is 4.5 volts. 

The LJV-I99 filament voltage is 3 volts 
and the current is .06 ampere. When 
one divides the voltage by the current, 
the filament resistance, 50 ohms, is ob- 
tained. When the first jack is closed 
by plugging in, we have a circuit as 
shown in Fig. 4A, where i is the fila- 



The Facts About Resistance 



103 



ment resistance which is constant and 2 the 
variable rheostat. When its full 10 ohms 
resistance is in the circuit, a current of .015 
ampere is flowing through it, and .06 ampere is 
flowing through the filament of the tube. 

Thus it is seen that the rheostat resist- 
ance of 10 ohms is sufficient to absorb 
the extra 1.5 volts of the 4. 5- volt bat- 
tery and thus give the filament 3 volts 
which is its correct amount, but there is 
absolutely no chance for any filament 
current variation below this value, for 
as soon as the rheostat resistance is de- 
creased the filament voltage will be 
increased beyond its normal rating, there- 
fore a lo-ohm rheostat for controlling one 
tube is inadequate. 

When the second jack is closed, which 
lights two tubes, we have a circuit as shown in 
Fig. 4 B where i is the first tube filament resis- 
tance 2 the second tube resistance in parallel 
with the first, and 3 the variable lo-ohm 
rheostat in series with the complete circuit. 
The total filament resistance of the two tubes 
is reduced to one half of that of one, or 25 ohms, 
while the total current consumed by them is 
doubled, or .12 ampere. About .08+ of an 
ampere will flow through the two tube fila- 
ments and .04+ ampere through the lo-ohm 
rheostat, thereby leaving .04+ of an ampere 
for filament variation, which is quite sufficient. 

When the last jack is closed the three tubes 
light. Their total filament resistance is about 
17 ohms, and the amount of current con- 
sumed .18 ampere, and the lo-ohm rheostat is 



ohms possible variation of the filament of this 
tube. 

The layman usually thinks that when the 
rheostat is turned down and the filament 



- 1 TO 



VOLT 




WATTS 



\WATT 



FIG. 6 

temperature decreased the current originally 
used for lighting the filament is then being 
wholly absorbed by the rheostat. This how- 
ever is not true as only a small amount of 
the battery current is being dissipitated in the 
rheostat. This is shown by the set of curves 
in Fig. 5 which were taken from an actual 
test on a UV-2OO detector tube and plotted 
directly in watts, which is the electrical unit 
for energy. (This is obtained in direct-current 
circuits by multiplying the current in amperes 
by the voltage). 

Curve B Fig. 5 represents the watts con- 
sumed by the rheostat. It reaches its maxi- 
mum value when half of the applied voltage is 
dropped across it, its value then being about 
2.25 watts, while the maximum wattage con- 
sumed by the tube filament (Curve A) 
is 5.5 watts. 

The consumption of electrical energy 
in the rheostat can never equal that of 
the vacuum-tube filament. 



FIG. 5 



quite sufficient to give full control over the 
three tubes. 

The only change then necessary for the 
successful operation of the tube filaments 
either individually or all together, is that 
shown in Fig. 4C where a fixed resistance of 
10 ohms is inserted in the negative lead of the 
filament jack of the first tube, this giving 10 



THE POTENTIOMETER 

THE potentiometer in receiving cir- 
cuits controlls the grid potential and 
may be used to vary the plate voltage 
of the detector tube. This second pos- 
sible use of the potentiometer will be 
discussed in detail under the heading of 
B-Battery control. For controlling the 
grid bias in radio-frequency amplifiers 
the potentiometer has proved most helpful, 
for in radio-frequency amplifying circuits 
which are not neutralized there is a feedback 
action "(caused by the transfer of energy from 
plate to grid via the tube capacity) which 
will cause the circuit to oscillate. By varying 
the grid bias we can control these oscillations 
and Fig. 6 shows a potentiometer connected 



1O4 



Radio Broadcast 



UV200 




-B- 



FIG. 7 



across the A battery. I ts middle movable arm 
makes connection to the grid through the coil 
S. In reality it utilizes the voltage drop across 
the rheostat and applies it to the grid as one 
volt negative or one volt positive in respect 
to the filament, or any value between these 
two. 

R is a rheostat of about 6 ohms placed in 
series with the potentiometer and allows a 
finer vernier action. When dry cells are used 
as the A battery, it is advisable to use a 
potentiometer of from 400 to 600 ohms, as one 
having less resistance than this will cause 
the battery to deteriorate in a short time due 
to the quite considerable current that will 
flow through a low-resistance potentiometer. 

THE B-BATTERY CONTROL 

*~pHE most sensitive detector tubes now on 
* the market are the ones containing a small 
amount of gas, such as the LJV-2OO. When 
the filament liberates electrons, as described 
under the heading of Variable Grid Leak, it 
sends them forth at a certain velocity and 
unless attracted to the plate by the charge on 
it maintained by the B battery they will fall 
back upon the filament. As the plate poten- 
tial is increased, the electrons are attracted to 
it at a speed corresponding to the increase in 
plate voltage, and at a critical point the atoms 
of gas, which are in the way of the electrons, 



loose one of the electrons of which they 
are composed, and then become positive 
electrical charges and are termed ions. 
Due to their larger size they offer a much 
lower resistance path for the B-battery 
currents, and if too many become ionized 
the current will become so large that the 
grid will be unable to control it and the 
tube will block which can usually be de- 
tected by the blue glow around the plate. 
It is therefore necessary to accurately 
control the plate voltage just below the 
point of excessive ionization, where the 
signal intensity is high. The two methods 
for doing this are shown in Fig. 7, where 
A is the potentiometer across the A bat- 
tery. The middle movable arm connects 
with the negative terminal of the B bat- 
tery. When the arm is moved toward 
the positive terminal of the A battery 
(i), the 22 ! volts of the B battery are 
placed in series with the cells of the A 
battery; if this is of the six-volt storage- 
battery type, when the lever has reached 
(i) the total B-battery voltage will be 6 
+22j volts or 28^ volts. For values lower 
than 225 volts a tapped B battery must 
be used, and the plate connected to the lowest 
tap. Then the range will be from 165 to 22^ 
volts. 

The second method is to insert a variabe 
resistance directly in series with the B battery, 
having a range of from 20 to 15,000 ohms, the 
voltage can then be varied from about 8 to 285 
volts and a tapped B battery will not be re- 
quired. This is shown at Fig. 76 with a con- 
denser of .001 mfd. capacity shunted across it 
for bypassing the radio-frequency currents. 

THE RADIO-FREQUENCY AMPLIFIER 

^"PHE radio-frequency amplifier may be 
* coupled by high resistances instead of the 
more usual transformers. Resistances, when 
used in this manner give very good quiet am- 
plifications on wavelengths above 1,000 me- 
ters, but below this wavelength the amplifica- 
tion falls off and at the broadcasting wave 
frequencies it operates very poorly. 

THE AUDIO-FREQUENCY AMPLIFIER 

A MORE successful use for the variable high 
** resistance is in the audio-frequency am- 
plifier circuit, where it has the advantage over 
transformer-coupling because it amplifies all 
of the audible frequencies with the same de- 
gree of amplification, and when the tubes are 
worked at their proper point on the character- 
istic curve, the amplification will be free from 



The Facts About Resistance 



105 




all distortion. The amplification per stage 
will not be so great as when transformer 
coupling is used, but this may be compensated 
for by the advantage in being able to use 
three or four stages of amplification without 
howling. 

Fig. 8 shows a three-stage resistance-coupled 
audio-frequency amplifier. The coupling 
resistances are variable high resistances 
having a range of from 10,000 to 100,000 
ohms, the fixed grid leaks, R2, about 2 
megohms, depending upon the tubes used 
and the audio-frequency bypass conden- 
sers, C, should have a capacity of .01 mfd. 

In operation the resistances Ri are ad- 
justed until they match the tube im- 
pedance, or when the greatest amount of 
volume is obtained. The plate voltage 
should vary from 90 to 150 volts, and 
it may be necessary to insert a C battery in 
each stage. 

AUDIO-FREQUENCY FILTER AND TONE MODIFIER 

PHE amplification ratio of the average 
* two-stage audio-frequency amplifier using 
transformers, is about 1400 to i. It is there- 
fore to be expected that any local noise, such 
as that caused by a discharged A or B battery, 
or mechanical vibration of the receiving set, 
will be amplified to this high value and is 
sometimes mistaken for static. 

If after disconnecting the . antenna and 
ground the noise continues, one can be certain 
that the trouble is local. New batteries with 
the proper protection of the set from mechan- 
ical vibration would be the remedy. 

Another simple method of reducing un- 
necessary noise in the audio amplifier is to 



shunt the last stage of the amplifier 
input with a variable high resistance 
having a range from 100,000 ohms to 
2 megohms. The proper connection is 
shown in Fig. g, and for convenience of 
adjustment a variable grid leak with 
such a range is mounted on the panel 
with the rest of the controls. 

Many amplifiers where the trans- 
formers are close together and the grid 
and plate connections parallel, with improper 
plate voltage or grid bias, will under most con- 
ditions emit an audio-frequency whistle which 
becomes quite annoying. Rather than recon- 
structing the amplifier which, in most cases is 
quite impossible, a variable high resistance is 
used as shown in Fig. 9; if the whistle still con- 



FIRST STAGE 



SECOND S1AGE 




90V 



FIG. 9 

tinues, another variable high resistance across 
the first transformer input, as shown at A, Fig. 
9, when properly adjusted will in most cases 
absorb all audio-frequency oscillations. 

Another use for the variable high resistance 
in the amplifier is to prevent distortion. Since 
many broadcasting stations now are using high 
power, there is a tendency for amplifiers to 
become overloaded. A vacuum tube will 
amplify a certain amount of energy and if this 
amount is exceeded distortion occurs. This 
could be prevented by decreasing the plate 
voltage or filament current, but this would 
mean retuning the whole circuit. A more 
practical method is to use a variable high re- 
sistance as described above, for by its use the 
proper amount of energy passing into the 
tube may be regulated thereby giving clear 
undistorted amplification. 




Avoiding the Squeal in Your 
Regenerative Set 

Simple Instructions on How to Tune Your Receiver so That It 
Will Not Radiate Some Golden Rules for the Broadcast Listener 



BY A. K. PHILLIPI 

Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company 



THE opportunity afforded the public 
to-day to listen to good concerts and 
speeches by men prominent in all 
branches of science and industry 
without having to leave their own homes 
was, a few years ago, unthought of. But 
how many of you listening-in are sure that 
your listening-in is not preventing some other 
person from enjoying 
some radio program? 
By this I do not mean 
that you should lend 
them your receiving 
set, but that you, by 
the improper manip- 
ulation of your set, 
are causing a disturb- 
ance in the air that 
interferes with your 
neighbors' proper re- 
ception of the pro- 
gram. 

How many of you, 
never having driven 
an automobile, would 
go to a dealer and buy 
a car, get in, and 
drive away, without 
first being instructed 
in driving and hand- 
ling the car? Such a 
person would be considered a public nuisance 
and would soon be arrested. 

While a person operating a radio set who 
does not know just what he is doing with it can 
not endanger the lives or property of others, 
yet he can cause much annoyance and greatly 
mar the pleasure of others. The majority of 
people are good sports and play thegame fairly. 
Those who do cause these radio disturbances 
are usually those who are unfamiliar with the 
operation of their receiving units. 

When a receiving set of standard make is 
bought, an instruction book which tells how 



The Wail of a Lost Soul 

Need not be heard from hosts of single-cir- 
cuit regenerative sets if they are intelligently 
operated. If the user keeps his detector tube 
adjusted just below the point of oscillation 
during reception, no wails, squeals, howls, or 
other sounds not of this earth will be pro- 
duced such as to drive even the listening min- 
ister next door to unbecoming profanity. It 
is easily possible for the average listener-in, 
even though he be untutored in the occult 
ways of radio, to use his single-circuit regen- 
erator in a most harmless and neighborly 
fashion. The time is not far distant when 
single-circuit regenerative sets will have dis- 
appeared from the radio horizon, but as long 
as they are in use, their users ought to know 
how best to operate them so the sets will do 
as little harm as possible. THE EDITOR. 



to operate the unit is generally included with 
the equipment. A careful study of this book 
will give the purchaser a fair idea of what to 
do and how to do it, in order to get the best 
results as well as to cause the least interference 
possible while tuning-in the desired station. 

It is impossible for all of us to be electrical 
engineers or radio electricians. Neither can we 
all be automotive en- 
gineers or auto me- 
chanics yet thousands 
of people drive their 
own cars in such a 
way that they bother 
no one. 

Radio listeners are 
not all good sports, 
but the majority of 
them are, and the 
reason they so often 
cause disturbances in 
the air is because 
they are not gener- 
ally aware that they 
do so. It is my 
purpose to point 
out some of the 
things to do and 
what not to do when 
tuning-in, so as to 
prevent disturbances 
which can be heard by other listeners. 

HOW TO TUNE-IN MORALLY 

FIRST of all, the radio set should be of a 
good design. Secondly, it should be 
connected up properly. We now turn on the 
filaments of the tubes to their proper brilliancy 
which varies with the different types of tubes 
used. With the tickler or amplification dial 
or pointer turned to zero, we next move the 
tuning dial or dials slowly from left to right 
listening for signals. If no signal is heard, the 
tickler or amplification dial should be advanced 



Avoiding the Squeal in Your Regenerative Set 



ioy 



slightly from the zero position on the dial, and 
again the tuner dials should be turned slowly 
over their range. Should a signal be heard but 
faintly, the tickler should be advanced as far 
as possible without causing a hissing sound, 
which indicates that the tube has passed the 
point of greatest regeneration and isoscillating. 
These oscillations produce the same effect as 
another transmitting station sending out sig- 
nals. They are heard by other receiving sets 
and are known as " birdies." The tickler should 
be turned back until the signal is cleared up or 
even a little past that point, for a too strong 
signal may cause the detector tube to break 
over and oscillate again. 

The best way to make sure your detector 
tube is not disturbing others is to plot a tickler 
diagram. This is done as follows: after the 
tubes are lighted to the proper brilliancy, the 
tuner is placed at zero and the tickler is ad- 
vanced until a click is heard. At this point 
the tube starts to oscillate. Then mark down 
the readings in two columns, one marked tick- 
ler and the other, tuner. Next the tuner is ad- 
vanced one large division, and again the tickler 
is advanced until the click is heard, and these 
readings should be taken. This procedure is 
carried out over the entire tuner scale, and it 
can readily be seen that, with the use of this 
set of readings, one will be able to set the 
tickler or amplification pointer to a division 
just below the oscillating point. 

Now it is possible that the click or breaking 
point of the tube may not be heard by merely 
turning the tickler. If so, the operator should 
tap the antenna post with his finger, and, when 
the tube is not oscillating, he will hear only a 
single click. As soon as the tube starts to 
oscillate, the operator will get a click when he 
touches the antenna post, and another click 
when he takes his finger from the post, or in 



other words a double click. Now it is not 
advisable to do this during the program period 
but the experiment should be tried during the 
day when there is least chance of disturbing 
others. 

The ideal regenerative receiver and antenna 
will have what is termed a flat tickler curve. 
By this we mean that it will be possible to put 
the tickler at a certain point and turn the 
tuner any place and be at maximum regenera- 
tion without causing oscillation. If the set 
has this characteristic, much less trouble 
tuning-in stations without annoying others 
will be experienced. 

YOU DON'T HAVE TO DISTURB THE NEIGHBORS 

THE reception of signals at "zero beat" 
causes more interference than any other 
method of tuning and should be discouraged. 
The results obtained are not at all satisfactory 
unless one juggles the vernier or tickler dial. 
Each movement of either dial causes the de- 
tector tube to transmit weird signals and those 
in turn are heard by all local listeners. Again 
the varying strength of signals may cause the 
detector tube to flop in oscillation from one 
side or the other and ruins the program not 
only of others near by, who may be listening, 
but of the person tuning the set as well. The 
crystal type of radio receiver, as well as those 
having one or more stages of radio-frequency 
amplification, cause no disturbance of this 
kind. 

Let me say that it is possible, with the co- 
operation of all radio listeners, to clear the air 
of "birdies," or the "wail of lost souls," if 
each and every one of us will take precaution 
to see that our detector tubes are not os- 
cillating. To do so demands that we all 
to the best of our ability observe the golden 
rule. 



A GOOD SINGLE DIAL REFLEX 

T IV E manufacturers and dealers in all parts of the country have 
*- realized the sales possibilities of RADIO BROADCAST'S 
Knock-Out Series. They know we have built up tremendous 
demand for non-radiating receivers of above average quality. 
They know that there is a ready market for any receiver we rec- 
ommend to our readers and some of them have been working night 
and day to produce improvements for us. One such receiver will 
be described in our December number by Mr. John Clyde David- 
son who is Consulting Engineer for a number af Radio manu- 
facturing companies. 




QUERIES ANSWERED 

How CAN I BUILD A CRYSTAL RECEIVER? T. S. L., Flushing, L. I , N Y 

WILL You EXPLAIN THE CORRECT USE OF SOLDER? C. P., Philadelphia, Pa.' 

How MAY ADDITIONAL BY-PASS CONDENSERS BE USED IN THE ROBERTS 

C 1R< 1 UIT? M. C. G., London, England 

WILL You PUBLISH THE FORMULA FOR CONVERTING WAVELENGTHS IN 

METERS, INTO KILOCYCLES, AND VICE VERSA? A. L. L., Birmingham, Ala. 

WHAT STATIONS MAY BE DEPENDED UPON AS AN AID IN CALIBRATING 

RECEIVERS AND WAVEMETERS? Wm. T. M., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



THE CONSTRUCTION OF A CRYSTAL RECEIVER 

IN THIS day of "supers," neutrodynes and re- 
flexes, we still receive inquiries for construction 
data for the simple crystal receiver. And rightly 
so, for this marks the inclusion of another fan within 
the ranks of radio. 

One of the most simple receivers consists of an 
antenna, ground, tapped inductance coil, crystal, 
fixed condenser, variable condenser, and phones. 

ANTENNA 



s 

MB 

TUN 
CO 


r t 

Ci fj CRYSTAL 
- .0005 mfd. f DETECTOR 
IL, 


ING 
IL 


.002 mfd."" 







PHONES 



GROUND 



FIG. I 



This set will not operate a loud speaker. See Fig. i . 

The coil is wound as follows: On a tube 3! inches 
in diameter and 6 inches long, wind 120 turns of 
No. 20 DCC wire tapped every ten turns. This is 
the only part that has to be home-made. A crystal 
detector could easily be made, but at the prevailing 
prices it is cheaper and more convenient to buy one. 

The parts may be mounted upon a panel or upon 
a flat board. Use bus bar wire for connecting and 
solder all joints. The several diagrams and sketches 
show the details of construction. See Fig. 2. 

Roughly, this receiver will not have a range to ex- 
ceed 25 miles and is primarily intended for use in a 
large city boasting several local broadcasting stations. 

To operate this crystal receiver, connect the an- 
tenna, ground and phones to their respective binding 
posts and set the tap switch upon one of the taps, 
then, slowly rotating the condenser dial, adjust the 



point of the detector catwhisker upon the crystal 
until a sensitive spot is found. To select a station 
having a different wavelength, it is only necessary 
to readjust the tap switch and condenser setting. 
With a little practise the operation of this receiver 
is easily mastered. 

SOLDER AND HOW TO USE IT 

IN PRACTICALLY every receiver made, solder 
is used to insure a permanent and electrically 
perfect connection between wires. Soldering, 
by the way, may be considered a form of brazing. 
The forms of flux that are used to clean and prepare 
the wires for joining are deserving of more thought 
than the constructor sometimes gives. 

For radio use, the best solder is "half and half," 
that is, half tin and half lead. In bar form it is 
unwieldy. In strip form, solder is most easy to use. 

Hard solder, having an unequal proportion of lead 
and tin, is quite difficult to use. A great amount of 
steady heat must be used to insure a perfect joint. 
In radio wiring where a small iron is generally used 
it is hard to get steady heat because an iron of this 
size loses its heat very rapidly. 

Good soldering cannot be done unless the soldering 
iron is clean. Often, when the iron is left in the 
flame too long, it becomes red hot. When it cools 
it is covered with a black oxide coating. To remove 
this coating and clean the iron, place it in a vise and 
file it until it is bright, then wipe it upon a chunk of 
sal ammoniac. This restores the iron to its original 
brightness. Apply solder to the tip until it is 
entirely covered. The iron is then ready to use. 

Do not put the tip of the iron in the flame as this 
will burn the part which does all the work. The 
rear part of the iron should be placed in the flame 
and since it is larger, it will retain the heat longer. 
There are three classes of soldering fluxes: dry, 
paste, and fluid. Powdered resin may be mentioned 
under the first class, but is not especially good, for 
the resulting joints are caked, dirty, and imperfect. 

Paste fluxes are good when used intelligently. 
Very little flux is necessary for a good connection. 
Flux is a cleaning agent and when a heated iron is 
brought near, the flux melts and flows over the 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



109 



MAGNAVOX 

Receiving Sets which establish an authori- 
tative standard of excellence for the daily 
enjoyment of radio. 

TONG identified with the most efficient 
^ radio reproducing and amplifying equip- 
ment, Magnavox has developed its new 
Receiving Sets under conditions insuring 
superior design, precision of manufacture, 
and a gratifyingly low cost. 

Exacting tests prove that the Magnavox Re- 
ceiver is not only the simplest to operate but 
one whose daily performance will satisfy the 
most discriminating. 

Magnavox Radio Receivers, Vacuum Tubes, Repro- 
ducers, Power Amplifiers, and Combination Sets are 
sold by reliable dealers everywhere. 

THE JIJAGMWOX COMPANY, Oakland, California 

New York: 350 West 31st Street San Francisco: 274 Brannan Street 
Canadian Distributors: Perkins Electric Limited, Toronto, Montreal, Winnipeg 

11R 




Paten led in 

U.S.A.and 

foreign countries 



Receiving Set 
TRF-5 

A 5-tube tuned radio fre- 
quency receiver encased 
in handsomely carved 
cabinet, as illustrated 

$125.00 

Reproducer 
M4 

A highly desirable acces- 
sory for TRF-5, as illus- 
trated . . . $25.00 

Receiving Set 
TRF-50 

Same as TRF-5 but larger 

cabinet with carved doors 

and built-in Reproducer 

$150.00 




Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 



I IO 



Radio Broadcast 




WATER. PIPE GROUND 



FIG. 2 



metal and other parts. When too much is used it 
veritably flows all over the parts and in some cases, 
when one is soldering switch taps, this spreading 
solder and flux forms a leak between adjacent taps 
great enough to impair the efficiency of the receiver. 

Liquid flux is also generally used with success 
when not too much is applied to the joint. When 
used in profusion it boils and spatters over adjacent 
parts causing current leaks, etc. 

The most common form of liquid flux may be pre- 
pared by "killing" muriatic acid. This "killing" 
process is accomplished by immersing slices of zinc 
in the muriatic acid and letting it remain until all 
the bubbles due to the chemical action have dis- 
appeared. 

Another liquid solution that has proved worthy 
may be prepared by mixing a quantity of powdered 
resin in alcohol to a consistency resembling molasses. 

Some of our readers have had difficulty in solder- 
ing wire having an enamel insulation. It seems that 
the trouble has been caused by some of the enamel 
remaining upon the wire and preventing a perfect 
connection. 

One of the easiest ways to remove the enamel 
from wire is as follows: Fill a thimble with alcohol. 
Heat the tip of the wire to be cleaned in a flame until 
it is cherry red, then quickly plunge it into the al- 
cohol and remove. Result a clean wire easily 
soldered. 

KILOCYCLE-METER CONVERSION TABLE 

THE Department of Commerce specifies radio 
station assignments in both kilocycles and 
meters. The tendency of radio engineering 
practice is to use and express frequency in kilo- 
cycles rather than wavelength in meters. "Kilo" 
means a thousand, and "cycle" means one complete 
alternation. The number of kilocycles indicates the 



number of thousands of times that the rapidly alter- 
nating current in the antenna repeats its flow in 
either direction in one second. The smaller the 
wavelength in meters, the larger is the frequency in 
kilocycles. The numerical relation between the two 
is very simple. For approximate calculation, to eb- 
tain kilocycles, divide 300,000 by the number of 
meters; to obtain meters divide 300,000 by the 
number of kilocycles. For example, 100 meters 
equals approximately 3000 kilocycles, 300 m equals 
1000 kc, 1,000 m equals 300 kc, 3,000 m equals 100 kc. 

For highly accurate conversion the factor 299,820 
should be used instead of 300,000. The Department 
of Commerce has prepared a table, which may be 
obtained upon application. The table is 'based on 
the factor 299,820, and gives values for every 10 
kilocycles or meters. It should be particularly noticed 
that the table is entirely reversible; that is, for exam- 
ple, 50 kilocycles is 5996 meters, and also 50 meters 
is 5996 kilocycles. The range of the table is easily 
extended by shifting the decimal point; for example, 
one can not find 223 in the first column, but its 
equivalent is obtained by finding later in the table 
that 2230 kilocycles or meters is equivalent to 134.4 
meters or kilocycles, from which 223 kilocycles or 
meters is equivalent to 1344 meters or kilocycles. 
Briefly, the formula for computing kilocycles and 
wavelength is as follows: 

For finding the wavelengh, when the number of 

y 
kilocycles is given X=~ 

KC 

For finding the number of kilocycles when the 

y 
wavelength is given KC = J^ 

KC= Kilocycles 
X = Wavelength in meters 

v = Velocity of electromagnetic waves (300,000 or, 
to be exact, 299,820) 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 





Send for 32-page Il- 
lustrated book, giving 
latest authentic infor- 
mation on drilling, wir- 
ing, assembling, and 
tuning the Model L-2 
Ultradyne Receiver. 



50c 



SUPER-HETERODYNE 
MODEL L-2 

Modulation System ~Plu? Regeneration 

"THE new Ultradyne, Model L-2 surpasses all conceptions of sensitivity and 
1 selectivity represents the peak of Super-Heterodyne engineering skill. 

To the "Modulation System" which has previously made the Ultradyne 
famous, regeneration is added in Model L-2. The result is ultra-sensitivity, 
never before thought possible. The regeneration of infinitely weak signals 
produces tremendous amplification. 

Selectivity is so high and amplification so strong that distant stations 
can be tuned in through local stations and put on the loud speaker. 

This use of regeneration is the latest development of R. E. Lacault, A.M. 
I.R.E., Consulting Engineer of this Company, and formerly Radio Research 
Engineer with the French Signal Corps Laboratories, since his perfection of 
the "Modulation System" which is used exclusively in the Ultradyne Receiver. 

The Model L-2 Ultradyne compels so complete a revolution in all pre- 
vious ideas of Super-Heterodyne performance, that you can only comprehend 
its unusual selectivity, sensitivity, volume and range by operating this won- 
derful receiver. 

Write for descriptive circular 



PHENIX RADIO 

5-7 Beekman Street 



CORPORATION 

NEW YORK 



Ultradyne Kit 



Consists of one low loss Tuning Coil, one low loss Oscillator Coil, one 
special low loss Coupler, one type "A" Ultraformer, three type "B" 
Ultraformers, four matched fixed Condensers. 

The Ultraformers are new improved long wave radio-frequency trans- 
formers, especially designed by R. E. Lacault, Consulting Engineer of 
this Company and inventor of the Ultradyne. 

To protect the public. Mr. Lacault 's personal monogram seal 
(R.E.L.) is placed on all genuine Ultraformers. 
Ultraformers are guaranteed so long as this seal remains unbroken. 




Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 



112 



Radio Broadcast 



A BY-PASS CONDENSER FOR THE ROBERTS RECEIVER 

A DISTINCT addition and improvement to 
the Roberts circuit has been made by the 
placing of a .00025 n\^d. condenser across the 
secondary of the reflex audio transformer and the 
C battery. With this arrangement, a by-pass is 
provided for the radio-frequency currents and, it is 
roughly estimated, the efficiency of the receiver 
has been improved by as much as 60 per cent. 
The value of condenser given here will undoubtedly 
vary with the type of transformer used, etc., so it is 
well to experiment with several values to select the 
one being found most successful. Fig. 3 shows dia- 
grammatically, the position of this condenser in the 
"first tube" circuit. 




RADIO FREQUENCY / 
BY- Pfr,SS COND.,/ 

.00025 mfd. 




oooooo; 



FIG. 3 



STANDARD FREQUENCY STATIONS 

AS A result of measurements by the Bureau 
of Standards upon the transmitted waves of 
a limited number of radio transmitting 
stations, data is given in each month's Radio 
Service Bulletin on such of these stations as have been 
found to maintain a sufficiently constant frequency 
to be useful as.frequency standards. There may be 
many other stations maintaining their frequency 
just as constant as these, but these are the only ones 
which reached the degree of constancy shown 
among the stations upon whose frequencies meas- 
urements were made in the Bureau's laboratory. 
There is, of course, no guaranty that the stations 
named below will maintain the constancy shown. 
As a means of maintaining constant frequency, the 
highpower low-frequency alternator stations listed 
below have speed regulators. Most of the broad- 
casting stations listed use frequency indicators (one- 
point wavemeters) and maintain a maximum de- 
flection of the instrument on the frequency indicator 
throughout the transmission. These broadcasting 
stations, with rare exceptions, vary not more than 
2 kilocycles from the assigned frequency. The trans- 
mitted frequencies from these stations can be util- 
ized for standardizing wavemeters and other ap- 
paratus by the procedure given in Bureau of Stan- 
dards Letter Circular No. 92, " Radio signals of 
standard frequencies and their utilization." A 
copy of that letter circular can be obtained by 
a person having actual use for it, upon applica- 
tion to the Bureau of Standards, Washington, 
D. C. 

















Greatest 






-- 




Period 


No 


Average 
devia- 


devia- 
tion 


Station 


Owner 


Location 


Assigned 
frequency 


covered 
by 


of 
times 


tion 
from 


from 
assigned 








(kilo- 
cycles) 


measure- 
ments, 


meas- 
ured. 


assigned 
fre- 


frequency 
since 










months. 




quency. 


July 15, 
















1924 














Per cent. 


Per cent. 


NSS 


U. S. Navy 


Annapolis, Md. 


17.50 


12 


86 


O.2 


O.I 


WGG 


Radio Corp. of 


Tuckerton No. i, 














America. 


N.J. 


18.85 


12 


1 02 


O.2 


O.I 


WII 


Radio Corp. of 


New Brunswick, 














America. 


N.J. 


22.04 


I 1 


85 


O.2 


O.I 


wso 


Radio Corp. of 
















America. 


Marion, Mass. 


25.80 


12 


90 


0.3 




WWJ 


Detroit News. 


Detroit, Mich. 


580 


12 


4' 


O.I 




WCAP 


Chesapeake & 
















Potomac Tel. Co. 


Washington, D. C. 


640 


I I 


58 


O.I 


O.O 


WRC 


Radio Corp. of 
















America. 


Washington, D. C. 


640 


8 


40 


O.I 




WSB 


Atlanta Jnl. 


Atlanta, Ga. 


700 


I I 


52 


O.I 




WGY 


General Elec. Co. 


Schenectady, N. Y. 


790 


'4 


89 


O.2 




WBZ 


Westinghouse Elec. 














/ 
/ 


& Mfg. Co. 


Springfield, Mass. 


890 


4 


9 


O.O 




KDKA 


Westinghouse Elec. 
















& Mfg. Co. 


E. Pittsburgh, Pa. 


920 


1 1 


116 


O.I 


O.I 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



113 



EVEREADY 

Radio Batteries 

* - they last longer 




No. 768 




No. 766 



EVEREADY RADIO . BATTERIES FOR EVERY RADIO USE 

Each one supremely economical and efficient for the use for 
which it is designed each one made under the supervision 
of the world's greatest electro-chemical battery laboratory 



Eveready "B" Batteries 
THERE are Eveready Bat- 
teries for portable sets where 
small size and light weight are 
more important than long life. 
There are Eveready medium 
size batteries that come be- 
tween the small and the 
large sizes. There are Ever- 
eady large size "B" Batteries 
that afford maximum economy 
and reliability of service when 
used with average one, two, 
three or four tube sets. And 
now there is a newer Ever- 
eady heavy duty, extra large 
size "B" Battery that gives 
similar economy to owners of 
multi-tube heavy drain receiv- 



ing sets and power amplifiers. 

For maximum "B" Battery 
economy, buy Evereadys, 
choosing the large sizes (Nos. 
766, 767, 772) for average 
home sets, and the heavy duty, 
extra large (No. 770) for 
multi-tube heavy drain receiv- 
ing sets and power amplifiers. 
For portable sets choose the 
Eveready No. 764 medium 
size, unless space is very lim- 
ited, in which case choose the 
Eveready No. 763 small size 
<( B" Battery. 

Eveready " G" Battery 

Eveready makes a long-lasting 
"C" Battery with terminals 



at \ l / 2 , 3 and 4^ volts. May 
also be used as an "A" Battery 
in portable sets. 

Eveready "A" Batteries 

Eveready offers you "A" Bat- 
teries for all tubes, both stor- 
age and dry cell. For storage 
battery tubes, use the Ever- 
eady Storage "A." For dry 
cell tubes, use the Eveready 
Dry Cell Radio "A" Battery, 
especially built for radio use. 

Manufactured and guaranteed by 
NATIONAL CARBON CO., INC. 

Headquarters for 

Radio Battery Information 

New York San Francisco 

Canadian National Carbon Co., Limited, 

Toronto, Ontario 



BUY THEM FROM YOUR DEALER 



Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 



New Equipment 




THE FRANCE SUPER-CHARGER 

A multi-duty charger for both A and B batteries. A 
distinctive feature is its ability to charge up to 120 
volts of storage B batteries in series. Rectification 
is by means of an improved vibrating unit with a 
positive action which eliminates sticking and burning 
of the contacts. Made by The France Manufactur- 
ing Company, Berea Road and W. iO4th St., Cleve- 
land, Ohio 



MIDGET BATTERY 
SWITCH 

A very compact and 
useful unit for the 
radio set. The con- 
tact springs are of 
hard rolled bronze 
and are insulated 
from the metal frame. 
Only one hole is 
necessary for panel mounting. Made by The Yaxley 
Mfg. Co., 217 North Desplaines St., Chicago, 111. 





VESTA B 

BATTERY 
A B storage 
battery for 
radio use of 
sturdy con- 
struction. The 
elements are 
enclosed in 
heavy glass 
jars of ample size allowing room for plenty of electro- 
lyte. The wiring is so arranged that they can readily 
be charged in multiples of 12, 24 or 48 volts. Made 
by the Vesta Battery Corporation, Chicago, Illinois 




AMERICAN BRAND CONDENSER 

A low loss condenser of good mechanical design and 
workmanship. It is made from a heavy stock of 
brass and the plates are spaced very evenly. It has 
a worm drive vernier with a ratio of 100 to i which 
insures accurate tuning. Made by the American 
Brand Corporation, 8 West Park St., Newark, N. J. 




THE BRANDOLA 

A six-tube, one dial receiver which gives very satisfactory results. Its simplicity of control is noted in that 

you have only one tuning dial to operate. Resistance-coupled amplification insures good tone quality. 

Made by The J. F. Brandeis Corp., 36 Oxford St., Newark, N. J. 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



115 




ypP^:.,'*.~i -- ~ 



new beauty, new perfection in 



An EXQUISITE instrument. 
Encased in beautifully finished 
genuine mahogany. A gem of 
the cabinet designer's art. A 
piece of furniture that will 
adorn any home. 

Here in this new FAD A Neu- 
trodyne is a real achievement 
in receiving beyond anything 
you ever heard. Wonderful 
naturalness of tone. The high 
C of the coloratura soprano 
and the lowest bass of the hu- 
man voice are reproduced pre- 
cisely as sung. In selectivity 
the FADA Neutrola is remark- 
able. 




FADA Neutrola 
Grand 

The de luxe five^tube FADA 
Neutrodyne, with self-con- 
tained loud speaker. Re- 
ceiver and cabinet in genuine 
mahogany, artistically dec- 
orated with wooden inlay. 
Ample space for all batteries 
and charger. Drop desk 
lid that hides receiver when 
not in use. Price, exclusive 
of tubes and batteries, $295. 



Ease and simplicity of tuning 
make it the ideal receiver for 
all the family. 



The FADA Neutrola Grand is 
the finest of the complete line 
of FADA Neutrodynes, which 
includes a model to suit every 
taste, every radio requirement, 
every pocketbook. Three, four 
and five tube FADA Neutro- 
dyne receivers in plain or de 
luxe cabinets are now available 
at your dealer's. See them to- 
day and make your selection. 
You will never regret buying a 
FADA. 

You have a range from $75 to 
#295 from which to select six 
models, each extraordinary in 
results; each a remarkable 
value. 

F. A. D. ANDREA, Inc. 

1581 Jerome Avenue, New York 





o 




FADA Neutro Junior 

No. 195 

Three-tube Neutrodyne. A 
wonderful performer. Price 
(less tubes, batteries, etc.) $75. 



UTRO 



. * 

l -* 



FADA Neutroceiver 
No. 175- A 

Mahogany cabinet. Inclined 
panel and roomy battery shelf. 
S tubes. Price Jess tubes, 
batteries, etc.) $160. 



Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 




Our ^Authors 



MARK SULLIVAN is a Washington cor- 
respondent for the New York Herald- 
Tribune and contributor of regular articles to 
the World's Work. His political pronounce- 
ments are read nationally with much interest 
because they are readable and authoritative. 

JULIAN KAY is an old-time Middle West 
J amateur who played with radio as soon as 
he was able to climb his grandfather's barn. 

He has been a 
ship operator 
for the Mar- 
coni Com- 
pany , Kil- 
bourne and 
Clark, the 
Radio Cor- 
poration, and 
the Shipping 
Board. Dur- 
ing this "brass 
pounding" ca- 
reer he re- 
ceived three 
sos calls. 




ALLAN T. 
HANS- 
COM, in addi- 
tion to being a graduate electrical engineer and 
radio merchandiser, is president of the Chamber 
of Commerce at Woonsocket, Rhode Island. 
He writes that he is a good Kiwanis member, 
a rather inferior tennis player, and as the 
final thrust, that he hopes to help elect Cool- 
idge if he lives through the world's series. 
The photograph shows Hanscom, Jr., in a 
home made automobile. 



FRED JAMES is a Canadian 
man whose 
typewriter and 
home are now in 
Ottawa. He was 
an infantry 
officer in the 
Canadian forces 
overseas and 
after being 
wounded, was 
sent back to 
France as official 
Canadian war 
correspondent. 
His despatches FRED JAMES 



newspaper 





ERLE H. SMITH 



were later pub- 
lished in book 
formbytheCana- 
dian Government 
under the title 
Canada's Tri- 
umph. Mr. James 
admits that he 
combines an ama- 
teur interest in 
radio with his 
writing. Well, it 
can be done. 




T. O. SHEARMAN 



RADIO came hard in the flying days at 
Sacramento and San Diego in the train- 
ing days of the war," 
writes Erie H. Smith, 
from the office of the 
Kansas City Journal- 
Post where he is now 
features editor. Al- 
though he is pretty 
busy during the day, 
he finds time at night, 
he says, to listen to 
good radio entertain- 
ment from San Juan 
to Los Angeles on his five-tube receiver. 

THOMAS O. SHEARMAN is a consulting 
radio engineer for various radio firms. 
Just now he is working on the manufacture 
of a new resistance unit. In the past he has 

done testing 
and experimental 
work for the 
Western Electric 
Company, the 
Lowenstein Ra- 
dio Company, 
and the Electrose 
Insulator Com- 
pany. He makes 
his home at Kew 
Gardens, Long 
A. K. PHILLIPI Island. 

A K. PHILLIPI is now an engineer 
* with the Westinghouse Company. For 
a span of four years he served as an appren- 
tice machinist in the Navy. And when 
the Pittsburgh fogs cloud things up a bit, he 
writes that he finds time to rough it in the 
wilder or more wooded sections of Pennsyl- 
vania. 




RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



209 





AM Radiotrons Nou- 
Reduced to $4.00 



It isn't a genuine WD-11 



unless i 

It isn't 
unless i 



's a Radiotron. 

a genuine WD-12 
's a Radiotron. 



It isn't genuine UV- 199 



unless i 

It is 
unless i 

Itisn'ta 
unle 



's a Radiotron. 

enuino UV-200 
's a Radiotron. 

genuineUV-201-a 
's a Radiotron. 




This symbol of 

quality is your 

protection 



those c Kibes 

Genuine?" 

The question is heard at every radio counter: "Is it a 
genuine Radiotron?" Almost every dependable manu- 
facturer uses genuine Radiotrons in his sets. Everyone 
who builds his own knows enough about radio to 
know that nothing else but the genuine will do. And 
the man who replaces used-up tubes in his set knows 
that to get the same performance, he must have the 
same tubes genuine Radiotrons only. So everybody 
asks "Is it genuine?" And asks to see the marks that 
prove it the name "Radiotron" and the "RCA" mark. 

Radio Corporation of America 

Sales Office: Suite. No. 311 
233 Broadway; New York 10 So. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 433 California St., San Francisco, Caf. 

Radiotrons 



REG. U. S. PAT. OFF. 



Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 












"G.H.Q." FOR THE INTERNATIONAL RADIO BROADCAST TESTS 

The offices and grounds of Doubleday, Page & Company, at Garden City, Long 
Island, where RADIO BROADCAST is published. The circle shows the Laboratory 
oj the magazine where the transoceanic signals will be received. Special lines of 
the telegraph companies lead to the laboratory, inhere messages to the magazine, 
telling of successful reception of the foreign signals from all over the country mil 
be received and tabulated. The results will then be scut at once by radio to Lon- 
don. The Radio Corporation of America has made a special control connection 
with Radio Central at New York. A key in the Laboratory will control the 
transatlantic telegraph circuit during the tests 



RADIO 
BROADCAST 



Vol. 6, No. 2 




December, 1924 



Making Wireless History With 

De Forest 

Thrilling Days of Trial and Error in the True Pioneer Wireless Times 
A Ten-Kilowatt Set that Sent Four Miles Thrills for the Natives 
at the St. Louis World's Fair Twenty Years of Wireless in Retrospect 

BY FRANK E. BUTLER 



Former Chief Assistant to Dr. Lee De Forest 



TO BE able to look back twenty-odd 
years, practically to the very incep- 
tion of radio, and view the develop- 
ment of this wonder art through 
personal experiences gained from gruelling 
years of hopes, disappointments, and successes, 
is a privilege that only a 
few of us can share with 
Dr. Lee De Forest, the 
famous radio inventor. 

Surely, the most en- 
thusiastic radio fan can- 
not realize the exceptional 
thrill which is now mine 
as I listen-in on my radio 
receiver and compare its 
wondrous achievements to 
those of the struggling, 
experimental days when I 
assisted Dr. De Forest in 
his elementary pioneer 
work; in the building of 
his first few "audion 
bulbs", and shared with 
him the marvel of listen- 
ing-in for the first time to 
a wireless telephone. 




MR. BUTLER IN 1904 

A photograph of the author, taken by the 
official photographer of the St. Louis 
World's Fair, where he and Dr. De Forest 
were exhibiting the marvels of wireless 



For radio is not, as many believe, a new 
thing. Its development has passed through 
the crucible of a thousand failures with tfreir 
resulting disappointments. Its progress .was 
constantly blocked by unknown scientific 
laws against which we pitted our puny knowl- 
edge. Every secret ex- 
tracted from Nature was 
gained by relentless tests 
carried on frequently with- 
out funds and often with- 
out adequate laboratory 
equipment or tools, and 
with comparatively little 
encouragement from hu- 
mans or from Nature. 
But always there was the 
inspiring guidance of " De- 
termined De Forest." 

It was in the early 
spring of 1904 when, with 
no more electrical knowl- 
edge than that possessed 
by the average telegraph 
operator, I gave up a 
promisingposition as train 
dispatcher on the New 



Radio Broadcast 



York Central to take up the then new work 
of wireless telegraphy. A short time before 
this, Marconi had startled the world by suc- 
cessfully sending and receiving telegraphic 
signals over a short distance without wires. 
De Forest, who was then a young student at 
Yale, took up research work in this unknown 
field of "wireless," and thereby became one 
of the first American 
experimenters to 
turn his entire atten- 
tion to this work. 
When I joined him, 
practically all of my 
friends and relatives 
with the exception of 
my father, chided me 
and advised against 
the move. My father 
thought best to let me 
choose my own career, 
and while he never 
lived to listen to mod- 
ern radio, he was 
familiar with and 
proud of the achieve- 
ment I had made up 
to the time he passed 
away. The railroad 
position carried a 
large salary with 
abundant opportun- 
ity for advancement, 
'while my new "job" 
paid only a meagre 
amount and offered 

no apparent assurance of a future. The 
idea of communicating through space without 
wires was at that time considered fantastic, 
an idle dream, an impossibility, a game for 
fools. Many thought it was a fake. 

WIRELESS STARTLES THE WORLD'S FAIR IN 1904 

SO, AFTER "burning my bridges behind 
me," I went to St. Louis and joined 
De Forest at the World's Fair where he was 
planning the first public wireless exhibit. Im- 
mediately, my troubles began. 

Due to some slip in the arrangement, I 
found, upon my arrival, that our "financier" 
had decided upon' another man for the job, 
and the company could not afford to pay two 
employees. After some scheming on ways 
and means, the two of us decided to double up 
on the salary question, and in that way we 
both stayed. Within a week or two 1 was 
chosen as special assistant to "De Forest be- 
cause I could telegraph while he could not. 



"The Man Is Crazy" 

At least that is what almost everyone 
thought of Dr. Lee De Forest back in those 
early pioneer days, more than twenty years 
ago. Then, you could easily count all the 
men in the country who even pretended to 
know anything about wireless. No one of the 
few who were working with wireless then, 
knew whether a set carefully put together 
would work at all, and how far the signals 
could be heard was nothing but a guess. 
Transmissions of a hundred miles or more 
were hailed as remarkable. Present-day 
radio listeners are quite prone to think of 
radio as nothing more than telephonic 
broadcasting. But before the wireless tele- 
phone, came tremendous amounts of hard, 
sometimes discouraging, but always fascinat- 
ing and essentially romantic work. Dr. De 
Forest is one of those pioneers. Mr. Butler's 
memories of the early days are mightily worth 
reading, since he not only saw the early wire- 
less drama, but himself acted in it. THE 
EDITOR. 



From that time on, and for many years, I 
was perhaps closer to him in his interesting 
work than any other of his employees. Sub- 
sequent events and severe trials in which I 
stood by him through thick and thin con- 
vinced me that he appreciated my efforts. 
Others of his employees likewise never de- 
serted him through even his most crucial 
periods. He called us 
his "Old Guard" and 
we were as faithful as 
Napoleon's followers. 
Our working mottoes 
were, "Never say 
die," and "You can't 
stop a Yank." We 
never accepted failure 
as a finality, but tried 
to find out why we 
met it, and then at- 
tempted to overcome 
it. 

At that time there 
was, of course, no 
radio public, and the 
range of wireless was 
only a few miles. The 
sending and receiving 
instruments were un- 
believably crude, re- 
sembling in no way 
the marvels of to- 
day. Messages were 
sent at the snail-like 
pace of a few words 
per minute, in the 

dots, spaces, and dashes of the Morse code, 
instead of the International code which is now 
generally used. Sending music or talking by 
wireless was then undreamed of. There were 
many mountainous obstacles to meet and 
conquer before we even had the vision of a 
wireless telephone, which was the forerunner 
of radio. 

DE FOREST'S CHANGES IN THE NEW ART 

ONE of the first changes to be accomplished 
by De Forest was to use a headphone 
for receiving instead of the telegraph sounder 
used by Marconi in early experiments. The 
first receiving device was called a "co- 
herer" and was made of a glass tube filled 
with metal filings. These filings "cohered" 
when the ether impulse passed through 
them, thus making an electrical circuit which 
caused the sounder to click. This method 
was extremely crude and inaccurate, and the 
device had the unpleasant habit of occasion- 



Making Wireless History With De Forest 



213 



ally failing to "de-cohere." In other words 
it would not go back to normal after the 
signal had passed through. It was some- 
times necessary to tap the tube with a pencil 
in the left hand while writing with the right. 




we started to talk about certain waves of 
different lengths, etc., and we used the tuning 
fork as an illustration. Mathematics had no 
place in the embryo radio of those days and 
it was many years before we learned how to 
measure the wavelengths and use such compli- 
cated and fearful sounding terms as of me- 
ters, kilocycles, etc. Leyden-jar condensers 
of various kinds of hookups were placed 
across the "spark-gap," and we noted the 
phenomenon of changing the pitch or note of 
the spark as we changed the capacity of the 



WIRELESS AT ITS FIRST WORLD S FAIR 

The De Forest tower 300 feet high was a re- 
markable feature of the fair and was illumined at 
night with great numbers of incandescent lights. 
The insert shows a wireless automobile which was 
equally in style for the period as far as radio and 
automotive construction was concerned 



Short words we guessed at, 
while long words were so 
badly disjointed that we 
figured those out as a child 
does a rebus puzzle. 

The apparatus for send- 
ing was a Ruhmkorff induc- 
tion coil with a vibrator on 
one end. Direct current was 
used in the coil and the 
vibrator converted it into 
alternating current of slow 
oscillations as compared 
with those used to - day. 
The power used then to 
send six miles would to-day 
send almost six thousand. 

One of Dr. De Forest's 
earliest achievements was 
to produce a transmitter 
operated by alternating cur- 
rent of high frequency. 
This gave a strong firm 
spark and signal far superior in carrying 
quajity, and far easier to read than the thin 
weak notes from an induction coil. The 
transformer coils were specially wound, and 
near at hand were placed a "spark gap" 
and "helix" or tuning coil, and thus "tuning 
the signals" was brought into reality. Then 




jars. We found that this new form of trans- 
mitter easily outranked the old induction 
coil, so a decided step in advance was made. 
Little did we then think that this was the 
beginning of the rocky, curved road over 
which radio was to pass before reaching its 
goal of to-day. 



Radio Broadcast 




PIONEER EQUIPMENT 

A close-up of the De Forest transmitting equipment on top of the wireless tower at the World's Fair. Note 
the anchor gap at the left of the direct connected helix, which, by the way, contains the open zinc spark gap 



THE GOO DETECTOR 



MANY experiments were carried on to 
find a more sensitive receiver than the 
coherer. We knew nothing about "rectifica- 



tion" then. There were no text books on the 
subject, nor any radio editors to write to for 
advice. We were merely electrical eccentrics 
playing with a dream, so one guess in the way 
of an experiment was usually as good as 



EAGER CROWDS SEE 

MESSAGES FLASH FROM 

WIRELESS TOWER 



Post-Dispatch Sending Station for World's Fair News Fairly 

Sings as Words Leaps Across the Copy Visitors 

Attracted Manifest Keen Interest. 



WORLD'S FAIR GROUNDS, 
Via De Forest Wireless. 

Flashing messages through space from the Fair to the office 
of the Post-Dispatch continues to be the wonder of Fair vis- 
itors and crowds watch the process from morning until night. 

The flash of 20,000 volts every time the operator presses his 
key is to them a thing of fascination. Then they turn from it to 
look from the great De Forest tower out eastward across the 
jarge city, but they see no sign of the message which the click- 
ing instrument is sending out there through space. 

Sometimes they stop the operator at his work to ask him if it is 
really so. They shake their heads in amazement when he 
answers "yes," and explains that in the Post-Dispatch office 
another instrument is ticking in response to his, and thu car- 
rying Fair news to the newspaper and the world. The loud 



buzzing of the powerful instrument surrounding the operator 200 
feet above the ground in the De Forest tower does not prevent 
the visitors from crowding about him. 

It is so loud that the operator must keep his ears full of 
cotton. It fairly deafens visitors and sending them away with a 
headache if they stay too long, but nevertheless they stay, for 
the power of the mystery is very great. 

This buzzing is caused by the powerful electric spark which the 
operator's key releases and corresponds to the click of the 
ordinary wire telegraph instrument. The dots and dashes are 
so audible that operators for telegraph companies and the 
police and fire departments anywhere within two blocks of the 
wireless tower amuse themselves with reading the wireless mes- 
sages as they are buzzed off by the sending operator. 
Published in tbe St. Louis Post-Dis[>atcb during 3rd Week o> 
June. igoi. 



Making Wireless History With De Forest 



215 



another. One day, while working on -re- 
ceivers, it was discovered that a salvy mixture 
of various ingredients reproduced the signals 
in the headphone. The "discovery" was 
thoroughly tried out but found lacking in 
any definite merit, although it did get as far 
as to receive a name. It was called the "goo" 
receiver, and I believe that somewhere in the 
archives of the Patent Office may be found a 
formal application for a patent made for it by 
Dr. De Forest. Finally the electrolytic re- 
ceiver was introduced. This was such an 
advance over anything previously introduced 
that it seemed to be the height of perfection. 
It consisted of a small glass cell containing a 
dilute solution of 
caustic potash and 
water which form- 
ed one anode of 
the circuit. Into 
this solution was 
immersed a cath- 
ode point, and the 
incoming wave was 
rectified by elec- 
trolytic action. 
Fessenden em- 
ployed a fine wire 
coated with silver 
which was dipped 
into nitric acid to 
burn off the coat- 
ing and make a 
fine whisker point. 
De Forest used a 
different type 
terminal called the 
"spade electrode" 
because of the 
shape of the ter- 
minal. This was 
found to be both 
practical and sen- 
sitive and not sub- 
ject to "burning 
off points" in the 
middle of a mes- 
sage as was that 
involved in the 
Fessenden prin- 
ciple. In this cir- 
cuit was intro- 
duced the poten- 
tiometer, a name 
coined for radio 
work. This set 
also contained the 
first "variable 



condenser." Instead of the movable plates 
so common to-day, we used a small brass tube 
split in halves lengthwise and rotated one 
half within the other without moving them 
backward or forward. We knew nothing about 
"measuring" capacity. Either our experi- 
ment worked or it didn't. If it failed, then 
we would "change things" until it did work. 

WHAT TO NAME THE CHILD? 

IT WAS always characteristic of De Forest 
I to call every new item discovered by a 
simple homely name which was significant 
of the act it did or the thing it resembled. 
Most of the names coined by him many years 




THE EXHIBIT 

Sv/ft '^ rican De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company" at the St. Louis 

World s Fair in .904 A sample transmitting and receiving set is installed in the 

booth. Its noisy crackle could be heard for great distances 



2l6 



Radio Broadcast 



ago, are still used in radio to-day. Some of these 
are the "fan" antenna, the "helix," the "spade" 
electrode, the "pancake" tuner, the "spider- 
web" tuner, the "wing" (now called plate), 
the "grid" of the audion bulb; the A and 
B battery; and audio and radio frequency. 

The first transmitters made were of 4-K.w. 
power. They were soon supplanted by a 
IO-K.W. set. It 
was this latter size 
that was used on 
the large 3oo-foot 
steel tower erected 
on the World's 
Fair Grounds at 
St. Louis. Two 
spacious elevators 
carried visitors to 
the top of this ob- 
servation tower 
where the wireless 
instruments were 
installed. Many 
amusing incidents 
happened. One 
day, a lady desir- 
ing her full share 
of information, 
listened intently to 
our explanation of 
wireless and then 
bluntly told me in 
front of the crowd 
that the whole 
thing was a fake. 
She agreed that we 
"sent without 
wires," but she in- 
sisted we did this 
by using a silk 

thread instead of 

, , - years alter the others which appear with this article, 

etween t Dr . De Forest is standing before one of his vacuum 

two stations, thus tube telephone transmitters which he designed to operate 
making it "wire- from the ordinary 60 cycle lighting current 

less." Many per- 
sons would go outside and look up to see 
if anything was visible from the top of the 
mast when the signals left. 

From this tower we transmitted daily news 
to the St. Louis Star and the Post- Dispatch, a 
distance of five miles. Thus was established 
the first newspaper radio service, and the 
reprint on page 214 from the Post-Dispatch 
during the third week of June, 1904, is the 
first radio news message to be flashed 
through the air and published in a news- 
paper upon a predetermined and established 
schedule. 




DR. LEE DE FOREST 
In a corner of his laboratory. This picture was taken 



WIRELESS A MIRACLE OVER FOUR MILES 

AT NIGHT the tower was illuminated by 
thousands of electric lights which could 
be seen for many miles. In addition to this 
station, another exhibit was maintained in the 
Electricity Building and from both places we 
demonstrated "wireless" to endless streams of 

curious people. In 
an adjoining booth 
was displayed 
"Wireless Auto 
No. i," which was 
the very first wire- 
less automobile. 
Its range of recep- 
tion was only a few 
blocks but it al- 
ways created much 
interest whenever 
it was driven about 
the streets or 
viewed at its ex- 
hibitor's stand. 
Its design of chas- 
sis in comparison 
with present -day 
automobiles shows 
its antiquity. 

Not content 
with the honors 
the IO-K.W. station 
had won for him, 
De Forest started 
a special experi- 
mental station on 
the western limits 
oftheFairGrounds 
near the Boer War 
Exhibit. The ob- 
ject of this was to 
increase distance 
of transmission. 
Obviously there 
were but two 

methods by which this could be done. We had 
either to increase the power of the transmitter 
or develop the sensitivity of the receiver. The 
former plan was adopted and a twenty-kilowatt 
station was planned of exactly twice the 
power used in any previous experiment. It 
seemed as though when we doubled our power 
we increased our troubles at a compound 
ratio. As there were no stations operating at 
that time it was not necessary to concern our- 
selves about selectivity of tuning. The im- 
mense void of ether above us was free to use 
without the least fear of interference. 



Making Wireless History With De Forest 



217 



I was placed in charge of this station, where, 
in company with Dr. De Forest, we experi- 
mented for many weeks in privacy and free 
from the madding crowds around the other 
wireless exhibits. 

The new experimental station was called 
the "Jerusalem station" because of its proxi- 
mity to the Jerusalem Exhibit. It was the 
first high-powered station in the world. It 
was soon found that many of the principles 
employed in the ten-kilowatt station did not 
apply to the new station with its 60,000 volts 
of oscillating current. Heretofore we had 
been handling just a big lot of current, while 
now, comparatively, we were playing with 
miniature lightning of static electricity and 
did not know very well how to handle it. 

CONDENSERS SEVEN FEET LONG 

THE spark-gap condensers, instead of 
being Leyden jars, were made in heavy 
two-inch plank boxes, seven feet long, two and 
one half feet high and equally wide, and liquid- 
tight to hold kerosene. Immersed therein 



were two large sections of plate glass upon 
which heavy sheets of tinfoil were pasted on 
both sides. Each complete tray weighed 
about a ton, and from four to six of these tanks 
were used. Huge transformers six or seven 
feet high "stepped up" the tremendous vol- 
tage. The spark gaps had terminals one and 
one half inches in diameter upon which a cold 
blast of air from an electric blower was con- 
stantly blown. Telegraph keys, even of 
extra large design, were impossible to use, so 
we devised a long handle arrangement which 
operated like a pump. The contact points 
were encased in a tank of oil to prevent arcing 
and fusing. Imagine pumping water at the 
old town pump for half an hour, that's how 
we sent signals before we discovered a better 
way. Our test signal was always the Morse 
letter "D" consisting of "dash, dot, dot." 
This would be sent out for hours at a time. 
We occasionally changed the helix adjustment 
or the condensers. 

Our experiments continued to result in 
nothing but one failure after another. Some- 




AT THE NEW YORK RADIO SHOW 

Last October. Mr. Butler is talking into a microphone connected to a De Forest "singing arc," built in 
1907. The "singing arc" was one of the earliest methods of producing continuous waves for wireless tele- 
phony and the three-element vacuum tube of DeForest successfully superseded it 



2l8 



Radio Broadcast 



times, after days and nights of hard, pains- 
taking work building up the series of con- 
densers we would "blow up" the entire set in 
an instant, smashing the heavy glass plates to 
small pieces, blowing kerosene all over us and 
over the premises, only to gather up the 
fragments, rebuild with new glass and tinfoil, 
change the experi- 
ment, and try another 
hook-up. Static elec- 
tricity was so free and 
unharnessed in this 
station, that it was 
not at all uncommon 
to get a "poke" in the 
head or elbow if one 
came within a foot of 
the apparatus while 
it was sending. The 
roar from the spark 
gap could be heard a 
block away and it 
held its own in noise 
intensity with the 
ballyhoo bagpipe of 
the Jerusalem Ex- 
hibit on the one side 
and the cannonading 
ih the Boer War Ex- 
hibit on the other. 
The odor of ozone, 
mixed with kerosene, 
was always present. 
And hour after 
hour, one of us was 
listening-in with the 






headphones with ears 
strained to the ut- 
most. Nothing in 

that long period of experimenting was more 
tiresome than this. 

DOING THINGS NEVER BEFORE DONE 



of the free air. No wonder folks doubted our 
sanity. However, our longest waits were al- 
ways rewarded, and finally, we accomplished 
what we had aimed to do. The thrill then 
was indescribable because the very thing we 
had just accomplished had never before been 
done by man. We never thought then that 
in our little way we 
were piecing together 
some of the founda- 
tion stones of the 
huge radio structure 
which exists to-day. 
In his memoirs of 
those days, Dr. De 
Forest writes: 

"Night and day 
there is no respite 
from care, from toil, 
from interest. But it 
is a life well worth the 
living, the full accom- 
plishment such, per- 
chance, as is not given 
to many. Those who 
once enter this work, 
on whom the enticing 
spell of the wireless 
once falls, never quit 
it, no matter what 
the demands on pa- 
tience, nor how great 
the sacrifices always 
hopeful, always in ef- 
fort, fascinating for- 
ever." 

Control of the ap- 
paratus having been 



THUS, blazing the radio trail, we en- 
countered the immensity of space. We 
listened-in on this infinite space and heard 
nothing. The silence was at times un- 
bearable; the waiting, nerve racking; but 
always there were hope and expectancy. It 
was a royal game of angling. We changed 
things, fussed and fussed and experimented, 
still hearing nothing except an occasional 
rift of static which at that time was a blessing, 
because it meant that we were at least "get- 
ting something." Oftentimes we were awed 
at the thing we were trying to do. There 
was something uncanny in trying to snatch 
the tangible out of the intangible nothingness 



1907-1924 

Mr. Butler is holding a De Forest audion tube made 
in 1907 and contrasting it with a tube made by the 
same company in 1924. He hazards that the 1907 
one is perhaps the oldest tube in existence. The old 
tube was made with a fragile double filament so that 
when one burned out, the remaining one could be 
used. Their life was very short. The grid and 
"wing" were on opposite sides of the tube. The 
"wing" now called the plate was a flat piece of 
metal and not a tube as is used to-day 

achieved, we immedi- 
ately began to smash records for distance. 
The first event was on September 5th, when 
communication was established between St. 
Louis and Springfield, 111., a distance of 105 
miles. On this occasion, President Francis of 
the World's Fair sent the following wireless 
message to Governor Yates of Illinois: 



1 salute you as the distinguished executive of a 
great commonwealth by the modern means of com- 
munication, the wireless telegraph, a great achieve- 
ment of science, of the marvelous advancement of 
which this universal exposition furnished many 
interesting evidences. I hope to see you within 
these grounds often during the remaining three 
months of the St. Louis World's Fair. 

Shortly afterwards, communication was 
established with the Railway Exchange 
Building in Chicago, a distance of 300 miles. 



Making Wireless History With De Forest 



219 



In writing of this event of September i8th, 
1904, Dr. De Forest says: 

"This was indeed a stride in progress, fulfil- 
ling careful promises, crowning long and dis- 
couraging efforts. Especially significant was 
it that the formal opening of the St. Louis- 
Chicago service should occur on Electricity 
Day at the Fair with the Jury of Awards and the 
Delegates of the Electrical Congress present." 

It is amusing to recall the elaborate pre- 
cautions this austere body of officials took to 
make certain that this new service was actu- 
ally by wireless. Some of the party was sta- 
tioned at Chicago and the remainder at St. 
Louis. Complete communication was main- 
tained all afternoon to their entire satisfac- 
tion, and as a result we were awarded the 



Grand Prize which was one of the highest 
honors bestowed upon any exhibitor. 

Upon the strength of these singular ac- 
complishments the United States Government 
became so interested that a contract was 
signed to erect five similar high-powered 
stations in the West Indies, each station 
guaranteed to work successfully one thou- 
sand miles. This was a distance three times 
greater than that we had just bridged, but 
with light heart and high hopes we packed up 
our tools and started south for new worlds to 
conquer. 

Little did we dream of the tremendous 
difficulties awaiting us and the months of 
tedious, sweltering days ahead before our 
task was accomplished. 



The next article of this series will describe and illus- 
trate the events of this tropical venture. THE EDITOR. 



WEATHER BUREAU 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

Program for Broadcasting Weather Forecasts 
and Reports by Radio Illinois Section 



NA;, Great Lakes: (151 Kc.) 9.45 A. M. 
Morning lake forecasts; 4.00 P.M. storm 
warnings; 10.00 P.M. evening lake fore- 
casts. (In code). 

WLS, Chicago: (870 Kc.) i.oo P.M. to 
2.00 P.M., except Sundays (probably about 
12 M. after Sept. 14) morning state fore- 
casts, general forecast, special forecasts, 
weather crop summary on Wednesday, spec- 
ial warnings issued after sending hour, broad- 
cast immediately. 

KYW, Chicago: (560 Kc.) 12.00 noon, 
( i i.oo A.M. during local "Daylight Saving") 
morning local forecast, state forecasts, lake 
forecast; special warnings at 2.15 and 4.15 
P.M.; 9.25 to 9.30 P.M. evening local fore- 
cast, state forecasts, lake forecast, aviation 
forecasts. Monday, "silent night." 

WAAF, Chicago: (1050 Kc.) 10.30 A.M. 
morning local forecast, state forecasts, general 
forecast, general weather conditions, aviation 
forecasts, shippers' advices during winter 
season; weather-crop summaries on Wednes- 
day during crop season; 12.30 P.M. repeats 
the 10.30 A.M. information and on Saturday 
gives weekly outlook. Silent Sundays and 
important holidays. 

WON, Chicago: (810 Kc.) 10.00 A.M. 
morning local forecast, state forecasts; 9.35 
P.M. or later, at end of regular program even- 
ing local forecast, state forecasts, lake fore- 



casts, aviation forecasts, general forecast, 
general weather conditions. Monday, "silent 
night." Sundays and holidays irregular. 

woe, Davenport: (620 Kc.) i i.oo A.M. 
morning local forecast, state forecasts, river 
forecast, general weather conditions, weather 
crop summaries on Wednesday; 12.15 P - M - 
forecasts repeated; special cold wave warn- 
ings sent as flashes. Tuesday, "silent night." 

WJAN, Peoria: (1070 Kc.) 9.15 A.M. 
morning local forecast, state forecast, shippers' 
forecasts, general weather conditions, special 
warnings; repeated at 10.30 A.M. and 12.30 P.M. 

WEW, St. Louis: (1072 Kc.) 10.00 A.M. 
morning local forecast, state forecasts, general 
weather conditions, river forecasts; special 
warnings at 5.00 P.M. 

KSD, St. Louis: (550 Kc.) 10.40 A. M. 
morning local forecast, state forecasts, general 
weather conditions, river forecasts and stages; 
special warnings at 12.40 P.M., 1.40 P.M., 
and 3.00 P.M., 10.00 P.M. evening state 
forecasts. 

Amateurs receiving weather forecasts are 
requested to advise (by mail) Weather Bureau 
Office, Springfield, 111., of the quality of ser- 
vice received and how distinctly the stations 
are heard. 

W. F. FELDWISH 

Meteorologist in Charge. 



A Simplified Story of the Super-Heterodyne, Removing, for 
the Layman, the Mystery of Its Workings Who Developed the 
Receiver and How It Works Another Family Tree Diagram 

BY JULIAN KAY 



THE fourth article by Mr. Kay in his "What's in a Name?" series should be 
of interest to the great majority of radio readers. His first article (June, 
1924), sorted out and classified the radio receivers in present use. The next, in 
July, explained radio-frequency amplification. The third (November, 1924), 
discussed audio frequency amplification. Each article was accompanied by 
the novel Family Tree diagram. One hears so much these days of the super- 
heterodyne and what it will and will not do, and glib bandyings about of names 
common to the "super," that it is not unnatural to wonder if all the radio con- 
versationalists really. know their subject. Mr. Kay has here tried to bring together 
the facts about the "super" without growing too technical. The Family Tree 
diagram for the super-heterodyne will be found more than usually helpful. 

THE EDITOR. 



O r ALL the dynes and supers of 
modern radio, there is one receiver 
that seems to have preeminent 
claim to be both a "super" and a 
"dyne." That receiver is the Super- 
heterodyne. 

The "superhet" as this receiver is familiarly 
called, is the result of much work by many 
men. The names most closely connected 
with it, Fessenden, Armstrong, and Houck, 
are only a few of those who have devoted time 
and energy toward making the receiver an 
electrical and a commercial possibility. 

The invention of the "heterodyne" part of 
the name is due to Professor Fessenden of 
Pittsburgh, one of the earliest investigators 
in the realm of wireless telegraphy. The 
"super" part was at- 
tached by Edwin H. 
Armstrong after he 
had applied the 
heterodyne idea to 
vacuum-tube cir- 
cuits. 

To this creator of 
circuits is credited 
much of the develop- 
ment of this remark- 
able receiver as we 
know it to-day. 

One of the most in- 
teresting demonstra- 



Do You Know 

What "beats" are? 

What heterodyning is? 

: The principle on which the "super" 
works ? 

Wloy the super-heterodyne is so sensitive? 

Why a super-heterodyne should not be 
used with an antenna ? 

What the "local oscillator" is? 

The function of the "first detector" tube? 

The advantage of the second harmonic 
simper-heterodyne ? 



tions of the practical efficacy of the super- 
heterodyne was given by Paul Godley, a very 
well known Eastern amateur, in his famous 
Scotland experiment three years ago. Using 
a home-made receiver of this type, at Andros- 
san, Scotland, he succeeded in receiving and 
identifying many American amateur signals 
at a time when neither transmitting nor re- 
ceiving stations had advanced to their present 
efficiency. 

Although the fundamental idea underlying 
the super-heterodyne is simple enough, the 
practical difficulties are many, and to build 
one of these " Rolls Royce" of radio is more 
a task for an experienced radio constructor 
than for the ordinary radio layman. From 
the Greek origin of the term, one may gather 
that this receiving 
system has some- 
thing to do with a 
force that arises 
through a "change." 
A dyne in modern 
science is a unit of 
force equal to about 
one five hundred 
thousandth of a 
pound, and "hetero- 
dyne" suggests a 
change or variation. 
In fact this receiver 
is a " frequency- 



The Rolls Royce of Radio 



221 



changing" device, and therein lies its great 
selectivity and the remarkable amplification 
of signals it brings about. 

WHAT THE SUPER-HETERODYNE IS 

NOW, just what is the super-heterodyne 
principle? 

The fundamental idea is based on a physical 
phenomenon known as beats, which occurs 



(BClLUfM 



I 



nrans 




fjaax&Kr 




inmem 










CHAH6I> 




ffflmr 




anzazx 


OKwr 




TUK 




WPUflE? 







FIG. I 



The super-heterodyne idea. The frequency chang- 
ing or mixing tube, is often incorrectly referred to 
as the "first detector" tube 



when two slightly differing vibrations are com- 
pounded. For instance, if two tuning forks 
are struck, one of them corresponding to 
middle C, or 256 vibrations per second, and the 
other, a few vibrations more per second, a 
sensitive ear will distinguish three tones. 
Two correspond to the vibrations of the two 
forks, and the third will be much lower in 
note, in fact it will be the difference between 
the other two. 

In the article in this series on radio-fre- 
quency amplification, it was pointed out that 
it is much more difficult to build an amplifier 
for high frequencies than for low frequencies. 
This becomes a real problem when we realize 
that the middle of the broadcast 
range (about 300 meters) corres- 
ponds to frequencies of the order 
of a million cycles per second. 

The trick of the super-hetero- 
dyne then, is to "beat" the in- 
coming high-frequency signals 
with a local oscillator, and to 
amplify the resulting low-beat 
frequency. 

Now, strangely enough, this 
beat frequency has all of the 
irregularities of the original 
radio frequency, that is, the 
voice and music will appear in 
the low beat as well as in the 
high transmitted note. 

And therein lies the efficiency 



of this type of receiver it amplifies compara- 
tive low frequencies where it is easily possible 
to build good amplifiers. 

THE SUPER-HETERODYNE 

THE "superhet" of Armstrong is really a 
complete receiving system, consisting of 
detector, "mixing tube," oscillator, and 
amplifiers, for both beat and audio fre- 
quencies. 

Fig. i shows how the super-heterodyne per- 
forms its function of frequency changing. 
The input circuit, usually consisting of a re- 
ceiving loop and a condenser, is tuned to the 
incoming signals. Then beats are produced 
by the local oscillator tube, then these beat 
frequencies are amplified by the "intermediate 
frequency" amplifiers to be finally detected 
and passed on to audio amplifiers and the 
usual output. 

So much amplification is possible with this 
receiver that a small energy collector, such as 
a loop will suffice, thereby eliminating the 
unsightly and unhandy antenna. The re- 
ceiver, however, may be loosely coupled to an 
external antenna. 

The connection to the antenna may be 
made by running a single loop of wire about 
the cabinet, or by merely placing a turn of the 
antenna-ground system near it. In some 
cases the antenna may be attached to the 
loop, and on distant signals the external con- 
nection will be of aid, provided and only pro- 
vided that the listener is out of the city away 
from the noises that Mr. Van Dyck in his 
series, "Man-Made Static," discussed in 
RADIO BROADCAST. 

If used with an antenna, the super- 
heterodyne will radiate because of the local 
oscillator. It is entirely possible to use a 




rt 



nnn 



OUTPUT 



FIG. 2 



OUTPUT 



Various types of oscillator connections. The Colpitts system is 

shown at the extreme left, and the others are two types of the 

H:\rtlev circuit 





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10 RECEIVING 




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1ENCY CHANGE 


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[TUNING cm 

LOOP JXND CONI 
ANTENNA, IN 
!SEE DETECTOR 







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The Rolls Rovce of Radio 



223 



lhexcoH5 not courted 




OUTPUT 

FIG. 3 

Various other types of oscillators. The Meissner 
is at the left and a feedback system at the right 

stage of radio-frequency amplification ahead 
of the first tube. Such a stage may be one 
of the several types described in the second 
article of this series. This radio-frequency 
amplifying tube will eliminate all possibility 
of radiation. The better plan, however, is to 
stick to the conventional method of using 
loop, detectors, and amplifiers. 

The real superiority of the super-heterodyne 
actually fades almost to insignificance if its sat- 
isfactory operation requires an outside antenna 
because the development of modern receivers 
with a reasonably large antenna will practically 
duplicate in selectivity, volume, and distance 
the super-heterodyne's performance. A very 
striking example of such a receiver is the 
Roberts circuit when used with a good push- 
pull amplifier such as the four-tube arrange- 
ment known as RADIO BROADCAST'S four-tube 
Knock-Out. 

WHAT THE SUPER-HETERODYNE WILL DO 

A PROPERLY constructed super-hetero- 
dyne is one of the most sensitive receiv- 
ing systems, that is now available, although 
not the most satisfactory from several points 
of view. The only limit to its range is the 
level of local noise, that is the interfer- 
ence from "bloopers," arc lamps, door bells, 
X-ray machines, street cars, elevators, etc. 
The "superhet" will receive anything that is 
in the ether, and anything that is above the 
level of the noise can be picked up and identi- 
fied. But so will other receivers, lately de- 
veloped. 

The writer's idea of a radio Utopia is an 
island, say in the middle of Lake Superior, 
where the noise level is 'way, 'way down with a 
super-heterodyne to keep one company. 
It is to be understood that this is a radio 
Utopia! 

On the other hand, if the owner lives in a 
congested area where the noise level is high, 



all the amplifiers in the world won't help him 
to hear signals from great distances, and a 
super-heterodyne will not work to full ad- 
vantage. 

THE LOCAL OSCILLATOR 

FIGURES 2 and 3 show several common 
* types of oscillators. The Hartley cir- 
cuit is probably to be preferred. It is a 
simple, cheap, and good oscillator covering a 
wide range without change of coils. 

The latest development in the super- 
heterodyne history is, as Major Armstrong 
has pointed out in RADIO BROADCAST, the 
"second harmonic" idea. Instead of using a 
separate oscillator, the first detector is made 
regenerative, and the frequency of oscillation 
such that its second harmonic will beat with 
the incoming waves. Use of the second har- 
monic makes the two tuning controls inde- 
pendent of each other, and eliminates one 
tube, which is an obvious advantage. 

THE FREQUENCY-CHANGER TUBE 

THE first detector, or the tube in which 
the actual shift in frequency takes place, 
may be one of two general types as the 




FIG. 4 

The circuit of the frequency changer. The separate 

oscillator uses the Hartley connection. The output 

goes to the intermediate-frequency amplifier 

Family Tree shows. The two frequencies 
may be mixed in the grid or the plate circuit. 
Of the two the former seems to be preferred. 

Plate-circuit modulation may be used, as in 
the Ultradyne circuit. The Radio Corpora- 
tion second harmonic super-heterodyne re- 
ceiver, however, uses grid-circuit modulation. 
It may be pointed out here that broadcasting 
stations use plate-circuit modulation, and 
there seems to be no evident reason why this 
method may not be applied to the receiver. 
Fig. 5 shows a frequency changer of this type. 

Another one of the tricks of the super- 
heterodyne lies in this frequency-changer tube. 
The output of this tube to the amplifiers that 



Radio Broadcast 








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o 













ffn)UFji(y 




o 













AMPLIFIER 





FIG. 5 

Showing the frequency changing circuit with plate 

circuit modulation and C battery detection. In 

Fig. 4 a grid condenser is used for detection. The 

oscillator connection is the Hartley 

follow, is dependent upon the product of two 
voltages, namely, the signal or incoming 
voltage and the oscillator voltage. For this 
reason it behooves the builder to make his 
oscillator as good as possible, for much of the 
efficiency of the entire receiver depends upon 
the proper functioning of this part. 

Since the voltage of the second harmonic is 
less than that of the fundamental, it seems 
that the Radio Corporation super-heterodyne 
might lose some amplification by use of this 
feature, yet the advantages seem to outweigh 
the objections. The second harmonic idea 
was a brilliant one, and credit should be 
given Houck, its originator, who was one of 
Armstrong's associates in its development. 

This business of multiplying two voltages 
to get the amplifier input voltage explains 
in a way why the receiver is so sensitive to" 
weak signals. Suppose a station is tuned-in 
whose signals are weak, that is, they impress 
a small voltage on the loop. On an ordinary 
receiver this voltage is what actually operates 
the first tube. In the super-heterodyne this 
small voltage is multiplied by the relatively 
large one of the oscillator, and the vpl- 
tage actually applied to the amplifiers is 
proportional to this product, not merely 
to the weak incoming signal. 

Since the energy fed into the 
first detector is relatively high, 
in case of local reception, this 
detector usually functions with 
a C battery as shown in Fig. 5 
instead of the usual grid con- 
denser and leak. The reason 
is that the more conventional 
method may "block" if too 
strong a signal is applied to 
the tube. Any one can verify 
this -by trying to receive when 



a near-by amateur is sending, or when heavy 
lightning occurs in the vicinity. 

THE INTERMEDIATE AMPLIFIERS 

CONFUSION seems to reign supreme on 
^-> the matter of the intermediate-frequency 
amplifiers. Perhaps it is because they belong 
to the far-famed "superhet," perhaps it is 
because it is difficult to buy, or more difficult 
to build good ones. 

Any of the amplifiers described in Haynes' 
article on page 408 of the September number 
of this magazine may be used in the super- 
heterodyne provided that it passes the re- 
quired band of frequencies. 

Now let us see what this signifies. 

The usual band of frequencies broadcast 
extends up to about 5,000 cycles. This means 
that an amplifier must pass at least twice that 
band in order that the speech or music be 
true, that is, without lopping of the high 
violin harmonics, or the "s's" 

In the usual receiver operating at 300 
meters, or 1,000,000 cycles, the band re- 
quired is - y or one per cent, of the radio 
frequency. That is, if the receiver is so 
sharply tuned that it can differentiate be- 
tween one million and one million ten- 
thousand cycles, the reception will be poor. 
Such sharpness is not attained, and the music 
and voice frequencies are all received. 

In our intermediate amplifiers, however, 
another story must be told. Here we have a 
beat radio frequency of 50,000 cycles, or 6,000 
meters, and if the usual band of 10,000 
cycles is to be faithfully transmitted by each 
amplifier, they must be comparatively broadly 
tuned. In this case the band : 



50,000 



twenty per cent, of the beat frequency. 

In other words, the usual type of resonant 
circuit will not suffice, for it is too sharply 
tuned and part of the speech band will be 
chopped off. This will result in distortion. 
Transformers with flat characteristics are 













C 






1 


QKUfT 




REFLEX 
AMPLIFIER 
K4D/O 
AttD 




5EGOHD 
HARMOniC 


/sm/r/fp 


LOOP 





FIG. 6 

The scheme of connections for the second harmonic super-heterodyne 

developed by Armstrong and Houck. Reflexing is employed in 

the first intermediate-frequency stage, which saves one tube 



The Rolls Royce of Radio 



225 




L ML 





FIG. 7 

Diagram of a two-control super-heterodyne showing the principles described in the accompanying article. 
There is a loop for receiving, tuned by a condenser, and the Hartley oscillator circuit is used. Grid con- 
denser modulation is employed. The intermediate-frequency amplifier is coupled by untuned transformers, 
and the tubes are neutralized. Detection is accomplished in the last stage by the usual grid condenser 
method. No audio amplifiers are shown, but would be connected where the telephones are indicated 



usually best for the interstage coupling. 
Such transformers should be paired so that 
they work together properly. This is a mat- 
ter for the laboratory-equipped engineer. 

THE SECOND DETECTOR 

FOLLOWING two or more stages of inter- 
* mediate or beat-frequency amplifica- 
tion, the signals are fed into a second detector 
from which they pass to the output circuit 
as usual. This detector tube operates by 
means of the usual grid condenser leak method. 
It may or may not be regenerative, but if so, 
it must oscillate at the beat frequency. 

There is really no object in making this de- 
tector oscillate, provided that the remainder of 
the outfit is made properly. All the signal 
strength that one can stand will be attained 
before the second detector is reached, so there 
is little use in making the apparatus more 
complicated than necessary. If the inter- 



mediate amplifiers are giving enough gain that 
they have to be neutralized to keep them 
from howling, one may rest assured that he is 
getting all possible out of the equipment. 

In one of the Radio Corporation models, 
one of the intermediate amplifiers is reflexed, 
thereby eliminating one vacuum tube and 
bringing the total number down to six. 

If a loud speaker is to be run from this 
receiver and it is not wise to try a pair of 
phones on a strong and healthy "superhet"- 
a stage or two of audio-frequency amplifica- 
tion may be added. If the intermediate 
amplifiers pass the required band, and if the 
last detector and the audio-frequency ampli- 
fiers are not overloaded, undistorted music and 
speech should arrive at any part of the coun- 
try from all other parts of the country, during 
the winter and at night. 

What more could any one ask of any re- 
ceiver? 



"THE VOICE OF THE CITY" 

TS, IN New Yorl^, Q ' least, a radio voice. 
James C. Young's excellent article, telling 
what station WNYC is doing in New York an d 
the possibilities of municipal broadcasting will 
be one of the interesting features in the January 

RADIO BROADCAST. 



How to Build a Knock-Out 

Amplifier 

A Highly Efficient and Easily Built Amplifier Unit 
Combining Resistance and Transformer Coupling 



BY ZEH BOUCK 



IT IS unfortunate that many radio writers 
lack experimental data, personally gath- 
ered, with which to bolster up their more 
general theoretical statements. Were 
such not the case, authors would have been less 
hasty and definite in the repeated denunci- 
ation of resistance-coupled amplification since 
RADIO BROADCAST introduced this system to 
the fan a half year ago. 

There are few radio possibilities that have 
been more maligned than this truly meri- 
torious system of radiophone amplification. 
Its economy of operation has suffered the most 
relentless criticism which a half hour of actual 
experiment and a half minute of unclouded 
thought would have 
demonstrated to be 
unjust and without 
sound foundation. 

The sole objection 
that holds more than 
a negligible amount 
of water is the fact 
that transformer- 
coupling permits 
greater amplification 
per stage than the re- 
sistance-coupl ed 
system. The resist- 
ance-coupled ampli- 
fier permits a the- 
oretical maximum 
intensification equal 
to the amplification 
constant of the tube. 
That is, the potential 
applied to a succeed- 
ing tube is equal to 
that applied to the 
preceding tube times 
the amplifying ability 
of the repeating 
bulb. This limit, 
however, can only be 
approached never 



attained. A transformer-coupled stage per- 
mits a greater intensification that is roughly 
equal to the amplifying ability of a resistance- 
coupled amplifier multiplied by the turn ratio 
of the transformer. 

The truth is that neither resistance coup- 
ling nor transformer "coupling is in itself per- 
fect, each arrangement being deficient in 
qualities possessed by the other. A consider- 
ation of the characteristics of each amplifier 
will be enlightening in that it will indicate a 
method of combining the two systems. The 
composite arrangement exhibits both the 
superior amplifying ability of the transformer- 
coupled amplifier and the perfect quality of 
the resistor intensi- 
fier. 



Facts and Fancies 

The resistance-coupled amplifier has come 
in for a lot of criticism from many in the 
radio industry who ought to know better. 
If the laboratory tests they claim to have 
made actually were made, there is some- 
thing radically wrong with their laboratory 
methods. In this timely article, Mr. Bouck, 
who is widely known as one of the soundest 
of radio technicians, describes a unique and 
very satisfactory amplifier which happily 
combines the desirable features of resistance- 
and transformer-coupling. Two other ap- 
plications of resistance-coupling to an am- 
plifier have been described in this magazine 
by Mr. Bouck, one in June, 1924, where 
resistance-coupling was added to the one- 
tube knock-out reflex and in October, 1924, 
where a two-stage resistance-coupled am- 
plifier was added to the Roberts circuit. 
This amplifier unit should not be used with 
any kind of a reflex receiver, because such an 
arrangement would bring two stages of 
transformer coupling into play. 

To those who criticize resistance coupling, 
we wish to extend an invitation to visit our 
laboratory. If they wish to do so, they may 
bring any receiver of this type with them for 
comparative test. THE EDITOR. 



TRANSFORMER DIS- 
TORTION 

THE only objec- 
tion to the usual 
transformer-c o u pi ed 
amplifier is the dis- 
tortion which is al- 
most invariably 
evident when ampli- 
fication is continued 
to loud-speaker in- 
tensity (that is, two 
or more steps). As- 
suming the proper 
operation of a cas- 
cade amplifier in re- 
spect to the biasing 
of grids, distortion is 
promoted in several 
ways. The first con- 
sideration is the 
ineradicable tendency 
of the transformer to 
favor certain frequen- 
cies usually those of 
a medium high period. 
In a well designed 



How to Build a Knock-out Amplifier 



227 



transformer, this character- 
istic is somewhat subdued, 
to the extent that distortion 
cannot be discerned even 
by the trained ear, in a 
single stage of intensification. 
However, if amplification is 
continued through addi- 
tional stages, perhaps only 
one, repeating through the 
same general type of trans- 
former, the following trans- 
former will emphasize the 
distortions originated in the first step. The 
effect is thus cumulative, and the distortion is 
finally evident to the average ear. 

Another phenomenon which will result in 
distortion is the non-uniformity of the mag- 
netic action of a transformer when heavily 
loaded. More technically, in such a case, the 
inductive effect is no longer proportional to 
variations in the magnetizing current as the 
saturation point in the core is approached. 
Some audio transformers evidence such an 
action at comparatively small loads. The 
ounce of prevention is a larger core, which in 




FIG. I 

The circuit of the combination amplifier. In the majority of cases Ci can 
be eliminated. The detector is coupled to the amplifier in the usual way 



turn is argued against by its inconvenient size 
and more worthy theoretical considerations. 
Distortion from this cause is probably encoun- 
tered only in cases of excessive amplification, 
with high plate voltage and little or no bias, in 
which instances it is merely contributory to 
the general strain. It should never be experi- 
enced in the first amplifying stage. 

Distortion in the tube itself is a phenomenon 
of uneven emphasis similarly confined to the 
last stage of transformer-coupled amplifi- 
cation. For satisfactory amplification, vari- 
ation in grid potentials is limited to voltages 




FIG. 2 

A rear view of the amplifier. The selection of panel mount- 
ing parts makes a particularly compact and neat job 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 3 

The panel layout of the amplifier described. The design may be varied in 
order to maintain a consistent appearance of all receiving apparatus 



projected by the straight portion of the 
usual "characteristic curve." However, in 
the transformer-coupled system, such varia- 
tions are additionally confined to about half 
this workable portion, the negative or lower 
slope which limits may be exceeded in the 
case of a strong signal in the last stage 
of amplification. Distortion will be the result. 
The impedance and resistance-coupled ampli- 
fiers are less restricted in this manner, for their 
operating characteristics permit a greater 
range of grid variations. 

THE IDEAL AMPLIFIER AND ITS CIRCUIT 

IT IS thus evident that the distortion in the 
transformer-coupled amplifier may be 
considered as being totally absent in the first 
stage. In this position, its superior amplify- 
ing ability recommends it as ideal. It is 
equally obvious that the case of the resistance- 
coupled amplifier has been similarly well 
established in the second and third stages 
where, free from the distorting characteristics 
of] the transformer, it outputs an auditively 
perfect signal. 

The reader will now grasp the possibilities 
of an amplifier consisting of one stage of trans- 
former amplification followed by two stages 
of resistance coupling. The accompanying 
illustrations show such an amplifier, which 
thoroughly justifies the theoretical consider- 
ations outlined above. 

Fig. i is the circuit of this ideal ampli- 
fying arrangement. The various values 
and connections have been determined experi- 
mentally and will give the best results on the 



average receiver. Trans- 
former Ti is any reliable 
audio-frequency trans- 
former with a turn ratio no 
higher than four to one. 
The .00025 rnfd. condenser 
across the secondary is a 
Micadon, and connected in 
this manner it will improve 
the quality of some trans- 
formers. The capacity 
offers a comparatively low 
impedance to the high fre- 
quencies which may be over 
emphasized by the trans- 
former a discriminating 
"short" that irons out un- 
even amplification. Its de- 
sirability should be de- 
termined by experiment. 

Ri is the first coupling 
resistor, having a value 
of 250,000 ohms. This is considerably in 
excess of the usual resistance of 100,000 
ohms, which is employed in the case of the 
second resistor, R2. Experiments have de- 
termined the higher value as the most satis- 
factory in the plate circuit of the first tube in 
this particular amplifier. 

C2 and C3 are the isolating condensers of 
.006 mfd. capacity. 

The grid leaks, R3 and R4 have respective 
values of 500,000 ohms and 100,000 ohms. 

The rheostat and jack connections are quite 
self-explanatory. 

THE PARTS 

THE following is a list of the exact parts 
used in the amplifier illustrated and de- 
scribed. Equally reliable makes may, of 
course, be substituted for the designated 
apparatus with similarly satisfactory results. 

One 7" by 10" panel; 

One six- or ten- ohm rheostat; 

One twenty- or thirty- ohm rheostat; 

Three standard sockets; 

One Haynes-Griffm audio-frequency amplifying 
transformer; 

Two Daven Resisto-Couplers with necessary grid 
leaks and coupling resistors; 

Two .006 Micadon or New York Coil con- 
densers; 

One .00025 mfd. capacity Micadon or New York 
Coil condenser; 

Two Pacent jacks (one open and one closed 
circuit); 

Six binding-posts; 

And the necessary tail-washers, busbar wire, etc. 



How to Build a Knock-out Amplifier 



229 



CONSTRUCTION 

THOUGH the illustrated mechanical de- 
sign is suggested to the average builder, 
the amplifier admits of several minor electrical 
and mechanical variations, such as a second 
stage jack, automatic filament control, and 
constructional changes to adapt the apparatus 
to a tuner of rather different appearance. It 
will be observed from the photograph, Fig. 2, 
that all apparatus, including sockets, are of 
panel-mounting design, which makes possible 
an exceedingly neat and efficient construction. 
The baseboard, may of course be used, if the 
designated apparatus is inconvenient or un- 
available. Fig. 3 shows the panel layout and 
Fig. 4 is a descriptive drawing of the amplifier 
described, and recommended. 



OPERATION 

THE operation of the transformer-resis- 
tance-coupled amplifier is identical with 
that of the more conventional types. The 
indicated battery connections are made, and 
the output of the tuner wired to the pri- 
mary of the amplifying transformer, the 
plus B battery and plate connections following 
through to the respective apparatus in the 
detector circuit. When inputting from the 
detector of a regenerative receiver, a telephone 
bypass condenser, which may be a Micadon. 
.002 mfd., should be shunted across the primary 
of the transformer, or from the upper (P) side 
of the primary to the filament battery. In 
most receivers, this condenser will be found 
included in the original tuning circuit. 




FIG. 4 

A picture drawing of the layout and connections. This will be helpful to our less 
experienced readers, who, however, should train themselves to understand Fig. i 



Radio Broadcast 



-1 

I *<* 

-of 



-o~i 

f> 



_Q !: 



-O 



O 

I 



-o i 

? 



o 

I 



-CM 



-p- 



cr> 
O 



OH 

v 



P-* 



I 

o 

I 



O 






-OH 



-p- 



O - 
CO 



o--. 



:?-! 



-o- 



o- 



I 

-o 



o- 





ro 




J" 



FIG. 5 

Front view of the completed amplifier. Only two jacks have 
been used in the set described, in the first and third stages 



How to Build a Knock-out Amplifier 



Two plate voltage potentials have been 
indicated and extra posts provided, isolating 
the higher voltage from telephone receivers 
plugged into the first jack. However, if an 
amplifying plate voltage in the neighborhood 
of one hundred is applied, the two upper right 
hand binding posts may be shorted over, 
eliminating the necessity for an additional 
tap to the B battery. 

TUBES 

ANY of the standard tubes can be used in 
the amplifier described. One secures 
the best volume from the six-volt bulbs. The 
plate potentials should vary with the type of 
tube for best results. It is wise to keep close 
to the upper limit recommended by the manu- 
facturer with the bias in the straight trans- 
former-coupled amplifier. No bias however, 
should be used with the knock-out amplifier. 

DISTORTION 

/CORRECTLY operated, the output of the 
^-^ amplifier described should be perfect 
as far as the ear is concerned. On excep- 
tionally loud signals, and with some tubes, 
the final stage may "choke," which will 
result in harsh, grating reproduction. This 
strain can be remedied by lowering the re- 
sistance of the last grid leak, R4. Placing 
the fingers across the leak prongs on the 
resisto-coupler (lowering the resistance by 
shunting through the hand) is a simple test to 
determine if distortion is due to the overload- 
ing of the last tube. The uv-2Oi-A is some- 
what limited in respect to the power it will 
handle without distortion. For dance pur- 
poses in a large hall, a power tube, such as the 
Western Electric 2i6-A, with a separate 
rheostat, is recommended for the last stage. 
Flatness, or loss of the high tones will 
generally be remedied by eliminating Ci (if 
used) or by bringing the grid leak of the last 
tube down to the plus side of the filament- 



lighting battery. This places a slight positive 
bias on the tube, operating the bulb a little 
higher on its characteristic curve. As the 
resistance-coupled amplifier "modulates 
down," in fact very emphatically on the 
higher audio frequencies, more room for a 
useful grid variation is provided by this con- 
nection. It is interesting to note that the 
writer has operated resistance- and impedance- 
coupled power amplifiers that were distortion- 
less only when functioning with a positive bias, 
supplied by a C battery. 

However, distortion in an amplifier built 
exactly as described will be rare. In the 
majority of cases, unsatisfactory quality can 
be traced to either poor tubes (generally boot- 
leg) or the loud speaker, and should the simple 
remedies suggested in the preceding para- 
graphs prove of no value, the trouble may be 
external to the amplifier. 

ECONOMY 

THE plate-current consumption of the 
knock-out amplifier is unusually low, 
with the exception of the last stage, being 
under that of a well biased transformer- 
coupled intensifier. With one hundred volts 
plate potential, across both B battery posts, 
the first tube, when the amplifier is passing 
signals, draws about .17 milliampere (seven- 
teen one hundredths of a thousandth of an 
ampere)! Under similar conditions, tube 
number two consumes one milliampere, and 
tube three, five milliamperes. It will be 
observed that the third tube consumes almost 
five times as much as the total plate current 
of the preceding amplifying tubes. This is 
due, of course, to the substitution of the loud 
speaker windings for the comparatively high 
ohmage coupling resistors. The plate current 
in the last stage can be materially reduced, 
without appreciably affecting volume, by 
including a five-thousand-ohm resistance in 
series with the loud speaker. 



A MOTOR GENERATOR FOR BATTERY CHARGING 

AN EXCELLENT article, by James Millen will appear in an early 
^ number of RADIO BROADCAST, which describes the theory and con- 
struction of a motor generator for charging radio storage batteries. The 
entire unit is not expensive to build and to assemble, and gives a very 
quick and economical method of charging the storage battery. 




bint of View 




Way Don't Great Musicians Aid Radio? 



IF A majority of the leading musicians of 
this country would take a constructive 
interest in radio music, this particular 
feature of broadcasting would soon show 
marked improvement. At present they are 
a detriment rather than a help to the cause. 
They are^ quite willing to concede that there 
are unlimited possibilities for musical achieve- 
ments of value through the radio, but they 
withhold activity in 
helping toward the de- 
velopment of these 
possibilities. Yet when 
radio music does finally 
attain a level suffici- 
ently high to command 
the respect of the crit- 
ical, these musicians, 
who are waiting for 
that day the while 
they are doing nothing 
to bring it about, will 
be among the first to 
seek the microphone 
for the promulgation 
of their work. 

Perhaps this is only 
human. For in this 
commercial age, being 
a musician is at best a 
hard job. It may be 
asking a good deal to 
expect musicians to 
give much considera- 
tion to the radio as 
long as the radio does 
nothing for them in a 
financial way. But, 
now and then, one 
does come across one 




ROBERT D. BONIEL 

Director and announcer at station WEBH, Edge- 
water Beach Hotel, Chicago. It was from this 
station that the delightful surprise commented 
upon in these columns came not long ago 



who is sufficiently interested in radio music to 
consider it in its relation to humanity rather 
than to his or her individual career. 

Such a musician is Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, 
the only American woman composer who has 
gained distinguished international recognition, 
and who, in addition to this, can hold her 
own among the men composers. An opinion 
on radio music from such a source is of far 
more than passing im- 
portance. 

When asked to give 
this opinion, Mrs. 
Beach's reply, al- 
though brief, showed 
broad comprehension 
of the subject: 



I should say that, in 
the main, its influence 
has been for good. 1 know 
that there are two sides 
to the question of its 
value to the composer, 
but so far as the public is 
concerned, I feel that 
much interest must have 
been aroused, especially 
in the smaller places, in 
the hearing of music. 1 
have had personal knowl- 
edge of many people who 
live in remote districts, 
who have had wonderful 
happiness in listening to 
the artists and musical 
organizations which, 
otherwise, they would 
never have had an op- 
portunity to hear. It is 
not only bringing enjoy- 
ment into lonely lives, 




Smith 
JOSEPHINE LL'CCHESE 

Coloratura soprano. What radio programs will be like when professional musicians are regularly featured, 
was demonstrated when Miss Lucchese, at present the leading coloratura of the San Carlo Opera Company, 
was heard from station WIP, Philadelphia. The career of this young American girl is being watched with 
much interest by connoisseurs of singing. WIP is to be congratulated on making it possible for a large radio 

audience to hear her. 



234 



Radio Broadcast 



but, in many instances, positive education as 
well. 

But I acknowledge there is another side to the 
matter. I wish, of course, that the character of 
much of the music sent out through the air might 
be improved. In future this good may be brought 
about, not only by the improvement in the musi- 
cal taste of the people, but also by the higher grade 
of artists performing. 

This starts another and very vital question as 
to the remuneration of the artists. Where they 
give their time to music as a profession it seems 
highly unjust that they should not be paid for radio 
performances as for concert-giving. If such pay- 
ment be not a regular procedure, then radio con- 
certs will become merely a source of advertising 
to performers of immaturity or small reputation, 
who will take this method of making themselves 
known. 

The radio, 1 believe, is merely at the beginning of 
its career, and what the future will show it seems 
impossible to predict. On the whole, I believe that 
it has already proved itself a blessing to many music 
lovers. If certain disadvantages have shown 
themselves, these may be remedied by concerted 



action on the part of radio stations, artists, man- 
agers, and the public itself. 

This conclusion to a fair-minded estimate 
of radio in its relation to music, suggests 
what many of us believe to be the best method 
by which the present shortcomings in radio 
music can be done away with: "concerted ac- 
tion on the part of radio stations, artists, 
managers, and the public itself." 

The only one among these influences that 
could work this reform, single-handed, is the 
public. But why wait for the public to take 
the initiative? Combined action would bring 
results much quicker. 

Mrs. Beach has herself been heard over the 
radio, having broadcast a group of piano 
numbers some time ago from station WRC 
at Washington. Mention of this performance 
was made in the subsequent number of this 
magazine. To play for a radio audience was 
a gracious act on the part of this musician, 
whose symphonic works have been performed 




Belden, Newark 
PERRY AND RUSSELL 

If any monologuist of to-day tried to get away with that once popular hit, "You Can't Play Every 
Instrument in the Band," these clever chaps who are called, "The Two-Man Singing Orchestra" would 
have the laugh on him. They not only play all those instruments in the picture, but sing while they're 
doing it. If you happen to have a grouch when you tune-in on them they'll give you a quick hunch toward 
cheerfulness. They have been making life joyful for listeners-in at station WOR 



The Listeners' Point of View 



235 



by every orchestra of importance in this 
country, and by orchestras in Europe and 
in England; who has appeared as piano 
soloist with these same organizations; whose 
choral compositions have been sung by noted 
choruses under the direction of the ablest 
conductors; whose piano works and songs 
are featured on many 
concert programs; 
and who, for many 
years, has appeared 
on the con- 
cert stage as 
a profession- 
al pianist. 

Some ra- 
dio enthus- 
iasts may 
think it a 
bit patron- 
izing to say 
that it was 
' ' gracious' ' 
of Mrs. 
Beach to 
play for 
them. But 
let it be 
asked of 
such as 
these: How 
man\' mu- 
sicians of 
fame equal 
to that of 
Mrs. Beach 

have you heard over the radio? Of course, 
you have heard certain celebrated artists 
when the public concerts in which they ap- 
peared happened to be broadcast. But that 
is quite a different matter from hearing these 
artists play from a radio studio to which they 
had gone for the express purpose of broad- 
casting. We have a notion that you can 
count the number of such artists on the fin- 
gers of one hand and not use all the fingers 
at that. 

Radio Popularity on the Pacific Coast 

WHEN E. M. B., of Gold Beach, Ore- 
gon, wrote the letter on Pacific coast 
broadcasting stations which was pub- 
lished in a recent number of this magazine, 
he probably had little idea of the protests he 
would arouse. Not that any one has dis- 
agreed with the fine things he has to say 
about KHJ, at Los Angeles, or with his com- 
ments regarding his enjoyment of KLK at 




ROSE BROWN, LEADING LADY OF THE KGO PLAYERS 

That lovely voice of hers prompted a rush request to station KGO for 

Miss Brown's picture, for we felt sure that anyone with such speaking 

tones would be good to look upon. A good guess, it proved as all will 

agree who see the above photograph 



Oakland, California, and CKCD at Vancouver. 
It is his estimate of KGO at Oakland that has 
raised the rumpus. He remarks, with final- 
ity: 

KGO is a wonderfully equipped and powerful 
station with splendid programs of a certain high 
class, but the people in general do not care for them. 
They are not interested 
in cantatas, radio 
dramas, or operatic 
singing. When listen- 
ing-in with 
me, visitors 
often ask me 
to shift from 
KGO to KHJ, 
KFI, or KPO, 
and are bet- 
ter satisfied 
with what 
they receive. 

Where E. 
M. B. 
makes his 
mistake is 
in confusing 
his friends 
with "peo- 
ple in gen- 
eral." It is, 
for that 
matter, a 
rather large 
order to ut- 
ter an ex 
cathedra 

opinion as to what "people in general," think 
about anything unless by this term E. M. B. 
means that large mass of people who do not 
do much thinking on any subject. 

Among those who have entered an objec- 
tion to this verdict regarding the KGO pro- 
grams is Mr. H. S. Gibson of Logan, Utah. 
After stating that, as a constant reader of 
RADIO BROADCAST and a loyal supporter of 
KGO he cannot let E. M. B.'s letter go without 
"considerable protest," he adds: 

In marked contrast to E. M. B., when we tell 
the neighbors that KGO has a play scheduled, we 
are forced to get extra chairs. Our children, and 
also the neighbors', recognize at once music by the 
Arion Trio or other performers that have been on 
KGO programs. These kiddies, all under thirteen, 
base their respective vocal or instrumental abili- 
ties largely as they have heard KGO performers. 
. . . My only regret is that KGO does not have 
a program every evening. 

To which we wish to add personal testi- 



236 



Radio Broadcast 



mony to the effect that KGO is one of the very 
few radio stations putting on musical pro- 
grams sufficiently well-balanced to hold our 
attention to the end. A good program is 
generally such throughout, and a popular 
program is complete in itself. 

It is but another case of "many people, 
many minds." But it is always a bit dan- 
gerous to judge many people by a few minds. 

Can Radio Artists Play Only Chopin and 
Liszt? 

THERE is scarcely a broadcast station 
of any importance from which we have 
not heard times without number the 
second, sixth and twelfth Rhapsodies of Liszt, 
and his "Liebestraume." Why do we never 
hear any of his "Etudes"? Or the "Annees 
de Pelerinage"? Or some among his fifty 
transcriptions of Schubert's songs? 

As for Chopin, he is played almost as 
frequently as Liszt, and represented within 
an even narrower scope. A few Nocturnes, 
with the hackneyed one in E flat major far 
in the lead; a Waltz or two; and those 
Impromptus of the kind within a conser- 
vatory pupil's ability . . . this is the 
radio Chopin, the petted darling of the 
Parisian salon. Yet he was one of the most 
superb among the Titans that have put pen 
to paper to express their thoughts in music. 





Apeda, New York 
MRS. H. H. A. BEACH 

American composer of international renown 
who sees great possibilities in radio music 

Numbers of pianists have been heard over 
the radio who seem quite capable of play- 
ing some of this composer's Etudes . . . 
the " Revolutionary," for instance. Like- 
wise, the " Fantasie Impromptu," and the 
"A flat Polonaise." The former has been 
played, to be sure, but all too seldom. Yet 
many people are hungering for just that sort 
of music people who were raised 
in musical centers and now live far 
from points where they can hear 
great music. To them the radio 
could and should be of a value it 
does not now fulfill for them. 

So, to the pianists who are ex- 
pecting to broadcast during the 
coming months, we suggest that they 
try giving their listeners some of the 
works by Liszt and Chopin that 
have not already been presented by 
radio times without number. Also 
we would suggest that they give 
some composers other than Liszt, 
Chopin, and Rachmaninoff a chance 
to be heard now and then. For 
instance, we suggest Mozart, Bee- 
thoven, Schubert, Schumann, 
Brahms to name but a few. 

Musical Parodies Should Be 
Announced As Such 



T. Kajiwara, St. Louis 
MISS V. A. L. JONES 

Program director and announcer at station KSD, St. 
Louis, is praised far and wide for the quality of her work 



IF ANY one recited over the 
radio a parody of a well-known 
poem it would be announced be- 
forehand as a parody. Were the 



The Listeners' Point of View 



237 



changed version given without anything 
being said either by the announcer or by the 
one reciting the poem, those who listened 
would object to hearing the well-known verses 
given other than as the poet wrote them. 
Why, then, should such liberties be allowed 
in music? 

The specific instance giving rise to this 
protest was the performance of a man heard 
from station WTAM, who was announced as 
"Our Wandering Musician." If memory 
serves rightly, he was from Punxsutawney, 
Pa. Well, he was a wandering musician, all 
right. He did not jazz the numbers he 
played, at least not those we heard, but he 
added to them at his own sweet will. Rubin- 
stein's "Melodic in F" lost all its simplicity 
and wandered to the upper keyboard far from 
the region where the composer placed it. 
Octaves and chords unknown to the original 
composition were added. 

We hold that such performances should 
be announced as the performers' versions and 
not as the original compositions. Such ver- 
sions are not unusual in concert programs, but 
when did one ever hear of their being played 
without the program bearing the explanation 
that they were adaptations? 



How Dramatic Readers Are Rated at 
Station wwj 

IT WILL be recalled by those who read 
this department regularly, that in the 
number preceding this one, Mrs. R. J. 
Quien, dramatic reader of Camden, N. J., 
objected strongly to Mr. Corley W. Kirby, 
director of station wwj, having said that 
he had never heard a woman reader over the 
microphone who was not "terrible." And 
she then and there issued a challenge to com- 
pete with any man reader at some leading 
broadcasting station, that the public might 
decide between them. She also said that 
as proof of her success, she would like to have 
Mr. Kirby see the letters of appreciation she 
receives after each broadcast performance. 

To which comes the following reply from 
Mr. Kirby: 

I am sure that Mrs. Quien has received many 
letters from those who have heard her give dra- 
matic readings. You can do anything over the 
radio and get letters of commendation, because 
the radio audience represents a better cross section 
of the American nation than can be obtained in 
any other way. 

The problem of the radio station is to please the 




Strentz, New York 
HARVEY MARBURGER AMD HIS KEITH VAUDEVILLE ENTERTAINERS 

If you have seen the Cafe L'Aiglon in Philadelphia, you'll know that the exotic setting arranged for 

this orchestra is quite in keeping with the place where they play. And they can make even jazz sound 

better than it really is, a statement you can prove for yourself by tuning-in WIP 



2 3 8 



Radio Broadcast 




MAURICE SPITALNY 

Director of the Hotel Statler Concert Orchestra at 
during the dinner hour through station WTAM. The 
orchestra under Mr. Spitalny's leadership has been 
upon in this department 



greater part of its audience with each concert, and 
I am sure dramatic readers are not able to measure 
up to this standard. Whether they are men or 
women makes no difference. In strengthening my 
position I ask this question: how many dramatic 
readers have you heard from any stage? Cer- 
tainly, if they were a real attraction, the theater 
managers would have realized it long before this. 

As far as the contest proposition is concerned, 
1 would put it in the same class with other contests. 
In the end they mean little or nothing. If we had 
a contest calling for an expression on jazz and 
classical music, jazz would win out, because the 
people who prefer jazz to all else are just the type 
who would enter into a contest with gusto, while 
those who prefer classical music would say little 
or nothing about it. These people take no in- 
terest in contests, but when they like a thing 
they will write a good constructive letter, where 
others would fill out a form postal card. Radio 
contests reflect the opinions of the radio audience 
to a smaller degree than the straw vote reflects the 
political tendencies of the country. 

I am willing to be convinced as to the value of 
dramatic readers as entertainers and the value of 
radio contests. I feel sure that the latter will not 
be held from the Detroit News, station wwj. 

Can't Telegrams Be Original? 

ERE is a suggestion for some station 
that would like to start a competition 
in which the winner will receive a 



H 



prize. 
Why not 



give a prize to the first person 



who, in telegraphing congratulations on a 
program, says something other than: 

"Program coming in fine. Keep it up." 
"Program great. Keep it up." 
" Everything coming in grand. Keep it up." 
"Fine program. Coming in great. Keep 
it up." 

Station WTAS, at 
Elgin, 111., recently 
offered a prize of a 
$250 Shetland pony to 
the one who gave them 
the best suggestion for a 
new slogan, WTAS having 
up to that time meant 
"Willie, Tommy, Annie, 
Sammy." We missed 
hearing who won the 
prize. It was an easy 
way to earn a pony. 

Krumhar, Cleveland For who JS there Who 

could not improve on, 

Cleveland, Ohio, heard "Willie, Tommy, Annie, 
excellent work of this s amrnv "? 
frequently commented 

It would be much 

more difficult, appar- 
ently, to earn a prize 
through sending telegram containing some 
original sentiment commenting on the pro- 
gram then being heard. For the present 
form seems to be firmly fixed in the minds of 
all and sundry who like to hear their names 
put on the air as "among those present." 

Good Band Music Is Coming from Pris- 
oners through wos 

COMPILERS of musical statistics wii! 
tell you that few musicians are found 
in our prisons in comparison with 
the number of criminals drawn from other 
occupations. Yet there is that band heard 
at stated intervals from station wos, and 
whose members are all from the Missouri 
State Penitentiary. Their numbers never 
seem to grow smaller, although from time to 
time the personnel of the band must change 
owing to this or that member having finished 
his prison term. The band plays so well that 
it speaks badly for the morale of the musical 
profession. It was hoped, until that band was 
heard many times, that the statisticians were 
right. But now their authority seems doubt- 
ful. There is a psychological aspect of this 
band's performances about which one might 
write an entire article. For men who can 
play with such engaging spirit must have much 
of good in their natures. To be sure, the 
public performer who simulates an emotion 



The Listeners' Point of View 



239 



for the interpretation of the work he is giving, 
need not necessarily have experienced that 
emotion. But he must have the imagination 
to conceive of himself as having experienced 
it. In the case of a worthy emotion, the 
nature is not lost that has sufficient imagina- 
tion to portray it with the right feeling. 

The Dangerous Microphone 

f~^ INGERS who present the best songs 
^\ to the radio audiences are almost 
^^ without exception the singers who, of 
all the vocalists heard over the microphone, 
have the worst diction. They would do well 
to listen to those who present only popular 
songs of the day and learn from them some- 
thing regarding correct enunciation. It is 
seldom that one word is indistinct when these 
latter singers are broadcasting, while with the 
former it is seldom that one word can be 
understood. In their case the only way one 
can tell what song is being given is by the 
melody. 

Good songs will be more popular with all 
classes of radio listeners when those singing 
them make themselves intelligible. If these 
singers at present are unappre- 
ciated the fault is largely their 
own. 

The microphone never fails 
to make known to the radio 
audience when a singer is off the 
key. Of late, some have been 
heard who never got the pitch 
once during an entire song, 
and were seemingly quite un- 
conscious of this fact, or indif- 
ferent to it in the belief that it 
would not be discovered. 

Radio can make a singer's 
reputation or it can ruin it. 
The singers of popular songs 
seem to realize this far more 
than do those others who are 
expected to be taken more 
seriously. 

Score One for Women 
Announcers 

THERE is more to be 
added to the discussion 
that has been going on 
in these columns regarding 
women announcers. Miss V. 
A. L. Jones, of station KSD, St. 
Louis, judging from the letters 
received commending her an- 
nouncing, is not only in the lead 



among the women filling this position at 
broadcasting stations, but ahead of most of 
the men as well. And ahead of all the men, 
according to Mr. J. C. Porter of Amargura, 
23, Havana, Cuba. It is a pleasure to print 
the following excerpts from his letter. 

The object of this letter is to pay a well-deserved 
compliment to KSD'S announcer, Miss Jones. There 
is much telegraphic interference here as well as 
the steady grinding static that prevails most of 
the year, and it requires an exceptional voice to 
cut through this mess and be intelligible. This, 
Miss Jones does. 1 can say as the result of more 
than a year's experience that there is not a voice 
coming from the States that we receive better 
than hers. 

In this day, when RADIO BROADCAST is running 
a series of articles under the heading "Is Woman 
Desirable Over Radio?" I feel that such a very 
fine radio voice as that of Miss Jones deserves a 
word of appreciation. . . . We are a family 
of "radio nuts" . . . have six sets, and get 
the latest thing on the market. There is at least 
one set going every night, the year round, and this 
letter in praise of Miss Jones is the combined 
opinion of our family, based on full three years of 
dial twisting. . . . Here's hoping that for 




CORLEY W. KIRBY 



Of station wwj, Detroit News, who started something when he 

came out in this department against radio dramatic readers. Nor 

has he backed down an inch, as you will discover when you read 

what he has to say in this issue 



240 



Radio Broadcast 



many seasons to come we may enjoy the clear, 
measured, and cultured voice of the best announcer 
that we hear from the States. 

A charming and intelligent tribute. May it 
influence some of the patronizing announcers 
to mend their ways. In particular that one in 
Chicago who, although he has some excellent 
points, spoils everything he does when, after 
saying they are signing off but will be on the 
air again in an hour, calls out with aggravat- 
ing cheerfulness: "See you later!" 

Pleasure Unique and Unexpected 

ONCE in a while something so delightful 
in its character and in its unexpected- 
ness happens over the radio that one 
forgets all the recent disappointments after 
one tunes-in. The most delightful of such 
experiences came when, upon tuning-in WEBH 
at Chicago, this was heard: 

"We are now about to make a very im- 
portant announcement although it may re- 
sult in your missing part of our program. 
We want all of you who hear this to go to 
your north windows and look out. You 
will see the most beautiful aurora borealis 
that has been seen for many years." 

And it was even so. There, in the north- 
ern sky, was one of nature's most wonderful 
miracles. And many, thousands upon thou- 
sands, no doubt, would have known nothing 
about it if it had not been for the announcer 
at WEBH. Some of us are still thanking him. 

An Elephant Dancing Among Daisies 

THE old saying about taking a sledge- 
hammer to drive in a tack was recalled 
when hearing a short time ago Men- 
delssohn's fragile, light-footed "Spring Song" 
played from station KFMX, at Northfield, 
Minn., on a trombone. Why any trombone 
player should choose such a number is be- 
yond comprehension. An elephant trying to 
dance among daisies without touching one 
. . . that was how it sounded. 

But there is no doubt that this particular 
trombone player could give his listeners much 
pleasure if he stuck to music that belongs 
to his instrument. The fact that he man- 
aged to cavort through the "Spring Song" 
proves this. 

DURING a visit of the Memphis baseball 
team to Fort Worth the Rotary Boys' 
Band of Memphis gave a program from WBAP. 
the station operated by the Fort Worth Star- 
Telegram. They played better than half of 
the bands made up of adults, and here's con- 



gratulations on their work! Whoever is their 
director should also be congratulated. It was 
a real joy to hear such legitimate, sincere play- 
ing. And special mention should be made 
of the tone quality of the various instruments. 
For that, too, was unusually good. 

IF, WHEN tuning-in a station it happens to 
be the moment when the announcer is 
speaking, one can tell almost instantly what 
station it is, provided it has been tuned-in 
before. For each announcer has a distinct 
individuality. But it is next to impossible 
to tell the station if music is going on when it 
is tuned-in, for the reason that most of the 
stations play the same things, night after 
night, week after week, month after month. 
But this state of things is going to change for 
the better. Put this down as a prophecy, if 
you wish. It is a safe prophecy. 

THE frequency with which Edward Ger- 
man's "Three Dances from Henry 
VIII " are broadcast is sufficient testimony of 
their popularity with radio audiences. These 
charming pieces are especially well suited for 
performance by small orchestras, such as are 
maintained by radio stations; and the art 
with which they are often played by many of 
these orchestras speaks well for the performers. 
It may interest listeners-in to know that 
Edward German who was born in England in 
1862 was not named German at all, but 
Smith. It was Sir Alexander Mackensie, the 
British composer, who told the then young 
Smith that he could become famous by any 
other name, but never with the one he bore. 
As he was of German descent on the maternal 
side, Smith took the name by which he is now 
known. While he composed many works, he is 
now noted chiefly for his incidental music to 
Shakespeare's plays. 

THE Piggly Wiggly Girls who are heard 
occasionally through KHJ, Los Angeles, 
can put up a pretty good program when they 
are so minded. There is an excellent violinist 
among them; they have some good pianists; 
and a number of the singers have more than 
average voices, well trained. 

THE men whose broadcasting is confined to 
humorous monologues, or the telling of a 
succession of jokes, must have about the most 
difficult job of any among those who are regu- 
larly heard over the microphone. That most 
of them succeed in landing the point of the 
humor, shows them to be experts. 



Can "Static" Interference be 
Eliminated? 

Fertile Fields {or Radio Experiment to Make Receiving Free 
From Natural Interference Is Radio Development Tending 
the Right Way? Some Concrete Suggestions of Great Interest 

BY WALTER FAN B. ROBERTS 



THE season has just passed when our 
radio sets frequently produce horrible 
cracks and frying and tearing and 
grinding sounds, to the more or less 
complete destruction of any pleasure in listen- 
ing to broadcasting. One can scarcely listen 
to these barrages of 
noise without trying 
to figure out some 
way to eliminate 
them. It is proposed 
to consider here just 
what methods for re- 
ducing this type of 
interference are feas- 
ible at present, and 
also to make a few 
guesses as to possible 
future developments. 
The most obvious 
attack upon the prob- 
lem is the increase of 
power used by the 
transmitting stations. 
1 f we imagine that on 
a certain day all 
broadcasting stations 
were to increase their 
power tenfold, what 
would be the result? 
Evidently the owners 

of receiving sets could reduce the size of their 
antennae very considerably and still get the 
same loudness of signals as formerly. On the 
other hand the static noises would be much 
weaker on account of the smaller antenna. 
Interference between one station and another 
would remain the same because the relative 
strengths of the signals would not be changed 
by increasing the power of all of them propor- 
tionally. This increase of power is a very at- 
tractive method for reducing static interfer- 
ence and is being made and will very likely 
continue to be made. 



When an Expert Speaks 

Walter Van B. Roberts is one of the ablest 
writers on radio today, as many of the readers 
of this magazine have often written us. He 
recently joined the technical research staff 
of the Radio Corporation of America at 
their special laboratory at the College of the 
City of New York. In this article, which is 
easily one of the most interesting that has 
appeared in any radio publication for a long 
time, the author discusses what is truly one 
of the most serious problems in radio. 
"Static" is one natural force that the best 
of radio engineers have had great difficulty in 
mastering, and the end is not yet. The elim- 
ination of static is a problem in which every- 
one is interested and Mr. Roberts's presen- 
tation of the problem and six definite sug- 
gestions for development is extremely clear 
in its technical phase and decidedly thought- 
provoking. THE EDITOR. 



Meantime there is an independent precau- 
tion that can be taken at the receiving end to 
reduce interference. That is, to use a re- 
ceiver that has the best possible selectivity. 
There is a very definite limit to the selectivity 
allowable in a receiving set used for voice or 
music, for in order to 
receive these it is 
necessary to receive 
equally well not 
merely a single wave- 
length or frequency, 
while listening to a 
given station, but a 
"channel" of frequen- 
cies about 10,000 cy- 
cles (or 10 kilocycles) 
wide. For example 
suppose we wish to 
listen to station woo 
whose frequency is 
given in the newspa- 
pers as 590 kilocycles. 
A receiving set that 
is so selective as to 
receive only this fre- 
quency would not be 
able to pick up voice 
or music from woo. 
The set should be 
made so as to receive 

equally well, and all at once, all frequencies 
from about 585 to 595 kilocycles while listen- 
ing to woo. Furthermore if the selectivity of 
the set is to be the best possible, all frequen- 
cies below 585 and all above 595 should, at 
the same time, be completely rejected. 

THE IDEAL RECEIVER 

IN OTHER words the ideal receiver should 
be like a slit or a door that opens only wide 
enough to let in the desired music. (In 
order to carry out this simile, we may say 
that good quality music is about 10 kilocycles 



242 



Radio Broadcast 



wide, while 4 kilocycles is as wide a range as 
speech needs to be satisfactorily natural and 
understandable). If the door is not opened 
wide enough the "side bands" will be 
"pinched" and the quality of the received 
voice or music will suffer. On the other hand, 
if the door is opened wider than necessary 
there is just so much more room for the static 
to get in. The super-heterodyne is the type 
of receiver best adapted to yield the ideal 
selectivity defined above, especially at short 
wavelengths. In fact, practically speaking, 
it can be said that probably no other type of 
receiver can be made to come anywhere near 
this ideal for waves shorter than three or four 
hundred meters. 

In connection with the advantage of the 
best possible selectivity, it is interesting to 
note a step taken by the American Telephone 
and Telegraph Company in their recent 
experimental transatlantic radio telephone 
work. By using what is called "single side 
band" transmission, the width of channel 
required is cut in half, so that if the selectivity 
of the receiver is correspondingly increased, 
only one half as much static can get in as is the 
case with the ordinary type of transmission. 
This advantage is not the only one offered by 
single side band transmission, but the difficul- 
ties attendant in producing the single side 
band, especially at short wavelengths, and the 
difficulty of receiving music by this method, 
prevent its general use for broadcasting at 
present. 

GREATER POWER AT THE SENDING END? 

THE increase of power of the transmitter 
and the increase of selectivity of the 
receiver are unquestionably feasible methods 
for reducing static interference. There are 
however many ingenious inventors who will 
not agree with the following rather sweeping 
statement: Suppose that a typical broadcast- 
ing station is working on a wavelength in the 
ordinary range. Now suppose that some one 
using any conventional type of antenna ex- 
periences static interference while listening 
to the broadcasting station. The statement 
is, that no "filters," "traps," double modula- 
tion schemes, or any other arrangements, no 
matter how complicated, can ever do any more 
toward reducing the interference than can be 
done by simply making the selectivity of the 
receiving set approach the ideal character 
previously described. This is merely another 
way of expressing the view that static can be 
considered to be a mixture of disturbances 
of identically the same nature as the signals, 



and hence that the portion of these distur- 
bances that acts like signals lying in a given 
frequency range will inevitably be received 
by any set that is receiving signals in this 
frequency range. 

WHY NOT CHANGE THE ANTENNA? 

THE above statement might seem to in- 
dicate that there can be no cure for the 
trouble. However, there are several condi- 
tions mentioned in the statement that suggest 
new methods of attack. For instance, why 
must we receive with a conventional type of 
antenna? Why not devise a very "direc- 
tional" antenna, that is, one that has to be 
accurately pointed in the direction from which 
the waves are coming? Such an antenna 
would pick up only the small fraction of static 
disturbances that acts like signals coming from 
the same direction as the signals we want to 
hear. The loop antenna has this directional 
property to a rudimentary degree and hence 
gives a slightly better signal-to-static ratio 
than the usual open antenna. It is hoped 
that the use of very short waves will make 
possible antennae having very high "direc- 
tional selectivity." 

Again, why do we have to stick to the 
ordinary range of wavelengths? It is natural 
to expect the static interference to be worse 
in some wavelength ranges than others, 
and it may well be possible to work down to a 
wavelength where the interference is negligi- 
ble. 

A NEW TYPE OF WAVE, PERHAPS 

SO FAR we have met the enemy face to 
face and combatted him in a straight- 
forward fashion. It is not impossible however 
that we might have been able to avoid doing 
battle at all. For, upon finding that natural 
causes were already ahead of us in producing 
a certain type of electromagnetic disturbance, 
we might have said to ourselves: "Very well 
then, we will invent for our purpose some 
other kind of disturbance, one that Nature 
is not already producing, and thus insure that 
we receive nothing except what we transmit." 
As an example of possible experiments along 
this line, we might try using horizontally 
polarized waves; that is, waves turned over 
on their sides, so to speak. Such waves are 
emitted from a loop with its plane parallel 
to the earth's surface. Another possibility 
would be circularly polarized waves. These 
are a little difficult to describe and it will be 
enough to say that they are to an ordinary 
wave what a corkscrew is to a wavy line, or a 



Can "Static" Interference Be Eliminated? 



243 



, curl to a simple "wave" in the hair. In any 
case the receiving set would have to be de- 
signed not to receive the ordinary type of 
wave at all. While the signal-to-static ratio 
might very likely be improved by the use of 
these particular types of waves, it is extremely 
unlikely that complete freedom from static 
would be attained. 

UNDERGROUND TRANSMISSION 

UNDER the general head of "avoiding 
battle" comes the idea of transmitting 
from one antenna entirely buried under the 
earth to another similarly buried. Trans- 
mission free from static has been reported by 
some experimenters using this method. The 
writer does not feel prepared to criticize the 
possibilities of this method, and only ventures 
to wonder whether the phenomenon of "total 
reflection" could play any part in it. 

Summing up the whole subject, we do not 



see much hope of eliminating static absolutely, 
but believe it to be readily possible to reduce 
the interference to any desired degree by the 
use of the methods (no two of which are mu- 
tually exclusive) tabulated below in order of 
practicability and importance: 

1. Increase power of all transmitting sta- 
tions. 

2. Increase frequency selectivity of re- 
ceivers to the limit imposed by quality con- 
siderations. 

3. Work in region of wavelengths that 
experiment shall have shown to be freest from 
interference. 

4. Increase directional selectivity of re- 
ceiving antennae. 

5. Decrease necessary channel width by use 
of single side band transmission. 

6. Use some type of electro-magnetic wave 
that is less used by Nature than the type now 
used for broadcasting. 




LIEUTENANT LOWELL SMITH 
Acting Commander of the United States 
Army World fliers, who recently completed 
their 'round the world flight. Lieutenant 
Smith is describing his experiences before 
the microphone at station wcco, St. Paul- 
Minneapolis, wcco was formerly known 
as WLAG. At several cities, notably at 
Boston and New York, when the fliers 
arrived, greetings and speeches were broad- 
cast to them in the air, and the answers 
picked up by the microphones of a broad- 
casting station on the ground and re- 
broadcast to radio listeners 




INDIRECT ADVERTISING 

By radio is regularly achieved by this orchestra which plays popular and semi-classical numbers from 
station WEAF, New York. It is the B. Fischer and Company Astor Coffee Orchestra. This company, one 
of a considerable number now doing indirect advertising "on the air" pays a fee of a certain sum per minute 
for the use of the broadcasting station as well as the salaries of the orchestra. Radio advertising is a new 

field about which very little is known 



How Will You Have Your 
Advertising? 

The Radio Advertising Problem is Similar to the Newspaper's Should Ad- 
vertising Be Permitted on the Air? How Does the Public Like Ether Publicity 



BY JAMES C. YOUNG 



WHEN Mr. Householder hurries 
home in the evening from a 
day's work and sits down beside 
his receiving set, his face does 
not always reflect that peace and pleasure 
that passeth all understanding, usually asso- 
ciated with radio. He is likely to get in 
touch with a station which has just announced 
that, "Mr. Albert Wagh of the Baked Bean 
Corporation of America will now describe the 
scientific preparation of the bean, from pod 
to pot." 

This is publicity. Radio users throughout 
the nation, a large percentage of American 
advertisers, and all who come in contact with 
the public mind, are wondering just how far 



publicity can be carried in the field of radio. 
On that question will depend the future de- 
velopment of broadcasting, perhaps in a 
broader measure than any other one consider- 
ation. It is undeniable, of course, that no 
particular reasons exist why broadcasting 
stations should furnish a daily program of 
entertainment to the American public without 
any kind of compensation. Naturally these 
stations derive a reflective prestige which 
frequently is sufficient to warrant their main- 
tenance, as in the case of department stores 
and similar establishments. But the fact 
remains undisputed that the man with a $5 
receiving set is the one who enjoys the great- 
est benefit. 



How Will You Have Your Advertising? 



245 



How can the broadcaster be paid? So far 
but one dependable method of return has 
been evolved, and that method is publicity. 
There are many shades of opinion as to what 
the public thinks about this intimate associa- 
tion of advertising and radio entertainment. 
A majority of the men who have studied the 
matter from the broadcaster's point of view as- 
sume to believe that 
the American radio 
audience, represented 
by three to five mil- 
lion receiving sets, 
does not particularly 
care whether the pro- 
grams it enjoys are 
made available by di- 
rect or indirect adver- 
tising. But the state- 
ments of radio follow- 
ers themselves show 
that there is a con- 
siderable and growing 
prejudice against the 
type of program in 
which the genesis and 
descent of that baked 
bean are discussed 
too extensively. 

One large station 
that has broadcast 
publicity with marked 
success recently took 
a poll on the problem 
of publicity among 

25,000 persons owning radio sets. The directors 
of this station concluded that the quality of 
entertainment was the determining factor in 
bidding for the radio public's favor, rather 
than the question of publicity. Just how 
far that conclusion can be trusted is a matter 
not easy to decide. 

IS PUBLICITY ALL RIGHT IF VERY GOOD? 

WITH a numerous group of broadcasters 
accepting pay for the privileges of their 
stations it is not difficult for them to become 
convinced that the public has no strong objec- 
tions to this practice. It even seems reason- 
ably true that an excellent quality of enter- 
tainment will go far to neutralize opposition 
from listeners. If these matters are granted, 
we still may doubt that the great average of 
American radio followers will be content with 
programs in which the flavor of advertising is 
becoming steadily more perceptible. 

The broadcaster may well ask how he can 
obtain revenue by other means. That is a 



Advt. 

Of late, there has been considerable discussion 
among radio listeners about advertising on 
the air. We have heard much that is pro and 
much con. There is a great group of the 
radio audience who contend that if radio 
programs are good in both content and 
execution, it doesn't make any difference to 
them if they are an advertising feature for 
some firm or other. Others feel, among 
them, the powerful American Radio Associa- 
tion representing many listeners, that the air 
should be free of all advertising. For many 
years all periodicals have been required to 
indicate that material appearing in news 
columns which is advertising must be so 
labelled. "Advt." has so become a very 
familiar abbreviation to newspaper readers. 
We think the question should be thoroughly 
discussed, and the opinions of listeners 
clarified and expressed, for that will make it 
easier for all. RADIO BROADCAST will 
publish some of the best letters received from 
readers on this subject. THE EDITOR. 



phase of the situation closely allied with 
publicity, but it is not the immediate subject 
under discussion, nor can it be looked upon 
as the weightiest factor in broadcasting. This 
great enterprise has assumed a semi-public 
character and the stations of the nation are 
regarded as semi-public institutions, in the 
same way that newspapers and periodicals 
often become a vital 
part in the life of the 
times. If a newspa- 
per or magazine, hon- 
ored with the respect 
and confidence of the 
public, should so far 
misconceive its mis- 
sion as some radio 
stations have been 
known to do, the re- 
sult could not be long 
if it is a doubt. Broad- 
casters of trained per- 
ceptions admit this 
view, and maintain 
that every station 
must stand or fall by 
the rule of its own 
conduct. That is an 
excellent answer and 
not improbably the 
solution of publicity 
in the air. 

It is not an easy 
matter to conduct a 
broadcasting station. 

Judging from the number of those who rush 
in where the initiated tread with care, a wide 
impression exists that the only requirements 
for success are represented by a microphone 
and a few entertainers. But the record of 
survival indicates that broadcasting requires 
something more. That something might be 
called a large endowment of ingenuity, be- 
cause the typical program director must be 
ingenious indeed if not a genius. 

Within the last two years more than 1,000 
government licenses have been issued to 
broadcasting stations. At this moment but 
535 are in operation, surely a prodigious num- 
ber, but still these are a mere half of those 
established in this short span of twenty-four 
months. 

What became of the others? That is one 
of the unwritten chapters of radio, which 
might afford much profit to those who con- 
template entering upon the high adventure 
of broadcasting. About sixty of the 535 
surviving stations are now interlarding pub- 



246 



Radio Broadcast 



licity with their usual programs. These sixty 
stations are among the largest and best organ- 
ized in the country, so it is a fair assumption 
that the principal support of broadcasting 
to-day comes from paid publicity. 

ESSENTIALLY BROADCASTING IS PUBLICITY 

THE definition of paid publicity is used 
advisedly, for some of the men identified 
with radio argue that the whole broadcasting 
activity has been built upon the theory of 
publicity, and maintain that the question 
whether this publicity benefits a station or is 
bought by some one using that station, does 
not really matter. 

But there is a difference between the kind 
of publicity which a station obtains and the 
sort that deals with baked beans at so much 
a minute. The privilege of addressing a radio 
audience is worth anywhere from $40 to $600 
an hour, and the man who buys even ten 
minutes will strive hard to sell something in 
his allotted time. 

This question of "selling something by 
radio" is a particularly annoying thorn. No 



matter how ably theories may be argued, it is 
past dispute that the man who puts on his 
slippers and lets his mind drift away with 
radio, does not want to have a salesman's 
patter drummed in his ears. The direct sales 
appeal seldom is permitted by radio. Happily 
that has been true in a large measure, but sell- 
ing organizations everywhere are turning in- 
tensive attention to the possibilities of radio 
campaigns. The appeal to buy seeps through 
the air more clearly every day. The man we 
have imagined in his slippers always has the 
opportunity to turn a dial and usher in an- 
other thought, a privilege that he undoubtedly 
uses to excellent advantage, but if there is 
to be no intelligent check on publicity, the 
day does not seem far distant when it will be 
difficult to tune-in a program without un- 
pleasant advertising features. 

VARIOUS ARE THE USES OF PUBLICITY 

THERE are many sorts of publicity. 
Every one is familiar with the discourse 
on baked beans and other subjects of the kind. 
Then there is the variety of publicity which 




THE RADIO STUDIO 

May become as much a battleground for advertisers as the pages of the daily newspaper or the magazine. 
There are those who contend that all broadcasting is advertising for someone, and that it is merely a question 
of who shall be advertised and in what way. Secretary of Commerce Hoover says "the quickest way to kill 
broadcasting would be to use it for direct advertising." In any event, it will be the listener who decides 
whether or no he will countenance radio advertising of any sort. The photograph shows the studio of KGO 

at Oakland 



How Will You Have Your Advertising? 



247 




rami) followers themselves do not always recog- 
njdic Upon the principle that ignorance is 
bhsti this particular phase might seem beyond 
obj^rtion. The man with a radio set will not 
resent an announcement in which the name 
of some New York hotel is called to his atten- 
tion by the information that its orchestra will 
now play for his edification. There has been a 
lively competi- 
tion lately among 
hotel orchestras 
of the metropolis 
for this privilege, 
and some of the 
big hostelries are 
paying monu- 
mental fees in 
order that their 
names may be 
associated in the 
public minds 
with superior 
musical organiz- 
ations. 

This is public- 
ity in its least 
objectionable 
form. Another 
variety that 
seems to pass 
muster is the 
address by some life insurance executive or 
banking official who treats of matters which 
lie close to the public interest. Usually the 
only advertising consists in the linking of 
names which join the company and the 
speaker while thousands of persons pay 
heed. Many of these radio addresses are so 
well delivered that they represent a public 
service rather than a private gain, no matter 
how large that gain may be. Other addresses 
are boresome to the point of drowsiness, but 
it does not take long for the radio follower to 
apply the proper and inevitable remedy. 

Publicity falls into a third classification, 
which is insiduous and subject to criticism, 
the kind of publicity where the object of 
the speaker is withheld, seeking by adroit 
means to inveigle the public mind. An illus- 
tration might be found in a number of ad- 
dresses delivered not long ago on the subject 
of a great water power development, for which 
public support was needed. It may be ques- 
tioned whether some of the stations concerned 
recognized this theme as publicity, because it 
bore none of the usual ear marks. Program 
directors are ever on the alert against the man 
v. ho endeavors to use their stations for public- 



THE HAPPINESS BOYS 

Give a weekly program from WEAF, New York, which is an ex- 
cellent example of what many consider a quite inoffensive form 
of indirect advertising. The only mention made of Happiness 
Candy Stores, which they represent, is at the start and finish 
of their half-hour program 



ity without pay. Perhaps some of these water 
power addresses were paid material; others 
were not. But the way in which they cropped 
up across the country left little doubt in the 
minds of shrewd observers that interest in 
water power served a broader purpose. 

With the development of publicity we also 
have had the introduction and rapid advance 

of the radio pub- 
licity agent. He 
is now an estab- 
lished institution 
and likely to be- 
come as colorful 
a personality in 
the field of radio 
as he long since 
became in the 
domain of the 
press. Indica- 
tions are that he 
will not have a 
higher repute in 
his new vocation 
than he has had 
in his old. 

There is an- 
other side to 
radio publicity 
which deals 
frankly and 
wholly with advertising in its customary and 
recognized forms. It is said that some twenty 
or twenty-five of the principal advertising 
agencies now maintain departments which 
deal exclusively with the sale of merchandise 
by radio. Their methods are less subtle than 
those of the publicity agent who organizes a 
campaign which evolves around some public 
question, such as the water power rights. But 
let us assume that an advertising agent is re- 
tained to make popular a particular kind of 
silk. His first step would be to copyright some 
attractive name for his merchandise. Then he 
might send out a recognized fashion designer, 
delivering talks across the country on the 
charm of the season's new styles in silks, par- 
ticularly that silk into which had been woven 
the skillful threads of advertising. 

It is within reason to believe that all of the 
women who listened to one of these fashion 
chats would find no fault with the advertising 
flavor. One trained observer of public in- 
clinations pointed out that women read the 
daily bargain advertisements with as much 
or more interest than any other section of the 
daily press. Therefore, why not an equal 
interest in styles by air? 



Radio Broadcast 



If the answer be, affirmative, it is only an- 
other step to conclude that bargains by air 
might be acceptable to a numerous section 
of radio followers. This same man, who 
knows all about the minds of women, even 
ventured the suggestion that a time would 
come when broadcasting stations could be 
operated solely for the 
purpose of announc- 
ing sales and fashions 
and such things. 

Endeavoring for a 
moment to look down 
the opening vista of 
time with the eyes of 
this commercial 
prophet it is interest- 
ing to follow up the 
suggestion. If a mail 
order concern in Chi- 
cago made a regular 
Monday night an- 
nouncement of special 
buying opportunities, 
it would be able to 
reach a multitude in 
ten states around, ac- 
complishing in ten or 
fifteen minutes with 
the voice of one man 
what would require 
great organization 
and the applied efforts 
of many workers, by 
any other means. Al- 
though we may safely 
conclude that this 
broadcasting of bar- 
gains lies somewhat 
in the future, it is a 
possibility not to be 
lightly dismissed. 

Broadcasting is 

such a comparatively new field of endeavor 
that its principles remain undefined and its 
development must be yet measured. Much of 
the uncertainty and many of the objectionable 
qualities which characterize radio were pres- 
ent in equal or greater measure when the auto- 
mobile and moving picture industries first 
began their amazing expansion. Wherever 
there is haste and stress, there also must be 
growing pains. But the lusty vigor of radio 
and its broad application furnish abundant 
guarantees that its difficulties will be solved. 
. In the meanwhile the publicity agent is 
busily engaged at his task. At least two 
or three radio booking agencies have come 



Herbert Hoover Says 

I believe that the quickest way to kill 
^ broadcasting would be to use it for direct 
advertising. The reader of the newspaper 
has an option whether he will read an ad or 
not, but if a speech by the President is to be 
used as the meat in a sandwich of two patent 
medicine advertisements, there will be no 
radio left. To what extent it may be 
employed for what we now call indirect 
advertising, I do not know, and only the 
experience with the reactions of listeners can 
tell. 1 do not believe there is any practical 
method of payment from the receivers. I 
wish to suggest for consideration the possi- 
bility of mutual organization by broadcasters 
of a service for themselves similar to that 
which the newspapers have for their use in 
the press associations, which would furnish 
programs of national events and arrange for 
their transmission and distribution on some 
sort of a financial basis, just as the press 
associations gather and distribute news 
among their members. 

It may be that we cannot find a solution 
at this moment, but I believe that one result 
of this conference should not only be the 
consideration of this question but the 
establishment of a continuing committee for 
its consideration." 

HERBERT HOOVER, Secretary of 
Commerce, in his opening address to the 
third annual radio conference in Washington. 



into existence which undertake to *$fy js a 
hearing for any particular kind of ba''5 e -on ins 
or some new fabric, by addresses a' ss v vher 
devices employed from station to' e c sr .cion. 
These booking agencies have worked out a 
schedule on much the same principle as theatri- 
cal agencies. A speaker leaving New York, 
let us say, will travel 
to Cleveland, then 
Chicago, perhaps 
Omaha, and so on to 
the Coast, returning 
by the Southern 
route. He will "play 
one night stands" 
and allow a few days 
between each address 
so that the tenor of 
his arguments do not 
become too familiar. 
This fall has wit- 
nessed an interest in 
radio never before ap- 
proached. It is not so 
long ago that observ- 
ers asked if radio had 
come to stay and 
could maintain itself 
as an entertainment 
against the many 
other forms of appeal 
for public attention. 
That question seems 
trite now, although it 
involved serious con- 
sideration but a short 
while ago. With the 
new assurance that 
radio has become a 
definite part of Amer- 
ican activity, men 



who study publicity 
and advertising in its 

varied phases have centered their efforts upon 
reaching the public mind by means of the mi- 
crophone. And they are succeeding in a degree 
which opens to the broadcasters an immediate 
and incalculably rich source of revenue. Shall 
we blame the broadcaster for extending his 
hand to those who urge pay upon him when 
he has no other means of obtaining a return? 
Certainly this presents a case where the broad- 
caster must be more than human to decline. 
Once more the ethical and the practical clash. 
The American newspapers formerly were 
blighted with the same sort of shadow 
that hangs over radio. Almost any average 
newspaper of fifteen or twenty years ago was 



How Will You Have Your Advertising? 



crammed with advertisements of patent 
medicines, liquor of many sorts, and other 
questionable advertising material. Then pub- 
lic sentiment and the perception of publishers 
began to raise up a barrier which has become 
higher than any man might have hoped. 
Whiskey advertisements were the first to feel 
this influence. Regardless of the virtues or 
lack of virtue involved in prohibition, senti- 
ment agreed that the widespread advertising 
of whiskey was a bad thing. Even before 
prohibition, it was unusual to find such ad- 
vertisements in the best papers. Patent 
medicine advertisements are disappearing. 
The really representative institutions of the 
American press exercise a more rigorous cen- 
sorship over their advertising columns than 
any public agency could possibly put in effect. 
The lowly bill-board is hard pressed for its 
very life. 

Along with the change in advertising came 
a decided improvement in editorial columns. 
The noxious "reading notice" of yesterday is 
almost unknown now, not only because of an 
ethical advance, but for the excellent reason 
that Congress passed a Federal statute re- 
quiring every paid article or card to be plainly 
marked advertisement. That law, which was 
stoutly contended against by many publishers, 
proved one of the wholesome influences 
brought to bear on American journalism. 

To-day the question is asked if radio broad- 
casters should not be subject to some similar 
restrictions. What could be lost by a Federal 
statute that would compel announcers to 
specify advertising features on their program? 
This need not take an offensive form, no more 
than the word advertisement at the top of a 
newspaper column prevents readers from 
perusing its contents. 

We are a nation of advertisement readers. 
Advertising long since emerged from the day 
when it had anything to conceal. Men who 
value highest the prestige and future of radio 
have taken note of this similarity and the" 
question is one that will be repeated oftener 
why not plainly label each program number 
that deals with advertising? Then the ques- 
tion of faith between the broadcasters and 
the public would be effectively settled. 

There is distinguished opinion on the side of 
permitting radio advertising to find its own 
level. Secretary of Commerce Herbert C. 
Hoover is one of the men who inclines to this 
view. In a conversation not long ago with 
Paul B. Klugh, Executive Chairman of the 
National Association of Broadcasters, Mr. 
Hoover repeated previous statements that he 



saw no reason for a censorship of radio pub- 
licity. 

QUICK REACTION FROM POOR PROGRAMS 

IT HAS been the experience of broadcasters 
that the public interest centers on the kind 
of entertainment provided, regardless of ad- 
vertising," said Mr. Klugh. "If any station 
permits an advertiser to broadcast poor enter- 
tainment, both the station and the advertiser 
suffer. There never is much question about 
the reaction from a campaign of this sort. 
When uninteresting and badly devised, the 
station which permits it to go on will not be 
slow in hearing from followers. Methods of 
measuring this public reaction to any kind of 
appeal have become so definitely fixed that 
we may safely leave the problem of radio 
publicity in the public's hands. 

"Personally I see no reason why radio 
publicity should be objectionable merely be- 
cause it is publicity. There may be causes of 
specific complaint, but it is certain that no 
worthwhile station would permit questionable 
material to be radiated, once the character of 
this material had been established. 

"Broadcasting stations are becoming so 
jealous of their reputation that they closely 
scan every number on their programs. Should 
any of these numbers offend public taste, the 
stations themselves would be the quickest and 
surest sufferers. 





WENDELL HALL 

A radio entertainer who is nationally known. He 

has appeared from many stations in all parts of the 

country accomplishing "indirect advertising" for the 

National Carbon Company 



250 



Radio Broadcast 




" It is not enough to avoid offence; a station 
must always command the interest of a multi- 
tude, and we may be certain that this command 
is impossible when advertising material be- 
comes uninteresting. There is no audience 
more exacting than that which sits at home 
with perhaps a dozen radio stations in easy reach. 
I think we need have no fear that programs 
will tend to the boresome or questionable so 
long as a man need but shift a dial to change 
his entertainment. It seems to me that the 



PAUL B. KLUGH 

Executive Chairman, National Associa- 
tion of Broadcasters. Many of the asso- 
ciated broadcasters of this organization 
will accept radio bookings of artists or 
speakers who are employed to appear be- 
fore the microphone in one of the various 
forms of indirect advertising now going 
out on the air. Mr. Klugh believes that 
a certain form of indirect advertising will 
be quite acceptable to the listener 



law of preservation and the unfailing exercise 
of public choice will serve to control radio 
publicity better than any other means we 
could devise." 

But in any case, the listener-in himself will 
decide the fate of radio advertising. In this 
matter as in many others, it takes a consider- 
able time for the feelings of the public to be 
definitely manifested. It is often difficult even 
to know exactly what the proper interpretation 
of "the public reaction" is. 



BROADCAST is interested to know what 
its readers think of the question Mr. Young 
has so ably treated. A few of the best letters ex- 
pressing a reasoned opinion will be published in 
later numbers of this magazine. Address your 
letters to THE EDITOR. 




PRESIDENT COOLIDGE 

And Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover, in the grounds of the White House. President Coolidge is 
addressing the members of the Third Annual Radio Conference. The President described the advance- 
ment of radio as "one of the most astonishing developments in the history of science." He said radio offers 
the Government one of the greatest problems it has had to face, and that little change would be made in 
present policies. There would be no monoply of the air, he declared 



THE MARCH OF RADIO 



BY 




President, Institute of Radio Engineers 



What the Hoover Conference Did 



THOSE who like to criticize Cabinet 
officers in the present Republican ad- 
ministration seem to have avoided 
Herbert Hoover, the able Secretary 
of Commerce. Almost everyone feels that 
Secretary Hoover has done an excellent job. 
And few groups feel that more strongly than 
the radio folk. Mr. Hoover has been in office 
during one of the most difficult times possible 
from the point of view of radio. During the 



early months of his office, broadcasting began 
with the licensing of the station of the Detroit 
News, wwj, and KDKA, 'the Westinghouse 
station at East Pittsburgh. Troubles and 
complications and problems of all kinds de- 
scended upon the Department of Commerce 
thick and fast from then on. The best tribute 
it is possible to pay Mr. Hoover and his sub- 
ordinates in office is that they have managed 
radio affairs with the least possible friction and 



252 



Radio Broadcast 




RADIO ABOARD THE ZR~3 

The Zeppelin, which the Reparations Commission 
allotted to the United States Government. She re- 
cently completed the 5,060 mile flight from Fried- 
richshafen to Lakehurst in eighty one hours. The 
great ship is 660 feet long. Her radio equipment, 
shown in the photograph, consists of a 200 watt tube 
transmitter for cw and telephone, operating on 1510 
meters. The fan antenna is 
dropped through the deck of the 
forward gondola, where the 
radio apparatus is located. The 
wires, each 400 feet long and 
weighted at the end, form a 
ian, as the insert of the ship 
shows 



a great deal of tact. The regulation of radio is 
a complicated matter indeed. 

For the last three years, there has been an 
annual conference to discuss and make definite 
recommendations about radio, called under the 
auspices of the Department of Commerce. 
Here, the lambs and the wolves have laid down 
together, bitter enemies have watched each 
other, pleasantly enough, across the quieting 
green baize of the conference table, and prog- 
ress in the radio field has been constructively 
guided. The Department of Commerce radio 
regulations have very largely been formed 
from the wise suggestions of these conferences. 

The Third Annual Radio Conference at 
Washington this year was as widely attended 
as those which preceded it, and although it is a 
bit early to draw conclusions, we think it 
accomplished quite as much if not more than 
the first two. 

A brief summary of the recommendations of 
the Conference follows: 

The amateurs are to be given a new series 
of wave bands, somewhat lower than those to 
which they are at present entitled. They are 
to be permitted to operate continuously, for 
it is believed that such operation will in no way 



interfere with other ser- 
vices. The amateur showed 
his willingness to cooper- 
ate by volunteering to 
abolish the use of spark 
transmitters and discourag- 
ing the use of oscillating 
receivers within the broad- 
cast range. The latter is 
particularly important be- 
cause it means that inter- 
ference from squealing re- 
ceivers will not exist so far as 
the amateur is concerned 
on the short waves to be 
used for rebroadcasting. 
Ship transmitting waves are to be pushed up 
beyond the broadcast zone, and thus another 
form of severe interference has been greatly 
reduced. A general revision of the licenses for 
various types of broadcasting stations will, it is 
believed, result in a great improvement in 
broadcasting conditions. 

Perhaps no one decision of the conference 
was more important, or considered more 
thoroughly, than the proposal to establish 
super-power broadcasting stations in several 
parts of the country which should be capable of 
broadcasting important events to all parts of 
the country simultaneously. There was so 
much feeling in favor and so much opposition 
to this proposal that a compromise was 
effected. This provided that any individual 
or company may apply for a license for 
such a station. The license will be an ex- 
perimental one and is immediately revoc- 
able by the Department of Commerce if 
such a station interferes with any service 
already existing. 

Such an experiment is of great importance. 
Several companies are ready to undertake it at 
once. Super-power and the victory or defeat 
of a group of influential radio men now hangs 



The March of Radio 



253 



in the balance. By all means let us have a 
fair trial and judgment of the case on its merit 
alone. 

These are the most important recommenda- 
tions of the Conference. Their crystalliza- 
tion and enforcement now lies with the radio 
service of the Department of Commerce. 
Most of the detail work yet remains to be done. 
And it is left to a pitifully undermanned and 
pitifully underpaid department to do. The 
radio service of the Department of Commerce 
has done marvels when one considers the 
handicaps under which they have always 
worked. Congress has steadily refused to 
make any appropriations other than those 
covering the bare necessities of operation. 
The entire personnel of the radio service has 
been for a period of years taxed beyond its 
strength. 

If no other good results from this latest 
conference, it is to be hoped that there 
will have been spread about a greater ap- 
preciation for the level-headed, highly con- 
scientious, far sighted men in the Depart- 
ment of Commerce and the Bureau of 
Standards. 

Aside from the technical findings of the 
Conference, which were much more involved 
than those considered at any previous confer- 
ence, there was one outstanding beneficial 
result. Radio men and women from all sec- 
tions of the land met and ironed out their 
difficulties and got away to a new start. In 
this respect, the Third Radio Conference 
was strikingly successful. 



amateurs who have been experimenting with 
short waves agree that we know but little 
about their proper use. One of the principal 
reasons for the increasing popularity of such 
experimenting is unquestionably due to the 
fact that much publicity has resulted from the 
experimental broadcasting on the shorter 
waves by the Westinghouse and the General 
Electric Companies. As a result of this 
publicity there has been a demand on the part 
of listeners-in to procure receivers capable of 
receiving these broadcasts for which many 
startling claims have been made. 

Following this demand there has been the 
usual group of short-sighted manufacturers 
who have endeavored to "cash in" upon the 
demand. The simplest form of receiver for 
such operation is the common regenerator 
with a few slight alterations which has come 
in for so much condemnation in these columns 
because it not only is a receiver, but a very 
good transmitter when operated in its most 
sensitive condition. 

In short wave broadcasting, we saw a means 
of sending programs to a group of stations, if 
proper facilities could be arranged. These 
broadcasts could then be picked up and re- 
broadcast on the waves we are accustomed to 
employ. Indeed, the experiments conducted 
by the two corporations to which we have re- 
ferred have proved this to be so. But we 
foresaw in the ordinary type of regenerative 
receiver a menace even greater than when 
used on the regular broadcast waves. For this 



Short Waves Should 
Be Conserved 

THE world's record for 
long distance commu- 
nication was broken by 
a pair of amateurs, a Cali- 
fornian and a New Zealander, 
a short time ago. They car- 
ried on intercommunication 
at a distance of 6,900 miles 
for more than an hour em- 
ploying short waves. There 
is something of more import- 
ance in the accomplishment 
of this remarkable feat than 
appears on the surface 
something' more than the 
mere fact that a new record 
has been set up. 

Most engineers and 
most of the experienced 




RUSSELL AND STUART HOBART 

Of Roslindaie. Massachusetts, outside of their amateur station i AAR 
from which they recently communicated with amateurs in the Nether- 
lands. 



254 



Radio Broadcast 




THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS IN SESSION 

At Geneva. The President of the Swiss Federated Republic is presiding over the meeting of the General 
Assembly. Four microphones can be distinctly seen on the rostrum from which the proceedings were sent 

out for the first time 



reason no "how-to-make-it" articles in RADIO 
BROADCAST describing one of these abomina- 
tions appear. 

Let us be more explicit. Nearly everyone 
who has listened-in on a radio receiver has at 
one time or another had a good concert ruined 
by some improperly operated oscillating re- 
ceiver, operated in his vicinity. In this case 
the interference from the offending receiver is 
confined to the neighborhood in which it is 
operated, which is bad enough. Where short 
waves are used in place of wires to carry a 
concert from one point to another where it is 
to be rebroadcast, it is but necessary to have 
one such improperly operated receiver com- 
pletely to ruin reception for those, not only 
in the immediate vicinity of the offender, but 
for all served by the station doing the re- 
broadcasting. 

It was not until we could perfect a receiver 
capable of efficient operation on short waves 
without causing interference that we would 
publish any instructions for building receivers 
with which the short wave broadcasts could 
be picked up. It is particularly gratifying to 
us, therefore to have designed the receiver 
with which this remarkable record was made. 



Perhaps some of those readers who were some- 
what disgruntled at our deliberate refusals to 
give them the information on such receivers 
they sought most diligently will now appreci- 
ate the reason for our stand. If they do not, 
we feel perfectly happy in having endeavored 
to serve the greatest number to the best of our 
ability. Needless to say we are deeply grate- 
ful to Mr. W. B. Magner, the Californian who 
made the record with the Roberts short wave 
two-tube receiver described by Zeh Bouck in 
our August number. 

Farmers Really Use Radio 

WE HAVE often speculated on the 
farmer's use of radio, assuming that 
market reports and similar news 
items over the radio channel must be of real 
value to him. Thus far the farmer has not 
been very effusive in expressing his apprecia- 
tion of the "farmer's radio channel." A news 
item from Milwaukee states that the farmers 
in the neighboring section have banded to- 
gether to prevent the erection of electric power 
lines through their property, claiming that the 
presence of the high power wires "would make 



The March of Radio 



255 



it almost impossible for them to receive market 
reports and other news by radio because of 
interference." One must certainly conclude 
from this apparently dependable report that 
the farmers in this section at least are making 
real use of the news which radio is disseminat- 
ing. 




The Narrow Radio Ruling of the 
Insurance Companies 

THE fire insurance companies have taken 
cognizance of radio installations by at- 
taching a radio permit to their policies. 
We have just received the one attached to 
policies issued under the New York Fire In- 
surance Rating Organization, and note with 
interest one of its clauses. After stipulating 



HENRY FORD'S MARINE RADIO 

EQUIPMENT 

Aboard the SS. Benson Ford at dock in 
River Rouge, Michigan. The ship is one 
of two, built to carry bulk cargo to and 
from the Ford Detroit plants. Onthe dock 
can be seen gondola freight cars of the D. 
T. & I., the Ford railroad. The Benson 
Ford is equipped with a 500 watt RCA cw 
transmitter, operating on 600, 706, 909, 
and 1875 meters. KFTC is also equipped 
with a radio compass which the photo- 
graph shows installed on the bridge. Both 
the new Ford ships use radio telephone as 
well as the telegraph. The master of either 
ship can talk directly from his cabin to 
any other ship within range by telephone 




256 



Radio Broadcast 




Nicholas Muray 
KARL BICKEL 
New York City; President, the United Press 

"Inch by inch radio is edging into the business 
of news distribution. This was never so 
graphically illustrated as in connection with the 
Democratic National Convention. Extra editions 
rushed from New York to suburban towns 
carrying the jist ballot would reach the newsstand 
just as the complete report of the 8oth ballot was 
coming over the loud speaker. The editions were 
old before they arrived. 

" The results of big sports contests are now 
known instantaneously via radio. However, in 
spite of these instances, I do not believe the news- 
papers have much to fear. But radio can never 
give the complete news report of the day as the 
newspapers can give it. 

"Radio is an imperative thing. Unlike the 
newspaper, it cannot be laid aside and picked up 
in a moment of leisure. You miss the event if you 
are not at the loud speaker as it is being broadcast. 
And even then you get only the fact. The 
newspapers are read for color and interpretation. 
With big news being flashed by radio, newspaper 
publishers will no longer have the obligation of 
going extra to give the public the news. More 
time and effort can be spent on improving details 
and interpreting the facts. 

"Press associations will not enter the radio 
field by erecting their own broadcasting stations 
for the distribution of news in the immediate 
future. Popular radio telephony is still an 
infant industry of only three years' growth and 
has by no means exhausted the possibilities of its 
development." 



that the policy does not cover personal in- 
jury from electrical apparatus, etc., a war- 
ranty states that "the source of energy shall 
be only from primary or storage batteries." 

One could almost believe that this clause 
was written at the request of the battery 



manufacturers. We are extremely irritated 
by this clause, for it seems to penalize ad- 
vances in the art. The idea of depending 
upon batteries for the power to run a radio 
receiver when electric power is used in a house 
for lighting, is really very absurd from the 
engineering point of view. We have con- 
tinually advocated the use of suitable rectify- 
ing outfits so that the power may be obtained 
from the light socket, with the view of stimu- 
lating the inventive genius of the country 
along these lines, and now the insurance com- 
panies have put themselves in the position of 
penalizing such devices! 

There is no reason in the world why these 
rectifying outfits, properly designed, built, 
and installed, should be discriminated against. 
We certainly hope the ill-advised insurance 
companies will eliminate the progress-im- 
peding clause from their policies. 

The Chicago Municipal Radio Com- 
mission 

FEELING that the conditions in the 
broadcasting game in Chicago were 
not as satisfactory to the average 
listener as they should, and might, be, 
Chicago's mayor has appointed a committee 
of representative technical and business men 
to study the problem and hand in to him their 
findings and recommendations. The idea of 
forming such a commission belongs to Frank 
Reichmann, president of the Reichmann Co. 
He has felt that such a commission might 
do much to control the possible censoring 
of broadcast stations, and to arouse and 
crystalize public opinion against oppressive 
local legislation having to do with radio mat- 
ters. Of course no real power can be as- 
sumed by such a commission. Its function 
is entirely advisory. The control of radio 
must necessarily come under the Federal 
Government, as it surely is "interstate traffic." 
Some municipalities have enacted statutes 
which purport to dictate on radio matters 
insofar as their community is concerned, but 
such statutes are probably of no real impor- 
tance. 

Speaking of the work this Chicago com- 
mission will undertake, the minutes of its 
first meeting conclude "Another important 
reason for a radio commission is the fact that 
in the last few years practically every form of 
popular entertainment enjoyed by the people 
has been subject to attack from small min- 
ority groups, who seek to regulate by sump- 
tuary law every minute of our lives from the 



The March of Radio 



257 



cradle to the grave. A commission operating 
efficiently can shield the radio listener and 
the broadcaster from these attacks and can 
do a great deal to prevent oppressive legisla- 
tion." 

Broadcasting is Publishing 

MUCH has been said lately about the 
use of a broadcasting station for 
_ advertising purposes. The majority 

of listeners, we think, vehemently protest 
against listening to purely advertising pro- 
grams. It seems as though advertising in 
some form or other must be indulged in by 
broadcasting stations until some better meth- 
od of raising an income is devised. Looking 
for an analagous situation, the newspaper at 
once appeals to us as having a similar problem. 
We buy a newspaper primarily to get the news, 
but unless the paper carries a great deal of 
advertising we would have to pay probably 



ten times the present price to get the news 
The advertising of any paper or magazine 
pays for a very large share of its operating 
expense and unless a broadcasting station is 
suitably endowed we must naturally expect to 
get quite a lot of advertising in its pro- 
grams. 

The listener however, isn't really as badly off 
as the last sentence might lead one to believe, 
because radio advertising must be of a high 
order of merit, for otherwise no one will 
listen to the station. The reaction is sure to 
be just the same as was exhibited by a mo- 
torist whose view of a beautiful wooded valley 
was completely shut off by a glaring sign 
purporting to give the merits of Pinnacle 
Oil for engines. " Damn the company that 
puts up signs like that to cut off such beautiful 
landscapes, said he. "I'll never buy any of 
their oil, no matter how good it is." 

It sometimes happens, however, that one 
has to listen-in to a program which is quite 




RADIO WITH THE SCRANTON "TIMES" 

During the World's Series games. The insert shows the electric Scoreboard which was operated simul- 
taneously with the radio loud speakers. When the Navy dirigible Shenandoab flew over Scranton recently, 
the Times radio station, WQAN, was in communication with the ship for more than two hours 



Radio Broadcast 



evidently advertising matter, yet the an- 
nouncer has said nothing to that effect in 
introducing the number. One at once feels 
he is being hoodwinked something is being 
"put over." The reaction of the listener to 
such material is just opposite to that which the 
advertiser is endeavoring to arouse, so that 
advertising of this nature is likely to be prac- 
tised to an ever diminishing extent. The 
listeners themselves, we think, are apt to be 
the court of last resort. 

Another phase of the question is however 
brought to the front by a paragraph in the 
"Topics of the Times" in New York Times, 
drawing an analogy between advertising over 
the radio channel and by means of the press. 
It is illegal for a newspaper to put advertising 
material in its columns without so designating 
it, and there is no reason at all why the same 
rule could not apply to radio. In the words 
of the editorial writer, "Broadcasting cer- 
tainly is publishing, and all publishing should 
be honest. Newspapers, or at any rate some 




WGY ON WHEELS 

This small truck is equipped with a low powered short wave transmitter 
which picks up programs from churches and public halls. The main 
station at WGY picks up these signals and they are radiated in the regular 
manner. The small transmitter takes the place of the usual telephone 
line connection between the outside hall and the broadcasting station 



newspapers, including one which modesty 
prevents mentioning, did not wait for the law 
to speak on this subject but put "advertise- 
ment" over all advertisements not obviously 
that, to every eye. That virtuous example, 
the broadcasters would do well to imitate 
voluntarily. The sooner they do it, the less 
likely will they be to suffer later from regula- 
tions that will be really burdensome. 

Bureau of Standards Finishes Tests 

THE Bureau of Standards has just 
brought to a close a series of tests 
which it organized with the idea of 
ascertaining as much as possible about fading, 
interference, effects of weather, etc. Some 
200 observers located at varying distances, 
from the two stations chosen for transmitting 
(KDKA and WLAG, now wcco) turned into the 
Bureau about 50,000 observations. These 
observations are to be tabulated and classified, 
and it is hoped they will throw some light on 
the complex problem of 
radio transmission. 

A task of this kind en- 
tails a tremendous amount 
of work on the small and 
hard working radio staff of 
the Bureau, and we cannot 
but express our apprecia- 
tion of their work in the 
interests of radio progress. 
The standard frequency 
transmission schedules in- 
augurated and carried out 
by the Bureau are, in our 
opinion, a genuine contri- 
bution to radio develop- 
ments and we are glad to 
voice the thanks of the 
millions of BCL's for that 
useful service. 



Radio and the World 
Flight 

OUR world encircling 
planes have recently 
completed their 
27,000 mile flight and are 
receiving the congratula- 
tions they so well deserve. 
Besides the intrepidity of 
the air men themselves, 
many factors contributed 
greatly to the success 
of the experiment, not 



The March of Radio 



259 



the least of which was the radio channels 
with which the airmen were continually 
in touch. When crossing the northern part 
of the Pacific, the radio problem was of 
extreme importance. As almost everyone 
knows, the weather conditions here are con- 
tinually unsettled and the danger threatening 
a lost aviator is very imminent. In just this 
part of the world, there is precious little radio 
equipment, for between Dutch Harbor in 
America, and Japan, there is not a single radio 
station. 

To the Coast Guard cutter Haida, and her 
radio staff fell the burden of carrying on the 
radio traffic required by the planes during 
this, the most perilous part, of their route. 
In a recent report from the radio officer of 
the Haida, we read a fascinating story of the 
technical difficulties which the task entailed, 
and of the great importance of the radio 
channels he maintained in operation. As he 
says: 

Radio was imperative and vital to the success 
of the flight. There were three principal reasons. 

First, the planes were hopping from 300 to 700 
miles in a jump. It was necessary to know the 
weather conditions along the line of flight. These 
conditions had to be known early in the morning so 
that the flight could start as soon as possible. 

Second, if one plane fell during a hop, the other 
planes were to proceed to the nearest radio station 
and drop a note telling about the accident. This 
made it possible to send assistance within a very 
short time. 

Third, publicity. The flight would have been of 
little value if the people of the United States were 
not informed of its progress. This news was wanted 
by all the various news organizations of the country. 
Radio was the means of getting the news over. 

The log of the Haida graphically relates how- 
well these three ends were met, and reflects 
great credit upon her staff. 

Radio Movies Are Not Yet 

IF WE can believe some of the news items 
dealing with station WMAF, operated as 
a pastime by Col. Green, remarkable 
developments are being carried on there. More 
than $500,000, we learn, has been spent by 
the Colonel on his radio hobby, and that he is 
riding it hard at present is indicated by the 
fact that he has borrowed three radio experts 
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy to experiment for him at his South Dart- 
mouth station. 

According to his secretary, this wealthy 
radio amateur is working on the problem of 
projecting moving pictures by radio. It is 



only a few weeks past that we were congratu- 
lating those inventors who have succeeded in 
transmitting still pictures by radio, but even 
so, the transmission is still far from perfect. 
It takes several minutes now to transmit a 
"still." How, then, can the Colonel project 
moving pictures, which must flash on and off 
the screen about twenty times a second? With 
lots of experts and lots of money to buy ap- 
paratus and facilities, the Colonel may go far 




U.S.C.G. "HAIDA 

In the Bering Sea service, whose radio equipment, 

ably operated, was of enormous service to the Army 

World Fliers when they crossed to Japan 

in the experimental game; that he is even at- 
tempting movies by radio would lead one to 
conjecture that his workers have discovered 
a process a thousand times as rapid and effec- 
tive as that announced by the press with glee 
only a short time past. As no details of the 
scheme were given out, in the interview re- 
ported, we can make no judgment at all re- 
garding its reliability. 



Interesting Things Interesting 
People Say 



A RTHUR CAPPER (United States Senator 
* from Nebraska; in an interview in Printer's 
Ink) : " It seems almost superfluous to comment on 
the obviously demoralizing and deceptive practise 
of broadcasting disguised indirect advertising for 
which the radio station has received a fee. For 
some years now it has been illegal for a newspaper 
or magazine to publish anything in paid-for space 
without indicating unmistakably that the matter is 
paid advertising. The laws were passed because the 
practise of disguising advertising as "reading 
notices" or news matter was considered an imposi- 
tion on the public and a deception. And the broad- 
casting of paid-for indirect advertising without a 
clear statement of the fact at the beginning of every 



260 



Radio Broadcast 




Henry Miller 



HERBERT HOOVER 



Washington; Secretary of Commerce 

"In the whole history of scientific discovery 
there has never been a translation into popular use 
so rapid as radio telephony. So late as the year 
before I became Secretary of Commerce there were 
no broadcasting stations. At the end of four 
years, 530 are in operation, making radio 
available to every home in the country. The 
sales of radio apparatus have increased from a 
million dollars a year to a million dollars a day. 
It is estimated that more than 200,000 men are now 
employed in the industry, and the radio audience 
probably exceeds twenty millions of people. 

" Let us not forget that the value of this great 
system does not lie primarily in its extent or even 
in its efficiency. Its worth depends on the use 
that is made of it. It is not the ability to transmit 
but the character of what is transmitted that really 
counts. Our telephone and telegraph systems are 
valuable only insofar as the messages sent from 
them contribute to the business and social inter- 
course of our people. For the first time in human 
history we have available to us the ability to 
communicate simultaneously with millions of our 
fellowmen, to furnish entertainment, instruction, 
widening vision of national problems and 
national events. An obligation rests on us 
to see that it is devoted to real service and to develop 
the material that is transmitted into that which is 
really worth while. For it is only by this that the 
mission of this latest blessing to humanity may be 
rightly fulfilled." 



message that the speaker has paid for the privilege 
of broadcasting, is no less a deception and an 
imposition as far as the public is concerned." 

LJERBERT H. FROST (Chicago; President, 
* * the Radio Manufacturers' Association): 
" Between the time we first decided on the Associa- 
tion and the time we had effected the permanent 
organization, we had to go through the tax fight in 



Washington. The proposed tax of ten per cert., 
collected at the source, would have meant an 
increase of more than twenty per cent, to the 
consumer and would have cost the manufacturers 
many thousands of dollars in accounting, etc. 
That fight taught us that the interests of the 
manufacturer, the listener, and the broadcaster are 
identical. We are organized, the listeners are 
organizing, and so will the broadcasters. Then all 
can work together with the other elements in the 
industry to prevent these attacks." 

JOSEPH M. LEVIN E (New York City; Presi- 
J dent, the Hunts Point Hospital): "We have 
spent a half million dollars in making this in- 
stitution the most modern of its kind in the Bronx 
district. Its equipment, from the operating rooms 
down through the entire plant, is the most modern 
and scientifically perfect obtainable. And yet, 1 
do not believe that there is a single modern feature 
that can compare, in its ultimate effects for good 
upon the patients, with the radio installation." 

CEDERAL JUDGE KNOX (New York City; 
* in his decision in the case of Jerome H. Remick 
Co., vs. the General Electric Co.): "So far as the 
practical results are concerned, the broadcaster of 
the authorized performance of a copyrighted 
musical selection does little more than the mechanic 
who rigs an amplifier or loud speaker in a large 
auditorium to the end that persons in remote 
sections of the hall may hear what transpires on its 
stage. Such broadcasting merely gives the per- 
former a larger audience and is not to be regarded as 
a separate and distinct performance of the copy- 
righted composition on the part of the broadcaster. 
"When allowance is made for the shrieks, howls, 
and sibilant noises attributable to static and 
interference, the possessor of a radio receiving set 
attuned to the station of the broadcaster of an 
authorized performance hears only the selection as 
it is rendered by the performer. The performance 
is one and the same whether the listener-in be at the 
elbow of the leader of the orchestra playing the 
selection, or at a distance of a thousand miles." 

F\AVID SARNOFF (New York City; Vice- 
*-^ President and General Manager, Radio 
Corporation of America): "There is not to be 
found abroad the same freedom from censorship and 
restriction which exists here. For example, in 
England, where freedom of speech has been such a 
heralded tradition, political broadcasting is for- 
bidden over the radio stations, which are all con- 
trolled by the British Post Office. In other European 
countries, Governmental regulations and restric- 
tions are even more severe. Radio freedom . . . 
enjoyment, and instructive information is available 
to all in the United States. "I endeavored to in- 
terest the British, French, and German broadcasters 
in the idea of increasing the power of their sending 
stations, so that the programs of London, Paris, and 
Berlin might be easily heard by the American lis- 
tening public. . . Much interest was shown in 
these proposals, and I believe that an era of trans- 
oceanic broadcasting is near at hand/' 




STABILIZING THE THREE-TUBE KNOCK-OUT 



THE multi-tube reflex receiver, while 
opening unusual possibilities in ef- 
ficiency per tube, unfortunately in- 
creases the tendency toward insta- 
bility and howling. This tendency is notice- 
able in the three-tube knock-out receiver 
described in the February, 1924, issue of RADIO 
BROADCAST which is fundamentally the one- 
tube knock-out reflex plus two stages of 
transformer-coupled audio amplification. In 
the original set, a stabilizing condenser and 
shielding were resorted to in an endeavor to 
eliminate the squealing that was particularly 
evident when the dials were approached for 
tuning. Though these precautions are effec- 
tive when the adjustments are made by an 
expert, many of our less experienced readers 
were unsuccessful in their efforts to stabilize 
the set. 

More recent experiments in the R. B. LAB 
have efficiently stabilized this three-tube 
arrangement by substituting one stage of re- 
sistance-coupled amplification for the final step 
of transformer coup- 
ling. Non - inductive 
resistanc e-coupled 
amplification is fun- 
damentally more 
stable than either 
transformer or impe- 
dance coupled intens- 
ification owing to the 
practical elimination 
of inductance (the 
many turn iron core 



windings) which is 
directly and indirectly 
responsible for most 
of the feedback and 



What the Lab Offers You This Month 



Hints on Stabilising the Three-Tube Knock- 
Out Receiver. 

A Soldering Iron for Delicate Work. 

An Example of De Luxe Cabinet Construc- 
tion. 

Light on an Electrical Putfle in the Filament 
Circuit. 

Some New Ideas in Spider Web Coil Con- 
struction. 

Building Your Own Lab. 

Other Items of Laboratory Interest. 



resulting howling in the two last named sys- 
tems of amplification. 

The substitution of resistance-coupled 
amplification also results in noticeably im- 
proved quality. Volume, though still very 
satisfactory, is naturally less than the output 
of a straight transformer-coupled amplifier. 
The circuit of the improved arrangement is 
shown in Fig. t. The inductances Ti and T2 
are those described many times and recom- 
mended for single-tube reflex receivers. 
Briefly, they consist of secondaries wound with 
sixty-two turns of about No. 22 wire on a two 
and a half inch form. The primaries are 
wound over the secondaries with an insulating 
layer of paper between. The primary of Ti 
is wound with sixteen turns of No. 22 wire, and 
that of T2 with thirty-six turns of the same 
conductor. T3 and T4 is any efficient ampli- 
fying transformer, preferably of a medium 
ratio, such as four to one. A C or bias 
battery of one and a half to three volts is 
recommended in the grid return of the first 
stage of external 
audio amplification. 

The crystal detec- 
tor used in the set 
under discussion is a 
Pyratek fixed crystal, 
but may be any other 
reliable make. 

The coupling con- 
denser C4 is a .006 
mfd. Micadon, and 
the coupling-resistor 
has a resistance of 
one hundred thousand 
ohms. This last may 
conveniently be either 



262 



Radio Broadcast 



a Daven resistor, or a Crescent Lavite. With 
almost all tubes the grid leak should have a 
value of fifty thousand ohms. 

In the set illustrated in Fig. 2, a Daven 
resisto-coupler was employed in rebuilding 
the final stage. The resisto-coupler clips the 
two resistances and the coupling condenser 
into a single unit which is connected exactly 
in the same manner as the transformer, the 
posts being marked P, B, G and F thus per- 
mitting the change to be made in less than five 
minutes. 

A potential of 135 volts was used, in the 
R. B. LAB, on the plates of the uv-2Oi-A 
tubes. If the voltage is under one hundred, 
an additional 45 volt battery is recommended 
to be included in the plate circuit of the 
resistance-coupled amplifier at X. 

Panel layouts and a more detailed exposition 
of constructional data on this receiver will be 
found in past numbers of RADIO BROADCAST 
particularly the February issue. 

At the same time the experiments described 
were being made, a final stage of impedance- 
coupled amplification was also attempted with 
similar hopes of eliminating feedback and 
squeal. These last experiments, however, 
were unsuccessful, for resistance-coupling 
proved the more effective prevention. 

SOME POINTS ON DELICATE SOLDERING 

DELICATE soldering, and soldering in 
places inaccessible to a large iron are 
trying feats that continually confront the 
radio experimenter, and are best accomplished 



with a small, specially designed light iron. 
Figs. 3 and 4 illustrate a soldering finesse 
which Raymond B. Wailes has found to facili- 
tate delicate work. Fig. 3 shows the con- 
struction of a small iron that can be put to- 
gether in a few minutes. The "iron" itself 
is an eight- to ten-inch length of copper or brass 
rod, thrust into four corks as a heat resisting 
handle. The tip of the iron should be filed 
into a square point. In the R. B. LAB, the 
rod was a piece of number four copper wire. 

Owing to its smallness, an iron of this type 
will not hold its heat for any length of time. 
If the job is one that demands a continued 
application of a hot iron, it is best accom- 
plished by applying the heat continually to 
the rod from a small alcohol lamp as suggested 
in Fig. 4. 

In delicate soldering, such as the terminal 
wires of amplifying transformer windings and 
jack connections, it is essential that a non- 
acid flux be used. Soldering flux made by 
neutralizing hydrochloric acid with zinc is 
conductive and occasionally corrosive, as are 
most commercial fluxes. Mr. Wailes, and 
radio experts in general, recommend a flux 
made by dissolving rosin in denatured alcohol. 

THE RADIO SET AS A WORK OF ART 

THE more bona fide broadcast receivers 
to discriminate from the sets purchased 
or built by experimenters are slowly drawing 
away from the old wireless traditions of busi- 
ness-like switchboards and death-chamber 
control panels. The cabinet maker and artist 




FIG. I 

The stabilized three-tube receiver. Resistance-coupled amplifi- 
cation has been substituted for the final stage of transformer audio 



In the R. B. Lab. 



263 




FIG. 2 
Showing the change that can be made in five minutes 



has come into his own, and our parlor radio 
sets are to-day as unlike their war-time proto- 
types as an expensive Victrola is unlike 
Edison's early machines. 

A beautiful bit of furniture built about a 
neutrodyne receiver is shown in Figs. 5 and 6. 
The electrical and mechanical details were 
supervised by Hugh B. Downy, the owner of 
this work of art. The set itself is constructed 
with Workrite De Luxe parts. The cabinet 
is of solid figured oak especially selected from 
the stocks of the Frank Purcell Walnut Lum- 
ber Company, and built to order by the 
International Equipment Company of Kansas 
City, Mo. 

It is seldom that the construction of even a 
de luxe radio set is subject to such painstaking 
care. It is a most modern example of doing 
a worth-while thing well. 

ONE SWITCH IS NOT ENOUGH 

AN INTERESTING circuit condition 
has been brought to our attention by 
Mr. James C. Millen, which at first glance 
seems to defy the electrical axiom that only 
one switch is required to break a circuit. 
This momentary puzzle is encountered when- 
ever two tubes of dissimilar filament po- 
tentials are operated from a common A 
battery, the lower filament voltage being 
secured by tapping. Such a circuit is shown 
in Fig. 7, in which the tubes are a WD-I i 



(detector) and a uv-iQ9 (audio amplifier), 
operating respectively from filament battery 
potentials of three and four and a half volts. 
This is a common and desirable combination. 
A single A battery switch has been included 
in the common lead, which at first glance seems 
adequate. Such, however, is not the case, 
as careful tracing of the filament circuit will 
disclose. 

When switch S is open that portion of the 
filament battery bracketed by A will still 
discharge through the filaments connected in 
series a continuous drain that will rapidly 
deplete that portion of the battery. No 
variation of similar connections (even separate 
A batteries) can get away from this un- 
suspected and doubtless very prevalent leak- 
age. 

There are three possible solutions to the 
puzzle. The most desirable is the use of a 



CORKS - 




BRASS OR. COPPER ROD 



FIG. 3 

A simple soldering iron for delicate work 



264 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 4 

Applying heat continually to a small iron 

high ohmage rheostat in series with the fila- 
ment of the lower voltage tube, thus per- 
mitting it to be lighted from the entire battery. 
A second possibility is to turn off one of the 
rheostats when the battery switch is open. 
The last consideration is to include an ad- 
ditional switch at some point such as X. 

This little problem will doubtless locate the 
mysterious drainage in hundreds of cases of 
short-lived A batteries. 

SOME NEW IDEAS ON SPIDER-WEBS 

TN THE majority of spider-web inductances 
1 where two windings such as primary and 
secondary are incorporated on a single winding 
form, the upper winding is wound directly 
over the lower coil. This necessarily results 
in tight coupling which is often undesirable. 



In many cases the spider-webs are substituted 
for the more conventional tubular or solenoid 
inductances in which spacing between the 
windings has effected a looseness in coupling 
that was more or less essential in the circuit 
for which they were designed. This is 
especially true of single-tube reflex circuits, 
and any other systems in which selectivity is 
not a predominant characteristic. 

In such circuits, the primary and secondary 
windings should be separated as far as is 
consistent with a negligible loss in signal 
strength. This loosening of coupling is quite 
as easily effected in spider-webs, merely by 
winding a dozen or so turns of string between 
the primary and secondary. Figs. 8 and 9 
show coils in which the adjacent windings have 
been separated in this manner. 

In Fig. 9 the primary has been wound be- 
tween halves of the secondary a procedure 
which tends to tighten coupling. However the 
placing of the primary in this manner is desir- 
able, particularly in an endeavor to duplicate 
the inductance of a known solenoid without 
recourse to formulas and mathematics. 

Referring to Fig. 9, the average radius, R, 
should be the radius of the solenoid or single- 
layer inductance that it is desired to dupli- 
cate. The primary and secondary should be 
evenly distributed on each side of this radius 
as illustrated in the photograph winding to 
the same number of turns as were on the 
tubular coil. The finished spider-web will, 
for all practical tuning purposes, be equivalent 
to the original solenoid. 

LIGHTING THE ROBERTS SET FROM A. C. 

DESPITE the fact that the uv-2Oi-A tube 
consumes only one quarter of an ampere, 
the more enthusiastic operators of the Roberts 




FIG. 5 
An aristocratic bit of parlor furniture 



In the R. B. Lab. 



265 




FIG. 6 

The work of art open 



set, inveigled by its excellence into running it 
five or six hours a day, find the A battery 
expense far from negligible. The short life of 
the amplifying A battery suggests the possi- 
bilities of A. C., and Fig. 10 shows the system 
evolved by George B. Larkin. Similar 
arrangements have been employed in this 
laboratory at various times, and confident of 
the possibilities and success of the system, we 
recommend it to our interested readers. 



ohm rheostats, two six-ohm rheostats (one 
of which will probably be found in the experi- 
menter's original receiver), and a toy trans- 
former operating from the lighting current 
and delivering from six to eight volts. A 




FIG. 7 

This circuit will drain your A battery in a day or 
so if the filaments are turned "off" merely by open- 
ing the single switch 

Inspection of the diagram discloses no 
fundamental variation from the original two- 
tube Roberts circuit, and for constructional 
details, the reader is referred to the May 1924 
issue of RADIO BROADCAST and several subse- 
quent numbers. 

The parts required for the change to alter- 
nating current are: two twenty-five or thirty 



FIG. 

Coupling is loosened by winding 
thread between primary and secondary 

potentiometer (100 to 400 ohms) may be 
substituted for the two twenty-five ohm rheo- 
stats with improved results. 

Balancing out with the two twenty-five ohm 
resistances as suggested in the diagram re- 



2 66 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 9 

Duplicating (roughly) a solenoid in a spider-web 
coupling again being loosened with thread winding 



duces the A.C. hum until it has little or no 
effect on loud-speaker operation, though it is 
still audible on head phone reception and 
interferes slightly with DX signals. This last 
objection may be done away with, however, 
by using the potentiometer recommended in 
place of the two rheostats. The two termi- 
nals of the potentiometer are connected 
respectively to each side of the transformer 
secondary, Y and Z, while the movable arm 
connects to X. X is varied until the hum is 
eliminated or reduced to a negligible minimum. 

The action of the receiver can be still 
further improved by connecting two bypass 
condensers, of capacities from .006 mfd. to i.o 
mfd., between X and Z and X and Y, as sug- 
gested tentatively by the dotted lines. 

It will be observed that the uv-199 de- 
tector tube is still lighted from a dry cell A 
battery. The current drawn by this tube 
is only six one hundredths of an ampere, and 
such operation is quite economical and more 
efficient. 

BUILDING YOUR OWN LAB 

THE R. B. LAB suggestion for this month's 
addition to the growing radio workshop 
is a small metal frame plane. This will cost 
anywhere from $.75 to $1.50. As usual, do 
not compromise with quality. Since this tool 
is more or less associated with carpenter work 
it is seldom thought of as an efficient aid in 
the radio laboratory. It is nevertheless a 
very useful all-around tool, and will find a 
wide application smoothing the edges of 



rubber, bakelite and fiber panels, finishing 
baseboards, refmishing cabinets and producing 
the desired neatness in board-mounted appa- 
ratus. Rough edges on almost any material 
excepting metal are quickly smoothed away. 

The plane should be small, having a blade 
no wider than an inch and a half, with screw 
adjustment. Fig. 1 1 shows a plane that is in 
constant service at this laboratory. 

It is a good idea to obtain an extra blade, 
using one blade only for wood, and the other 
for less easily worked materials. 

N'T use enameled wire in winding 
spider-webs. The construction of these 
coils imposes a comparatively high mechanical 
strain on the insulation which often scrapes the 
enamel on touching portions of adjacent turns. 
This shorted turn will render the receiver 
practically inoperative. Double silk-covered 
wire is recommended for spider-web windings. 
If your receiver a Roberts for instance is 
giving results considerably inferior to those 
you have a right to expect, and careful circuit 
tests fail to locate the difficulty, change spider- 
webs, preferably rewinding with the wire 
suggested. 

MANY sets fail to cover the wave range 
specified by the original builder, and 
do not tune either to the upper or lower limits 




FIG. I I 

The small plane has many uses in the radio workshop 

or both. When the inductances (coils) are 
correctly wound, the fault generally lies in the 
variable condenser. A high minimum ca- 
pacity makes it impossible to tune low, while 
a maximum value below the stated capacity 
of the condenser cuts off the higher wave 
lengths. Both faults are common in cheap 



In the R. B. Lab. 



267 



condensers. Ask for condensers by capacity 
(not by the number of plates) and accept none 
but those of reliable make. 

THE intermediate frequency amplifier 
transformer used by Mr. Alan T. Hans- 
corn in his "Six Tube Second Harmonic Super- 
Heterodyne" may be obtained direct from 
Harris and Mowry, Woonsocket, Rhode 
Island. These coils are too intricate and dif- 
ficult for the average builder to wind, and 
that is the reason they were not described. 

The names of other dealers carrying these 
coils may be found in our advertising pages. 

A SCREW-DRIVER can generally be made 
into a convenient reamer without affecting 
its efficiency as a screw driver. It is merely 
necessary to file the converging edges to scissor 
edges, finishing with an oil stone. Different 
sized screw-drivers will be used for larger or 
smaller reamers virtually adding tools to the 
lab equipment without increasing its already 
rather extensive array. 

TT OCCASIONALLY happens that the pri- 
* mary and secondary terminals of an audio- 
frequency amplifying transformer are reversed 
in assembly, which in several cases brought 
to the attention of the R. B. LAB, have been 
the cause of the non-operation of reflex sets. 
In shielded transformers, it is impossible to 
determine the correctness of terminal connec- 



tions by inspection. Measuring the resistance 
of the windings however, or merely testing 
with telephone receivers and a few dry cells, 
will identify the windings, the lower resistance 
or louder click indicating the primary. 

If careful inspection of wiring of a reflex 
receiver, and other logical efforts at trouble 
shooting are without positive result, test the 
transformers as suggested, before rebuilding. 

IN USING tickler regeneration, remember 
that approaching the tickler coil to the 
secondary will increase signal strength only 
when the tickler is connected in the correct 
direction. ]f increasing the coupling de- 
creases the strength of the signals, the leads 
to the tickler should be reversed. 

Lack of regeneration on either possible tickler 
connection generally indicates a partially 
short-circuited secondary, the lack of a bypass 
condenser in the regenerating plate circuit 
(across phones or primary of audio trans- 
former), or a tickler coil of the wrong size, that 
is, too small or too large. 

THE Pyratek fixed crystal detector clips 
nicely into the standard grid leak mount- 
ings. Only one mounting is furnished with 
each Pyratek detector, and the use of the grid 
leak holder facilitates experimentation with 
additional sets without the expense or neces- 
sity of extra cartridges. 



3 MEG. 



V nn X on 
I'M ' Ill 

--iiii ' n> 

yli in 




FIG. 1O 

Operating the amplifying filament in the Roberts set from step down alternating current 




How to Make a Plate Supply 

Unit 

A Very Simple and Inexpensive Device Furnishing Up to 200 Volts With- 
out the "Hum" The Parts Cost about $20 and are Readily Obtainable 



BY ROLAND F. BEERS 



THE problem of supplying B battery 
potential for modern multi-tube radio 
receivers has rapidly become one of 
importance to every broadcast lis- 
tener. When the plate current of present-day 
amplifying tubes attains a value of 12 mil- 
liamperes per tube (as in the w. E. 2i6-A), the 
current drain imposed by several of these 
tubes will shorten the life of dry cell B bat- 
teries to a few weeks. The cost of replace- 
ment alone soon becomes prohibitive. 



It is the object of this article to describe in 
detail a device for supplying B battery voltage 
for any number of tubes and for any voltages 
that may be desired. The choice of voltages 
remains with the builder who can best deter- 
mine his own requirements. The device is 
designed to operate from the 1 10 volt 60 cycle 
light socket and will deliver up to 100 mil- 
liamperes of plate current. In other words, 
this current supply set will supply plate cur- 
rent for 12 uv-2oi-A or 8 w. E. 2i6-A tubes, or 



How to Make a Plate Supply Unit 



269 



any number of tubes less than this. It will 
also supply any radio-frequency amplifier 
and a well-balanced two-stage audio-frequency 
amplifier with alternating current for heating 
the filaments. The set may be built by any 
one who will follow the plans carefully, and 
the total cost of parts, including the vacuum 
tube rectifier, should 
not exceed $20.00. 

The general ar- 
rangement of the ap- 
paratus may be seen 
on page 268, which is 
a photograph of one of 
the sets constructed 
by the author on a 
circuit board. Fig. 
i A shows the schem- 
atic diagram of the 
parts and the elec- 
trical connections. 
The parts include a 
power transformer 
which transforms the 
no volt alternating 
current from the or- 
dinary light socket to 
130 volts alternating 
current and to 6 volts 
alternating current 
for the filament sup- 
ply of vacuum tubes. 
The 1 30 volt alternat- 
ing current is then 
changed into a pul- 
sating current which 
flows in one direction 
only, by means of the vacuum tube (VT), Fig. 
i A. An efficient filter (indicated by dotted 
lines, and including the choke coil (L) and 
two filter condensers (C) smooths out the 
ripples in the unidirectional current, giving an 
unvarying source of direct current at 120 
volts potential, which will operate the receiver 
in place of the usual batteries without hum. 
If a crystal detector is used, the entire current 



supply may be obtained from the light socket. 
If it is desired, a dry-cell detector may be 
employed in place of the crystal. 

The arrangement illustrated in the photo- 
graph need not be followed exactly, but care 
must be taken in assembling the parts in order 
to insure short leads in wiring. The necessary 
parts and their ap- 



Simple, Cheap, and Efficient 

In September, RADIO BROADCAST described 
the LeBel rectifying unit for supplying the 
plate voltage to radio receivers. The popu- 
larity and demand for such a device were man- 
ifested in the enormous amount of mail we 
received. 

Mr. Roland Beers developed in his labora- 
tory at Binghamton, New York, the very 
complete unit here described. Mr. Beers 
tells us there are seventeen of his units al- 
ready in use in Binghamton. From cur in- 
spection and test of this apparatus we can 
unequivocally say that it will come up to the 
expectations of the most exacting of construc- 
tors. 

Mr. Le Bel's device was limited, in construc- 
tion, to those versed in the art of electrical 
design or to those who were fortunate enough 
to order the necessary parts "before the 
rush." 

With Mr. Beers's unit there are no possible 
restrictions or conditions. Most of the parts 
for this device may be obtained from the 
local electrical or hardware store. It is 
extraordinarily inexpensive to build. 

THE EDITOR. 



proximate cost 
listed below. 



are 



PRACTICAL AND SPE- 
CIFIC DESIGN 

THE writer has 
thought it well to 
describe in detail a 
practical and specific 
design for a complete 
current supply set, 
and then to indicate 
such deviations from 
this design as may 
be made for the sake 
of utilizing whatever 
spare parts the con- 
structor may have. 

We will first con- 
sider the construction 
of the power trans- 
former. Its purpose, 
as we have indicated 
before, is to change 
the 1 10 volt alternat- 
ing current to such 
voltages as we need 
for our use. For 
this purpose, we have 

four separate, windings, each easily made. 
These windings are placed on two of the legs 
or branches of the core, as illustrated in Fig. i . 
The core of the transformer is built up of 
strips or laminations of silicon steel .014 inches 
thick. The material for these strips can be 
bought at electrical supply houses, or it may 
be obtained from an old pole transformer 
which can often be had for the asking at the 



i Ib. No. 28 double cotton covered wire 

5 Ib. No. 34 black enamel or double silk wire 

I Ib. No. 18 double cotton covered wire 

\ Ib. No. 34 black enamel or double silk 

2-No. 2 i-D Western Electric 2 mfd. condensers or 4~No. 133 Federal i mfd. condensers at fi.oo 

4 Ibs. .014 in. silicon steel for power transformer 

3 Ibs. .014 for choke coil 

i-V. T. Socket 

i-VT-2 or 2i6-A or UV-2OI or uv-2Oi-A or uv-2O3 

5-8 Fahnestock clips 

*.May be omitted if the builder desires to buy his choke coil ready-made. 



.90 

.50 

.90 

4.00 

i.oo 

75* 
.50 
4.00 
15 

$14.20 



270 



Radio Broadcast 



5 FILAMENT 




FIG. I A 

A schematic diagram of the current supply 
set showing the values of the elements 

electric light company's office. The thick- 
ness of the steel is not of great importance, 
although material of much greater thickness 
than that indicated will cause the transformer 
to run up the electric light bill rather fast. 

Strips i inch x ^\ inches are cut from the 
steel with a pair of tinner's shears to make a 
pile about 4 inches high when they are pressed 
together. This pile will require about 300 
pieces, which can be assembled in the manner 
shown in Fig. 2. It may occur that the 
laminations procured from the old power 
transformer have dimensions very near to 
those given here, and in such a case, they may 
be used as they are. A variation of 10 per 
cent, plus or minus will not be of consequence. 
When the strips have been prepared, they 
are laid aside ready for use after the trans- 
former windings have been completed. 

The windings of the transformer consist of 
the following: 

1 . Primary 1000 turns No. 28 D. c. c. wire, placed 

on one leg of the core, as shown at P in photo- 
graph. This winding has two ends or terminals, 
numbered (i) and (2), as shown in Fig. lA. 

2. Secondary 1200 turns No. 34 black enamel or 

D. s. c. wire, placed next to the core on the 
opposite leg of the transformer, as shown at 
S in Fig. i. Two terminals numbered (3) 
and (4), Fig. lA. 

3. Secondary 55 turns No. 18 D. c. c. wire, placed 

over winding No. 2. Two terminals, (5) and 
(6), Fig. i A. 

4. Secondary 27 turns No. 18 D. c. c. wire, 

placed over winding No. 3. 

This winding is made of 27 turns of a twisted 
pair, which will be described below. There 
are three terminals, including the center tap, 
which are numbered (7), (8) and (9), Fig. lA. 

The writer constructed a spool to contain 
each set of windings, as shown in the photo- 
graph and in Fig. 4. While this construction is 
not absolutely necessary, it makes a neat job 



and facilitates the problem of high voltage in- 
sulation. Another method of constructing the 
windings will be given later, for the benefit 
of those who prefer to make form-wound coils. 

MAKING THE TRANSFORMER 

FOR the spools, two pieces of micarta or fiber 
tubing \\ inches inside diameter and 2 T \ 
inches long were fitted with fiber ends 35 
inches outside diameter. (These dimensions 
correspond to the core described above.) 
The ends were secured to the tubing with 
cement, and holes were drilled in them for the 
lead wires of the various windings, as shown 
in Fig. 4. 

One spool contains the entire primary 
winding, No. i. The wire may be wound on 
by hand, or the spool may be clamped in a 
drill chuck by means of a long bolt and two 
large washers. The handle of the drill chuck 
may be clamped in a vise and the winding is 
ready to start. If the ratio of turns of the 
drill chuck to the crank are known, it will 
reduce the labor of counting turns. Simply 
count the number of revolutions of the crank 
and mentally multiply by the ratio every time 
a multiple of ten is reached. Before actually 
starting the winding of the fine wire, solder a 
four foot length of flexible insulated wire to 
the end of the magnet wire and insulate it 
well with a short piece of cotton sleeving or 
spaghetti. Wind at least one full turn of the 
heavy wire around the spool, tie it in place 
with string, and proceed with the rest of the 
winding. It is not necessary to keep the wire 
in flat layers provided it is kept tight and free 




FIRST LAYER AND 
ALL ODD LAYERS 



SECOND LAYER AND 
ALL EVEN LAYERS 



FIG. 2 

Which shows the method of assembling the lami- 
nations in the core of the power transformer 



How to Make a Plate Supply Unit 



271 



from loops that are apt to protrude beyond the 
edge of the spool heads. If the winding gets 
rough or "bumpy," remove the rough part 
and wind it over again. 

When the required number of turns has 
been placed on the spool, again solder a 
flexible lead wire to the end of the fine wire, 
insulate and tie it in place with string. Now 
carefully wrap six layers of muslin or three 
layers of Empire cloth over the winding, and 
cement the last layer in place with insulating 
cement. We are now ready to proceed with 
the second spool, which contains the three 
secondary windings. 

OTHER WINDINGS OF THE TRANSFORMER 

WINDING No. 2 is wound exactly as was 
No. i, with regard to insulation of 
the leads. It must be wound in smooth 
layers, and extra care must be taken to keep 
layers from overlapping. It may be neces- 
sary for the constructor to place thin strips of 
paper between layers of wire as they are 
wound, but no more papers should be used 
than are absolutely necessary. When this 
winding is completed, six layers of muslin or 
three layers of Empire cloth are fastened in 
place over it, and the third winding is started. 
The third winding should be wound in two 
smooth layers without papers between the 
layers. In case the second layer is not com- 
pletely full, the remaining space may be used 
for the fourth winding, which is applied di- 
rectly over winding No. 3. The leads of the 
third and fourth windings are brought out 
at the same side of the spool head, while those 



_HOUS FOR 
' CLAMPING BOLT5 



STRIPS FOR CLAMPING 
CORE. HARDWOOD, lltON 
OR PIECES OF ANGLE 
IRON WAY 6! U5ED.4REQO 




FIG. 3 

Detail drawing showing how the clamping plates for 
the transformer or choke coil are made and attached 



of the second winding are brought out at the 
opposite side of the spool head. 

The fourth winding is made of a twisted 
pair of wires and is used to supply 6 volt 
alternating current to the filaments of the 



amplifier tubes. If more than one audio- 
frequency amplifier tube is supplied with 
alternating current for heating the filament, 
the hum will be noticeable, unless special 
precautions are taken to balance the amplifier 




FIG. 4 

Detail drawing of the spool for the transformer 

windings which may be of micarta or phenol fiber. 

Two are required 

for inductance and capacity. Any inherent 
unbalance or tendency to '.'howl" will at once 
produce a loud hum in the loud speaker when 
all filaments are supplied with alternating 
current. For that reason, the experimenter 
should be thoroughly familiar with his audio 
amplifier before he attempts to supply the 
filaments with A. C. If this supply is not 
desired the fourth winding may be omitted. 
Should the constructor desire to use an Amrad 
s tube as the rectifier, the third winding will 
also be unnecessary. 

To make the twisted pair, stretch out about 
j Ib. No. 1 8 D. c. c. wire in two strands of 
equal length. Fasten the looped end over a 
hook and secure the two loose ends in the 
chuck of a hand drill. Several turns of the 
drill will give a neat and uniform twist to the 
pair, which should be of the order of three 
twists per inch. The looped end of the 
twisted pair can now be cut, leaving two 
separate conductors which have uniform 
magnetic coupling with respect to each other. 
Let us call one wire of the pair, wire "A," 
whose initial and terminal ends are, respec- 
tively, (a) and (b). The second wire we 
shall consider to be wire "B," with corres- 
ponding terminals, (c) and (d). The ends, 
(a) and (c) will be at one end of the twisted 
pair, and ends (b) and (d) will be together at 
the other end. By connecting a dry cell and 
an electric buzzer or doorbell in series, leaving 
the remaining buzzer circuit open, we can 
soon determine which wire of the pair is "A" 
and which is "B." Simply connect terminal 
(a) to the battery and touch one or the other 
of the terminals (b) and (d) to the buzzer until 
the circuit is completed. When the buzzer 



272 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 5 

A diagram showing the schematic layout of the 
circuit connected as a push pull amplifier using 
uv 199 tubes where heavy plate current is drawn 

operates, the terminal which completed 
the circuit should be marked with a tag as 
terminal (b). The remaining terminals are, 
of course, (c) and (d-). 

After the twisted pair has been wound on the 
spool, terminals (b) and (c) are twisted to- 
together and soldered. A flexible lead is 
soldered to the joint, which is conducted to 
terminal No. 8, Fig. lA. This point is 
the zero potential or ground point of the 
amplifier circuit. AH grid return and plate 
return leads of the amplifier must be con- 
nected to this ground, which must also be 
connected to earth. Terminals (a) and (d) 
are connected to No. 7 and No. 9, respectively, 
Fig. i A, as the 6 volt alternating current 
supply of the amplifier. The fourth winding 
is insulated with six layers of muslin or three 
layers of Empire cloth, as before, and the 
spools are ready for assembly on the core. 

FINAL TRANSFORMER ASSEMBLY 

A FTER the windings have been completed 
* and properly numbered with tags, the 
steel strips may be inserted in the spools and 
the core clamped together. It will be best to 
alternate the position of the lapped corner, 
every time a new layer of laminations is ap- 
plied, as shown in the small sketches of Fig. 2. 
When near the top of the pile, compress the 
core as much as possible, and squeeze in as 
many strips as can be forced into the spools. 
After all the laminations have been put in the 
core, it is ready for the clamping plates. 
These are made of strap iron or hard wood, 
as shown in Fig. 3. Four strips are cut to the 
size required by the core, leaving at least one- 
half inch at each end for clamping holes. 
Stove bolts are passed through these holes, 
which may be drilled with a inch drill, and 



the clamping plates are screwed down tightly 
when the core is completely assembled. It 
is important to clamp every lamination in 
place as tightly as possible in order to reduce 
the possibility of mechanical vibration. Such 
a vibration will often make a very unpleasant 
hum in the room where the set is being used 
and will confuse a discriminating observer 
so that he will believe the hum is produced in 
the loud speaker. 

A physical conception of the action of the 
filter may be gained from the following ex- 
planation. The large capacity condensers 
(C) in the diagram of Fig. lA afford a com- 
paratively easy path for alternating current, 
which is what we are trying to eliminate by 
the use of our filter. With every change in 
direction of the alternating current, a certain 
amount of electricity is carried through the 
large condensers and back to the system. 
The choke coil, (L), permits direct current to 
flow through it with no opposition except the 
direct current resistance, but offers a large 
inertia or impedance to the ever-changing 
alternating current. On account of this 
opposition to the alternating current, it 
seeks an easier path through the condensers, 
and back to the line. The result of our filter 
action is that we have sifted out, so to speak, 
the undesirable alternating current, which 
produces the hum, and have left a pure, uni- 
form direct current, exactly like that de- 
livered by our dry cell B batteries. 

The choke coil for the filter may be con- 
structed as indicated below, or it may be 
purchased from a well-stocked electrical sup- 
ply house. The value of its inductance should 
not be less than 30 henries. Values as high 
as 50 henries may be used with excellent re- 
sults. The direct current resistance should 
not exceed 750 ohms, although a value greater 
than this will only serve to decrease the output 
voltage. 

HOW TO BUILD YOUR OWN CHOKE COIL 

THE following dimensions will serve those 
who wish to build their own choke coil. 
Strips of .014 " silicon steel are cut i" x 2\" 
to make a pile' 4" high. This will require 
about 300 pieces. Four hardwood or strap 
iron strips i" x 3!" are cut and drilled 
for the mounting holes, as was done in the 
case of the power transformer. Spools may 
be constructed for the windings, if desired, 
or they may be placed directly over the 
two opposite core legs, after they have been 
wound with three layers of Empire cloth. 
The spools may be made of micarta or card- 



How to Make a Plate Supply Unit 



273 



board tubing i^" inside diameter and i^V 
long. Spool heads are cut to fit the tubing 
1 1" outside diameter. The coil has two 
windings, each of 3500 turns of No. 34 black 
enamel or double silk covered wire, and each 
wound in the same direction. Flexible leads 
are provided for the terminals exactly as was 
done for the power transformer. The inner 
end of one winding is soldered to the outer end 
of the other winding, and the joint is insulated 
with cotton sleeving or "spaghetti." Six 
layers of muslin or three layers of Empire 
cloth are wound over the completed windings 
to protect them from damage. The core 
pieces are then inserted in the spools, but in- 
stead of lapping the corner joints, they are 
simply butted up against each other as neatly 
as possible. When the entire core has been 
assembled into a square form, the clamping 
plates are put in place and carefully tightened 
up. 

Each of the condensers used in the filter 
circuit should be of at least 2 mfd. capacity. 
Larger condensers may be used with some 
improvement in the efficiency of the filter. 
It is not necessary to have two condensers of 
the same capacity, but each must be of at 
least 2 mfd. As high as 5 mfd. can be used with 
good results. The condensers should be 
tested for leaks before placing them in the cir- 
cuit by charging them with a high voltage 
B battery and then discharging them after 15 
minutes. If they are in good condition, a fat 
spark will jump when they are discharged. 
If no spark jumps, they are defective, and will 
short-circuit the B voltage. 

The rectifier tube used most commonly by 
the writer is the Western Electric E tube or 



vr-2. This tube is probably as well suited for 
the purpose as any tube except the special 
rectifier tubes, such as the G. E. kenotron- 
uv-2i6 or the s tube, each of which costs more 
than a vr-2. Other tubes that have been 
used with good results are the w. E. 2i6-A, 
the uv-2O2, uv-2oi, and the uv-2oi-A. Such 
changes as are necessitated by the use of a tube 
other than the vx-2 are indicated below. 

MOUNTING 

THE apparatus illustrated in the photograph 
was mounted on a circuit board 12" x 12". 
Fahnestock clips may be used for terminals, 
or if it is desired, the conventional type of 
binding post may be adopted. All wiring 
should be as short and as direct as possible, 
and all joints should be soldered butt joints. 
Wires which carry 60 cycle current may be 
reduced to their absolute minimum length 
with considerable improvement in the per- 
formance of the set. If difficulty is experi- 
enced in reducing 60 cycle hum in the re- 
ceiver, it may be reduced by wiring all 60 cycle 
leads with lead covered cable. 

The writer has constructed several current 
supply sets in the usual manner and has had 
difficulty in obtaining satisfactory operation 
of them on particular installations, even 
though they gave perfect satisfaction on his 
own receiver (super-heterodyne). The diffi- 
culty usually lay in one or more places which 
became conspicuous after several preliminary 
tests. If the current supply set causes a 
terrific hum in the loud speaker when it is 
connected to the radio receiver, several possi- 
ble errors may exist. We shall assume that 
the set is wired up correctly and that there are 





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jgZTT. 


6V. A.C. TO 




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<=3 
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!g27T. -^ 

(~~^ 


* AMPLIFIER. 
FILAMENT 










110V. AJC 


^ <=> 
o ^3 


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/ L- 30 HENWES 




n 


i^ =* IZOOT. 

N* 

N f 


L-- L- VWVW R 

f \ ,' C "25,000-250,OOOU> 
, \ i ^4 /K Qflu nf 




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FIG. 6 

How variable and multiple voltages may be obtained with the 
current supply set. The values of the parts are indicated 



274 



Radio Broadcast 



no open circuits. First of all, it will be ne- 
cessary to choose both rectifier and amplifier 
tubes with care. In the writer's experience, 
bootleg tubes are the most frequent cause of 
trouble. Some vi-2 tubes will give excellent 
performance, while others simply will not 
function. The same applies to the uv type 
tubes, and in general, relief from the distur- 
bance may be had by testing and finally 
selecting tubes that will reduce the hum. 

Another source of trouble is often found in 
excessive amplifier or rectifier filament voltage. 
The number of turns given in the construc- 
tional data was correct for a large number of 
the tubes used by the writer, but frequently it 
was necessary to add or remove turns from the 
third or fourth windings in order to obtain 
good results. A rheostat should not be used to 
regulate these voltages, unless it is a primary 
rheostat, placed in series with winding No. i. 
The proper method of obtaining the correct 
filament voltage is to alter the number of 
turns on the respective windings, adding or 
removing turns one by one until the correct 
value is found. This change should be made 
while the set is supplying current to the re- 
ceiver, if possible, in order to duplicate actual 
conditions. 

AVOIDING THE HUM 

A NOTHER source of hum is frequently 
*"* found in excessive plate voltage. This 
trouble may be remedied by the insertion of a 
lavite or other current-carrying resistance in 
the plate supply. The writer has used 
Western Electric .No. 38 type and the Brad- 
leyohm with good results. Ward-Leonard 
resistances are also known to have given good 
results. The value of the resistance can 
best be determined by trial with the tubes 
which are receiving the excessive plate voltage. 
Another method of reducing the plate voltage 
is, of course, to remove turns from the high 
voltage or second winding, until the proper 
voltage is obtained. Still, another method 
of reducing the hum caused. by excessive plate 
voltage, and perhaps the most satisfactory 
one, is to increase the negative C voltage until 
quiet operation prevails. The writer has 
used as high as 20 volts negative C battery 
on a Western Electric tube with 1 50 volts on 
the plate. Other tubes will require corres- 
pondingly more or less C voltage. It is 
sufficient to say that under ordinary circum- 
stances it will be very difficult to obtain quiet 
operation of a radio receiver supplied with 
alternating current filament supply unless a 
fairly high C battery is employed, 



A fourth source of disturbance is often found 
in the stray flux or leakage of alternating 
current magnetism from the cores and wires 
of the current supply set. An amplifier that 
has some inherent unbalance or tendency to 
"howl" will invariably exhibit a loud hum 
when supplied with alternating current, al- 
though it may appear perfectly stable when 
supplied with direct current. The remedy 
in such a case is to place the entire current 
supply set in a tin or iron shield, and to con- 
nect the shield to earth. Fig. 7 shows a 
view of a current supply set connected to a 
two-stage amplifier, where it was necessary to 
shield the entire supply set. Here all leads 
were shielded with lead covered sheath, and 
the entire shielding system was grounded. 
Any iron box may be used to contain the set, 
such as an old panel switch box, biscuit tin or 
other tin container. Holes may be cut in the 
box to accommodate the socket and leads, and 
these should be very well insulated to prevent 
arcing of the high voltage. 

SUGGESTED POSSIBLE ALTERATIONS 

IT MAY be that the constructor already has 
laminations or a core from an old power 
transformer that he would like to use. In 
such a case the following remarks will be help- 
ful. The primary requirement is that the 
inductance of the primary winding shall be 
not less than one henry. This means that 
for a 1000 turn winding the ratio of cross- 
sectional area to length of magnetic circuit 
(4") should be not less than 0.6 centimeters,, 
and for normal saturation of the core the! 
cross-sectional area should be not less than' 
2.5 sq. cms. Values in excess of these will? 
result in good performance. If the values oft 
A and vary greatly from those given above,, 
a new value for the number of turns must be 
found to give the proper value for the primary \ 




A SCHEMATIC DRAWING 

Which shows the connections for the unit when a 

power amplifier circuit filament is supplied with 

alternating current 



How to Make a Plate Supply Unit 



275 



inductance. It will prob- 
ably be better in such a 
case to remodel the core to 
the dimensions given by 
the writer. Such a problem 
is best left to the judgment 
of the constructor. 

There are obtainable on 
the market certain choke 
coils that could be used in 
the filter circuit. The Acme 
Apparatus Company sells a 
good C. W. choke that gives 
excellent results in the filter 
circuits of amateur trans- 
mitters. Such a choke will give good perform- 
ance in the current supply set, but is probably 
more costly than the builder would wish. A 
more reasonable choke coil has been recom- 
mended byG. M. Best in the June, 1924, Radio. 
That coil is the General Electric Wayne No. 
179,541 Bell Ringing transformer, whose pri- 
mary winding is said to have a high inductance. 
The writer strongly recommends building one's 
own choke coil, in order to obtain sufficient 
inductance. The coil described above will 
have an inductance somewhat in excess of 30 
henries, depending upon the care with which 
the core is assembled. 

A WINDING FORM 

IF THE experimenter does not want to make 
spools for the windings, he may make a 
winding form as follows: 

Cut a square block of soft wood the same 
cross-section as the core leg which is to contain 
the windings. Save room on each end in 
which to drive a spike for holding the form 
and clamping it in the winding rig. Then 
wrap the wooden form with two layers of 
heavy string in smooth layers which will ex- 
tend \" beyond the ends of the winding. 
Over the string wrap two layers of Empire 
cloth and cement the end in place. Begin 
the winding with flexible stranded wire (in- 
sulated) and continue this heavy wire for 
one quarter turn. Proceed with the winding 
of the smaller wire, placing thin papers over 
each layer until it is completed, and allowing 
each paper to extend \" beyond the edge of 
the winding. Continue to build up the coil 
in this manner until the last layer is completed. 
The outside lead wire should occupy at least 
one quarter of the last layer of winding and 
the end should be firmly tied in place with 
string. Wrap over this layer three layers of 
Empire cloth and cement the end fast. 

The, two layers of string underneath the 




FIG. 7 
Another set-up of the current supply set 



winding may now be carefully unwound, and 
the coil carefully slipped from the form. 
Very carefully wrap one layer of friction tape 
around the outside and inside of the entire 
coil, carrying the end of the tape through the 
center of the winding each time until the en- 
tire coil is made into a firm and substantial 
structure. The completed coils may be 
slipped over the legs of the core and the 
laminations will hold it in place. In this 
method of winding, it will be necessary to 
assemble three legs of the core first, leaving the 
fourth leg open to permit putting the windings 
in place. The remaining strips may be as- 
sembled and the core may be bolted together. 
If uv-2Oi or uv-2oi-A tubes are used in the 
rectifier or amplifier circuits, windings No. 3 
and No. 4 should consist of 48 and 24 turns, 
respectively. If 50 milliamperes or more are 
to be drawn from the set, using uv-2Oi-A 
or uv-2oi tubes, their life will be considerably 
shortened. It will then be necessary to use 
two such tubes in parallel, or the full-wave 
rectification, push-pull circuit may be adopted, 
as shown in Fig. 5, and the high voltage wind- 
ing No. 2 must contain twice the number of 
turns previously specified. Each high voltage 
winding is wound in exactly the same manner 
as before, except that each winding occupies 
but half the spool on which the windings are 
placed. They are best wound by placing a 
divider in the middle of the spool, which is 
the same size and material as the spool heads. 
Each section of the divided spool will be of the 
same size and will contain the same number 
of turns, i. e., 1200. The two windings are 
wound in opposite directions to each other, 
bringing the outer end of each winding to the 
center of the spool, near the divider, when 
completing the last layer of each winding. 
The two adjacent ends, each an outer end of 
its respective winding, are then connected 
together and soldered, and this point is the 



276 



Radio Broadcast 



negative terminal of the plate supply system, 
as shown at (10) in Fig. 5. It is the electrical 
mid-tap of the secondary winding, provided 
care has been taken in placing the same num- 
ber of turns on each half of the spool. 

For uv-2O2 rectifier tubes, winding No. 3 
must consist of 68 turns, instead of the num- 
ber previously specified. 

SUBSTITUTING FOR THE ELECTRON TUBE 

T F TH E builder wishes to use an s tube in place 
* of the electron tube, the third winding may 
be omitted. It will be necessary to increase 
the number of turns of the second winding to 
4500, and special precaution must be taken to 
prevent voltage rupture of the coil. In this 
event, a larger winding spool must be used, 
and the size of this can be determined by trial 
after the core has been cut out. Spool heads 
33" outside diameter will accommodate the 
increased number of turns, and the winding 
should be broken up into at least four sections, 
each separated from the others by a micarta 
separator, of the same size and shape as the 
spool heads. With this change, the builder 
can adapt the s tube to his use. Consider- 
able resistance will necessarily be inserted in 
the plate supply, which may be determined by 
trial. Probably a minimum of 20,000 ohms 
will be required, as suggested by C. J. LeBel 
in the September RADIO BROADCAST. 

THE SET DELIVERS I2O VOLTS 

THE writer has indicated a secondary 
winding No. 2 to give 120 volts direct 
current, but this value may be altered to suit 
the builder's particular needs. The set illus- 
trated in the photograph actually delivers 200 
volts, which are applied to the plate of a power 
amplifier tube. Western Electric lavite resis- 
tances are inserted in series with the positive 
plate lead to give lower voltage values. The 
set illustrated in Fig. 7 delivered 120 volts, 
90 volts, 45 volts or 22.5 volts, as might be 
required. 

Multiple voltage may be obtained by the 
use of the proper resistance inserted in the 
plate lead. The method indicated on page 
371 of the September RADIO BROADCAST by 
C. J. LeBel will be found to be satisfactory 
and still another method is shown in Fig. 6, 
and illustrated in Fig. 7. In this method, 
high resistances are placed in series with 
the positive B battery voltage, causing a 
drop of the desired amount. Fig. 7 show 
three Western Electric No. 38-6 lavite re- 
sistances connected in series, with taps taken 
off at the desired points. The writer has also 



used the Bradleyohm with good results. The 
variable control of the Bradleyohm will be 
found useful in varying the detector plate 
voltage on soft tubes. Any number of resis- 
tances can be connected in series, taking taps 
off wherever desired, so that the proper vol- 
tages can be obtained. If any difficulty is 
experienced in eliminating hum when multiple 
voltages are employed, it may be eliminated 
by the use of proper by-pass condensers of 
i mfd. or 2 mfd. capacity shunted around the 
various taps. This is illustrated in Fig. 6, at 
G', where a i mfd. condenser is shown con- 
nected across the 45 volt tap. 

FOR OTHER SUPPLY FREQUENCIES 

IN THIS article, all construction details 
apply only where the usual 60 cycle 
A. C. supply is available. The unit 
described will not function properly in its 
present form when used on any other 
frequency. However, the author, in 
anticipating the demand for details from 
those fans whose supply is 25 cycle 
A. C., gives the following constructional 
changes. The first consideration is that 
the cross-sectional area of the cores for 
the transformer and for the choke coil will 
have to be doubled, while the lengths 
would remain the same. The detailed 
changes, including spool dimensions, are 
as follows :- 

Transformer core 600 laminations i" x 35" 
outside measurements 45" x 4^" x 2" high 
cross-section i" x 2" high. 

Spool made of fiber or red rope paper built up 
of several layers and cemented together 
with Ambroid cement inside measurements 



'& 



ion g . 



Rectangular spool heads 35" x 4?" with win- 

dow to accommodate rectangular spool. 
Choke coil core 600 pieces or laminations 

I" X 2j" 

outside measurements 3^" x 3!" x 2" high 

cross-section i" x 2" high. 
Spool made up as above inside measurements 

i^"x2A"x i A" long. 
Rectangular spool heads if" X 2f" with win- 

dow to accommodate spool. 

The turns of wire must remain the 
same as specified in the article, but it will 
take about thirty per cent, more wire for 
the windings in each case. . 

Where a 40 cycle supply is the only 
available one, it is necessary to increase 
the cross-sectional area of the cores one- 
third. Details of core and spool con- 
struction would be varied accordingly, 
THE EDITOR, 




THE FIRST RADIO WORLD S FAIR 

At Madison Square Garden, New York. A large overflow display filled the 6gth Regiment Armory across 
the street. A wealth of new radio apparatus was shown here, including new loud speakers, great numbers 
of sets with radio-frequency amplification, and reflexing. 

A Few Ideas and Ideals 

Being a Brief Outline of Our Policies Regarding Some Subjects 
Heretofore Discussed in Whisper or Behind Closed Doors 

BY ARTHUR H. LYNCH 



NOT once, but many, many times, have 
we been asked: "If these receivers 
that you tell how to make really do 
the wonderful things you claim for 
them, how the mischief do you square your- 
selves with the manufacturers of ready-made 
receivers who advertise with you? 

At first thought that would be a rather 
difficult question but upon a little serious 
consideration it isn't. Let us get right at the 
facts as they are. 

There are, at present, more radio publica- 
tions than at any previous time in the history 
of the art. In the aggregate, more space is 
devoted to so-called "how-to-make-it" articles 
for public consumption than ever before. 



The proportion of space devoted to such 
articles as compared to general articles is 
increasing in most publications. 

Many publications have realized the folly 
of giving space to the description of question- 
able receiver designs and, for the most part, 
the man-in-the-street can really build a good 
receiver from the design he finds in present 
day publications. 

More people are building receivers at home 
than at any other time in radio's history. 
Schools are teaching students how to build 
radio receivers. Boy Scout Camps are doing 
likewise. The dealers all over the country 
are doing a tremendous business in parts. 
And, in the face of all the above there are 



A Few Ideas and Ideals 



279 



more complete receivers being sold than ever 
before. 

Such a resume might lead to no conclusion, 
if it were not for the fact that the popularity 
of radio reception is based almost entirely 
upon publicity. Judging from the foregoing, 
the increased sale of complete receivers might 
be considered as nothing more than a result 
of the very rapid growth of the entire business 
were it not for the additional fact at least 
most of those in a position to judge believe 
it a fact that the proportion of home-made 
to ready-made receivers is gradually decreas- 
ing. 

HOME AND FACTORY BUILT SETS 

AND, having considered* these facts, let 
us proceed with the explanation of our 
stand in the matter. Our first argument is 
that the more home-built receivers there are, 
the greater will be the demand for those of 
factory make. Every person who builds a 
radio receiver that works well is enthusiastic. 
A thousand people in a small town may see 
and hear Bill Jones' one-tube bringing in 
concerts from stations all over the country. 
They're impressed and many of them will 
want a receiver of their own. Many of them 
wouldn't be satisfied with one like Bill Jones'. 
If he can build one for a few dollars and it 
works so well, why just imagine what a real 
set would do, is the way many of them reason. 
Others wouldn't be bothered making a receiver 
even if they had the time or were as smart as 
they figure Bill must be. Still others would like 
Bill to make a similar receiver for them, but 
most Bills are too busy with other things to 
warrant such work. Many manufacturers, 
who spend thousands of dollars a year adver- 
tising their products owe a great deal of their 
success to the start they got from a how-to r 
make-it article in some magazine. 

Our readers have learned that when we say 
a receiver is capable of specified performance, 
our statements are usually very modest. 
They have learned that we describe only such 
receivers as we really believe to be good and 
that we don't care a hoot who manufactures 
the parts. We believe that the publication 
of good how-to-make-it articles is of direct 
benefit to the manufacturer of complete re- 
ceivers. 

THE HOW AND WHY OF THE KNOCK-OUT SERIES 

CVER since RADIO BROADCAST came into 
P" being, a little more than two and a half 
years ago, it has waged a relentless war against 
radiating receivers because its editors as well 



ac it publishers were convinced that the sale 
of high-grade receivers would ultimately 
suffer if "birdies", the pipings from such 
receivers, were allowed to fill the air. There 
was, we felt sure, plenty of natural inter- 
ference, without adding more to it with the 
sale of every receiver. 

For many months we searched for a receiver 
or group of receivers that would perform as 
well as those against which we were preaching, 
but the task was a great one. We tried all 
kinds of circuits, all kinds of tubes, everything 
we could lay hands on, but found nothing 
which would compare, let alone prove any 
better than the squealers, until, in the labora- 
tory of a small radio company in New York 
we came upon the single-tube reflex receiver 
which has since become famous as our 
one-tube Knock-Out Receiver. It has been 
performing for more than a year now and 
hardly a mail comes in that fails to carry 
some commendatory expression upon the re- 
sults being obtained by some reader who has 
built it. 

You may be interested in a little story 
about this receiver. We saw it perform in the 
laboratory in New York but did not believe 
it would do as well in Garden City. We made 
a bet with John Meagher, who built the 
original model, that he could not make it 
operate a loud speaker at our plant. The 
bet was a hat. He brought the receiver out 
and lost. However, there is a great deal 
of electrical interference in our plant and we 
compromised by giving him an opportunity 
to demonstrate the receiver in our home, 
increasing the bet to two hats. He came; 
he did it; we lost two hats. 

We would have been satisfied to hear the 
locals on the loud speaker. You may well 
imagine our surprise when we were able to 
hear three stations in Chicago, four in Phila- 
delphia, and two in Cleveland with a single 
199 tube on the speaker not loud enough to 
dance to, it's true, but with enough volume 
to be understood thirty feet from the speaker 
when there was quiet. 

Using this circuit, which, by the way, was 
not new merely a very clever adaptation 
of an old idea we have gone ahead with the 
development of the Knock-Out receiver idea. 
There are now one, two, three, and four-tube 
receivers, which we believe and no one has 
ever shown any desire to compete with us 
tube for tube and dollar for dollar, better 
than any receiver described for home construc- 
tion in any publication up to the time they 
appeared. 



280 



Radio Broadcast 



CAN YOU HELP? 

WE HAVE spent months improving these 
receivers; we're working hard on a new 
one now. Perhaps you can help to solve the 
problem. We want a three- and a four-tube 
receiver employing the Roberts circuit with a 
stage of transformer-coupled audio amplifica- 
tion and one with a stage of push-pull, made 
with regular cylindrical coils in place of the 
spiderwebs we are now using. This is due 
to the fact that our two, three, and four-tube 
receivers, employing the Roberts circuit are 
increasing in number so rapidly, that it is 
difficult to procure the spiderweb units. 

This problem is not so easy as it may ap- 
pear. Substituting the antenna coupling ar- 
rangement usually found in a neutrodyne and 
a rewound vario-coupler, would, it would 
seem, turn the trick. In fact they do work 
out quite well, when used in the two-tube 
circuit, or when resistance-coupled amplifica- 
tion is employed, but with the use of a stage 
of transformer-coupled audio, there is very 
noticeable distortion. 

Several receivers have been sent us by 
manufacturers who thought they had solved 
the problem. They had, to a degree. We 
have hooked up several such receivers and 
they worked perfectly. Then we've changed 
the tubes or made some other changes which 
would be done in practice. Then the circuit 
wouldn't work. 

But that's more or less in the future. Let's 
see what the Knock-Outs have done in the 
nast. Briefly we may list their work as 
follows: They have 

Given more satisfaction per tube than any other 
receivers for home construction. 

Overcome the tendency toward the building of 
radiating receivers by performing better. 




SANFEDRO CALIF Uop sept 22 1924 



ARTHUR H 



BDITQS RADIO BROADCAST 

VI4AQNER 



Improved the quality of receiver designs offered 
to the public by setting so high a standard that 
"trick circuits" could not keep pace. 

Stimulated the sale of reliable parts. 

Reduced the selling arguments necessary because 
their performance is internationally recognized. 

Because of their excellent tone quality and ease 
of adjustment, brought radio to the attention of 
prospective buyers in an entirely new and better 
light. 

Offered the manufacturer, dealer and jobber, a 
most sound method of sales promotion for the 
standard parts he has in stock, without favoring 
any one assisting the entire industry. 

COOPERATIVE COMPETITION 

ONE of the outstanding features of the 
First Radio World's Fair recently .held 
in Madison Square Garden and the 6gth 
Regiment Armory in New York City was the 
love feast of competitors a banquet held in 
the Grand Ball Room of the Waldorf-Astoria 
Hotel and attended by several hundred 
manufacturers, jobbers, and dealers. It was 
a fitting tribute to the advance made during 
the past few years in the industry at large. 

Here, under the same roof in many in- 
stances, at the same table aye, even at the 
speakers' table were the representatives of 
organizations which have law suits pending 
between them. When such organizations 
can, even for a single night, forget their 
controversies, meet on friendly ground and 
break bread together, we feel sure that much 
good may be accomplished. 

Nor was the banquet the sole indication 
of the desire to get together. There were 
meetings of various trade, publicity, manu- 
facturing, broadcasting and press associations 
which were conducted on a much more friendly 
basis than we have ever seen before. With 
everyone trying to cooperate we feel that the 
possibility of a huge busi- 
ness this winter is increased 
immeasurably. 

REQUIESCAT IN PACE! 

TO US, who have labored 
long in the preaching of 
the golden rule in radio re- 
ceiving, no other one thing 
could be quite as satisfying 
as witnessing the almost en- 
tire absence of squealing 
receivers at the Radio Fair. 
At last, the gospel seems to 
have hit home and many 
erstwhile sinners have gone 
and got religion. 
All manner of tuned radio- 



Shake Hands With the "R. I. 

The Problems, Pleasures, Tribulations, and Experiences 
of the Department of Commerce Radio Inspector What 
Happened During the Years of Radio Growing Pains 

BY HOWARD S. PYLE 



DEAR SIR: 

I still can obtain no satisfaction from your office 
in clearing up the radio situation in Podunk. The 
amateur nuisance is unbearable, and we demand 
some relief. We urge you to send a man immedi- 
ately to investigate. You say it is 'ships.' This 
is" preposterous, as reference to your map will show 
our city to be located twenty miles from the ocean 
there are no ships in Podunk. 

Yours truly, 

GEORGE SMITH. 

A PLEASANT start for a rather doubt- 
ful day, is it not? Yet this is what 
the heavy-eyed Radio Supervisor of 
your district is confronted with as 
he wearily takes 
his place at his 
desk to com- 
mence the daily 
grind. He comes 
to his office, not 
refreshed by a 
restful night's 
sleep, but dog- 
tired from a four 
or five hour vigil 
the night before, 
checking the fre- 
quencies of the 
various stations 
within range of 
his sensitive re- 
ceiver. Not once 




in a while but 
every night, does 
he do this; not 
occasionally does 
he receive an irri- 
tating communi- 
cation such as 
opens this article, 



THE RADIO INSPECTOR AT WORK 

Emmery H. Lee, one of the radio inspectors attached to the 
New York office is checking up the wavelength of an amateur 
operator's station, using a standard Department of Commerce 
wavemeter. The station license is on the wall and the opera- 
tor's license in the frame to its left, both issued by the Depart- 
ment of Commerce, is next to it. The revealing sign and crepe 
on the burned-out transmitting tube tell their own story of 
the price the amateur pays for his hobby 



but he gets num- 
bers of them daily. And you, in the comfort of 
your fireside, complain bitterly at a few annoy- 
ing splashes of static or an occasional ship trans- 
mittal which interferes with your pleasure. 
Maybe you write your district Supervisor, 



demanding some immediate action, and then 
grumble at the inefficiency of Governmental 
services if an inspector does not appear at 
your home the following evening ready to 
devote his entire evening to your interests. 
Suppose you pick a comfortable chair, get a 
fresh cigar and read on meet your District 
Supervisor and his radio inspectors. An 
insight into the workings of the Radio In- 
spection Service of the United States Depart- 
ment of Commerce will give you a new respect 
for the men who are laboring many hours a 
day that your evening's pleasure may be 
uninterrupted. 

In 1912, radio communication was limited 
to communica- 
tion to and from 
vessels on the 
Great Lakes and 
on the high seas, 
and between a 
few points on 
land. A number 
of companies con- 
trolled this serv- 
ice. When the 
rapid increase in 
radio stations 
came, petty con- 
troversies often 
came up between 
operators, and in 
numerous cases 
these original 
small arguments 
grew into serious 
affairs. A ship of 
one company, for 
example, refused 
to handle busi- 
ness with a ship 
or shore station 

of a rival organization. Worse, efforts were 
often made so to interfere with a competitor's 
operations to prevent his handling legitimate 
traffic. 

Foreign vessels as well as those of 



290 



Radio Broadcast 



United States registry were then fast adopt- 
ing radio telegraphy. No provision for in- 
tercommunication with vessels of different 
nationality existed. Briefly, radio communi- 
cation up to 1912 was entirely unorganized. 
The problems presented by the increase in 
stations and the attitude of competing inter- 
ests grew so menacing, that the Government 
found it imperative to interfere in order to 
protect its military signalling, and to gain 
some control over commercial traffic. Ac- 
cordingly, an "Act to Regulate Radio Com- 
munication" was introduced and in due course 
of time became a law, in 1912. Among the 
various important provisions in this act was 
an article requiring all stations to inter- 
communicate regardless of the radio system 
employed. It was further provided that 
every radio transmitting station must be 
licensed by the Secretary of Commerce, and 
be operated only by operators examined and 
licensed by him. Certain technical limi- 
tations were placed on such stations, and in 
order that the law might be enforced, it was 
necessary to create a force of inspectors who 
would personally inspect each such station. 
It was found desirable to have these inspec- 
tors conduct examinations to determine the 
qualifications of an applicant for a radio 
operator license. Nine radio districts were 
established, with headquarters in the impor- 
tant industrial center nearest the central part 
of the district. 

WHERE THE INSPECTORS ARE 

THESE nine districts, with some slight 
changes of headquarters as demanded by 
varying conditions, are the same to-day. The 
present headquarters offices are located in 
New York City, Boston, Baltimore, Atlanta, 
New Orleans, San Francisco, Seattle, Chicago, 
and Detroit. A radio inspector, who was re- 
quired to be a highly skilled technician, was 
assigned to each office, and in a few instances, 
assistants were also provided where the duties 
were extremely heavy, such as at New York. 
A Chief Radio Inspector, with offices in 
Washington, presided over the nine districts, 
and still does. He acts under the direction 
of the Secretary of Commerce, through the 
Commissioner of Navigation. 

At the time of the formation of this branch 
of the Government service, a radio inspector's 
duties were to inspect each radio transmitting 
station in his district periodically; hold 
frequent radio operator license examinations 
and conduct periodic examinations in the 
larger cities throughout the district. In 1912 



but comparatively few shore stations existed, 
and not many vessels carried radio apparatus. 
Since he had a consequently small number of 
embryo operators to examine, a radio inspec- 
tors' duties were not arduous. 

Radio has grown steadily since the for- 
mation of this service. Just prior to the war, 
practically every vessel of any size at all 
carried apparatus. There were numerous 
shore stations in each district. Thousands 
of amateur stations existed throughout the 
country. Many private concerns owned 
radio stations for communicating only between 
their various plants and offices. All these 
stations were required by law to be inspected 
and licensed, and these tasks fell to the radio 
inspectors. An increase in the personnel was 
sadly needed but not forthcoming from Con- 
gress. The Department of Commerce Radio 
Service was forced to struggle along as best 
it might with the limited funds and personnel 
at its disposal, while radio was growing in 
importance and popularity daily. All this 
was before the inception of radio broadcasting. 

AND THEN CAME BROADCASTING 

SHORTLY following the new start of 
commercial radio telegraphy in the 
United States at the close of the war, the 
results of experiments made with radio tele- 
phone systems for military signalling became 
public property. It was not long before a 
few radio broadcast stations appeared. The 
public were inclined to be a bit dubious at 
first, but almost overnight, the flame of popu- 
larity swept the country and the demand for 
radio apparatus and broadcasting service 
was phenomenal. Stations for transmitting 
entertainment, education, news, etc., sprang 
up all over the country, and for each such 
transmitting station, thousands of receiving 
sets were installed. Under the law of 1912, all 
transmitting stations must be inspected and 
licensed. Each must be operated by properly 
licensed operators. These additional duties 
were added to the radio inspectors' already 
heavy burden. No provision was made in the 
1912 law to cover radio telephone stations. 
The Radio Inspection Service had to draft 
suitable regulations to cover the new situation. 
A few additional inspectors were obtained 
through an emergency measure. 

No sooner were the enormous problems 
which the broadcast situation had presented 
untangled to some degree, than a new menace 
made itself known in the flood of letters that 
began to pour into the district inspection 
offices. The public was becoming educated 



Shake Hands With the "R. I." 



291 



in the new science, and had discovered with 
some surprise and much indignation that there 
were other signals in the air than those ema- 
nating from broadcast stations. 

THE PUBLIC DISCOVERS INTERFERENCE 

THE new listeners frequently had to con- 
tend with the code signals from near-by 
amateur stations, from ships and shore sta- 
tions, and from high power transoceanic 
stations. An amateur radio station owner, 
was a personality someone who could be 

readily visualized, 

whereas to a large 
number, the vessels, 
high power stations 
and the like were but 
a dim mental picture. 
The tide of public 
opinion turned 
against the amateur, 
for it was assumed 
that all interference 
from code transmis- 
sions must come from 
him. There were 
about twenty thou- 
sand transmitting 
amateurs in the coun- 
try, nearly three 
thousand radio 
equipped vessels, and 
about fifteen hundred 
commercial shore sta- 
ll i o n s scattered be- 
tween the coasts. 
Those with broadcast 
receivers got a lot of 
interference. Broad- 
casting had been 
assigned wavelengths 
of 360 and 400 

meters. With amateurs on 200 meters, and 
ships on 300, 450, and 600 meters, and taking 
into consideration the huge number of non- 
selective radio receivers (those subject to 
maximum interference) which were unloaded 
on an unsuspecting public, it naturally fol- 
lowed that the reception of the radio pro- 
grams was not all that could be desired. 
The public was indignant. They did not 
propose to have their outlay rendered useless 
it it could be prevented. Accordingly, letters 
of protest were the first step. The problem 
of where to direct them was soon solved. 
.Then, such a bulk of mail entered the radio 
^inspectors' offices that it appeared next to 
r -impossible even to begin to handle it. But 



When "Something Ought to be 
Done About Something" 

Radio folk have gotten into the habit of 
writing to the Radio Supervisor in their dis- 
trict. The broadcast listener may have 
trouble with an interfering power line near by, 
or perhaps it is a neighboring code amateur 
whom they suspect of high radio crimes and 
misdemeanors. Forthwith, he writes to the 
Radio Supervisor. If ships pound in over 
the loud speaker, or if static is excessive, the 
inspector hears of it. Many there are who 
have dealings with the inspector, and. this 
article may help to make that person a bit 
more of an entity. Mr. Pyle has been an in- 
spector himself. He was attached to the 
Eighth District Headquarters at Detroit for 
some time. The entire radio staff of the 
Department of Commerce is rendering yeo- 
man service to the country, and the magni- 
tude of the task they are trying to accomplish 
with a pitifully small staff is not generally 
appreciated. The Department needs ade- 
quate running and administration appro- 
priations, sufficient to care for the enormous 
expansion of its tasks. These, Congress has 
steadily refused. THE EDITOR. 



the radio inspectors rolled up their sleeves 
and "dug into it." It was soon found that by 
far the majority of letters dealt with inter- 
ference, real or fancied, from amateur trans- 
mitters. This called for individual investi- 
gations which entailed an unbelievable 
amount of work. Due to the insufficient 
travel appropriation provided, it was neces- 
sary to permit such complaints to pile up until 
those from some certain territory became 
exceedingly insistent and numerous, and then 
the radio inspector would proceed to that 
community, and by 
working all day and 
far into the night for 
several days, would 
get the tangle some- 
w h a t straightened 
out. Meanwhile, 
complaints from some 
other section would 
pile up and on his 
return there would 
be a goodly number 
of investigations to 
conduct in other sec- 
tions. Between trips, 
and while actually 
traveling, it was also 
necessary that he in- 
spect ship and land 
stations and hold ra- 
dio operator examina- 
tions. 



THE AMATEURS 
TROUBLES 



T! 



HE amateur prob- 
lem finally became 
so acute, that the 
amateurs themselves 
felt they were in 

danger of extinction, so strong was the 
flood of public opinion against them. In 
spite of their splendid war services and 
other contributions to the art, such power- 
ful influences were brought to bear as to 
make their position extremely precarious. 
They accordingly, voluntarily established a 
"silent period" from seven to ten-thirty P.M. 
daily, when they would shut down their 
transmitters to enable the new listeners to 
receive the broadcast entertainment without 
interference. This in a way, was successful, 
but the interference from the few who would 
not fall in line with their more far-sighted 
brothers, and from other sources, made it 
necessary for the Department of Commerce 



292 



Radio Broadcast 



through regulation, to impose compulsory 
silent hours of from eight to ten-thirty P.M., 
local standard time, and during local church 
services on Sunday mornings, on all amateur 
stations. 

MORE LABORS FOR THE INSPECTORS 

IN NO time at all, a new flood 'of letters 
poured in. The amateurs were accused of 
violating the silent period provision of their 
station licenses, particularly in points remote 
from radio inspectors where they thought they 
would not be apprehended. Nothing for it 
but the radio inspector must extend his day 
four or five hours more, and arrange to .listen 
in nightly in an endeavor to locate the offend- 




EVERY RADIO STATION ABOARD SHIP 

Has regularly to be inspected by the radio service of the Department 
of Commerce. The inspector checks the wavelength adjustment 
of the transmitter, and tests the storage batteries which furnish 
auxiliary power in case of accident to the ship's generators. He also 
tests the telephone from the radio room to the bridge. At practi- 
cally all ports of entry in this country, the Department of Commerce 
inspects each ship each trip it makes into that port. This service 
alone would keep a large inspecting staff busy, but in addition to 
ship inspection, the inspectors have to inspect amateur stations of 
a certain grade, commercial shore stations, broadcasting stations, 
conduct license examinations for amateur and commercial operators, 
and investigate violations of the radio laws. The ship being in- 
spected is SS Maracaibo 



ers. Congress would not appropriate funds 
for the necessary equipment, so, out of his own 
meager salary, the inspector purchased elabo- 
rate receiving equipment often costing 
several hundred dollars in order that he 
might efficiently serve his public. After a few 
weeks of such monitoring service it was found 
that much of the interference came from a 
number of broadcast stations transmitting 
on the same wave. Accordingly, Mr. Radio 
Inspector was called into consultation with 
his Chief at Washington. New regulations 
were drafted, providing a re-allocation of 
wavelength bands for broadcast purposes. 
These covered the wavelengths| from 222 
meters to 545 meters, and a zoning system was 
worked out to provide the 
minimum interference between 
stations. 

Returning to his office, the 
radio inspector with his insuffi- 
cient clerical force, was faced 
with the task of explaining by 
letter to each broadcast station 
in his district the proposed 
changes, and calling in the nu- 
merous licenses for amendment. 
Relief from inter-station inter- 
ference was immediate, but still 
the letters poured in, accusing 
amateurs of violations of quiet 
periods. Back to his receiver 
for Mr. R. I. And this time the 
problem had taken a new and 
more serious form. American 
and foreign ships were causing 
a tremendous amount of inter- 
ference, practically blanketing 
the entire country, with their 
transmittals on 300, 450 and 
600 meters. 

REAL CODE INTERFERENCE 

THE problem this time was 
very real. A quiet period 
could not be imposed upon com- 
mercial radio services to accom- 
modate those who wished to be 
entertained. Furthermore, ra- 
dio was the only means of com- 
munication from shore to a 
vessel at sea. Recourse to the 
laws showed that the transmit- 
tals were within the require- 
ments in every way It was 
then decided to request the ra- 
dio operating companies to have 
their vessels keep away from 300 



Shake Hands With the "R. I." 



293 



and 450 meters, at least be- 
tween seven and eleven P.M. 
daily. An additional wavelength 
of 706 meters was provided for 
them, away from the broadcast 
band. Theoretically, this was 
ideal, the companies expressed 
their desire to cooperate and- 
the individual operators going 
to sea used what they saw fit in 
regard to wavelengths available. 
Accordingly, practically no relief 
was noted. This was communi- 
cated to the complaining parties 
as fast as letters of complaint 
arrived. It was inconceivable, 
even to the most intelligent peo- 
ple, that a little vessel, tossing 
on the waves hundreds even 
thousands of miles from their 
firesides could raise such havoc. 
It was so much more readily 
understandable how an amateur 
in the same town could cause 
the interference. Accordingly, 
the radio service was often ac- 
cused of being in league with the 
amateurs against the broadcast 
listeners, or "BCL's" as they 
grew to be known. 

DIPLOMACY AMONG THE INSPEC- 
TORS 




'"THE radio inspectors then 
A adopted new tactics. When 
a complaint against an amateur station 
was filed, the complainant was requested 
to furnish the name and address or official 
radio call letters of the offending station. 
Where they could do either, the amateur 
was directed by the inspector to get in touch 
with the complaining party and endeavor to 
come to some amicable agreement. Where 
call letters or names were lacking, the com- 
plainant was respectfully requested to get 
this information before it would be possible to 
assist him. 

Contrary to being a practical solution, 
letters from the amateur side began to in- 
crease. It was claimed that no understanding 
could be reached with the BCL's; they were 
for total elimination of the amateur. After 
such conferences, the amateur naturally went 
away in a "huff" leaving bad feeling on both 
sides. This often took more active form and 
many were the tales of amateur antennae cut 
down in the dead of night. It was a feud 
second only to some of the old Kentucky gun- 



INSPECTING A BROADCASTING STATION 
WEBJ, the Third Avenue Railway station in New York, being tested 
by a radio inspector from the New York, or Second Radio District. 
The wavelengths of all broadcasters are very carefully watched by 
the government inspectors 



fights between the mountaineers. And be- 
tween them both, fired at from both sides and 
with no support, stood the radio inspector, 
sleepless and irritated beyond description, 
but still struggling to bring peace into this 
big new family that had been suddenly placed 
under his wing. 

The flood of mail continued. Level headed, 
clear thinking business men made threats 
over their signature that they would be 
ashamed of in any other connection than radio. 
Fair-minded, ordinarily pleasant people be- 
came most selfish and bitter. 

When all other methods had been ex- 
hausted and still the public clamored for relief, 
official Washington decided that a general 
conference of all representative radio interests 
might solve the problem. Accordingly the 
Supervisor of Radio at New York was 
directed to call such a conference. Repre- 
sentative men from the radio operating compa- 
nies and all those who were so connected were 
invited. The outcome of such an extended 



294 



Radio Broadcast 



discussion was an agreement by the radio 
operating companies, to eliminate the 450 
meter wave on their vessels, accept the 706 
meter adjustment in its stead, and to use 300 
meters only as re- 
quired by Interna- 
tional regulation. 

The rest given the 
inspectors was not 
for long though, for it 
was soon seen that in 
order for the broad- 
cast stations to func- 
tion properly and with 
little interference be- 
tween one another, 
they must be main- 
tained on their exact 
wavelength. It again 




became necessary for 



has bought and paid for, from his own pocket, 
the receiving equipment which he uses for 
these measurements, and it is far more selec- 
tive, far more costly than what you term a 



Hairis & Ewing 

W. D. TERRELL 

Chief Supervisor of Radio. 
Mr. Terrell is in direct 
chatge of the inspection 
activities of the Radio Ser- 
vice, Bureau of Naviga- 
tion, Department of Com- 
merce. The country is 
divided into nine radiodis- 
tricts, each with its super- 
visor and inspectors. The 
task of administering the 
radio law has grown to tre- 
mendous proportions since 
the beginning of broad- 
casting in 1920 



O. R. REDFERN 
Supervisor of Radio, Sev- 
enth District. With head- 
quarters at Seattle, Mr. 
Redfern has charge of 
radio affairs in Oregon, 
Washington, Idaho, Mon- 
tana, Wyoming, and the 

Territory of Alaska 



R. Y. CADMUS 

Supervisor of Radio for the 
Third Radio District. His 
office is in Baltimore and with 
some exceptions he has con- 
trol of the states of New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, Virginia, and 
the District of Columbia 



CHARLES C. KOLSTER 

Supervisor of the First 
Radio District at Boston, 
which comprises Maine, 
New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, and Con- 
necticut 



the radio inspector to return to his monitor- 
ing of the air, this time to check the wave- 
lengths of the broadcast stations and to notify 
those which had slipped from their assigned 
frequencies. This service proved so valuable, 
both to the broadcast stations and the listening 
public, that it is being maintained voluntarily 
by the various district Supervisors who are 
devoting their entire evenings to such work 
in order that you may have better broadcast- 
ing. There is no additional remuneration 
for this work, it is entirely voluntary. And 
remember too, that except in rare cases, where 
sufficient money could be "borrowed" from 
other office appropriations, the radio inspector 



"good" broadcast receiver. It has to be. 
The devotion to duty of the men in the 
service is remarkable. The writer will always 
be grateful for the year which he was privi- 
leged to serve among them. The salary is 
insignificant. Much more has been tendered 
the inspectors by outside firms, but the 
majority prefer to stay and conquer your 
problems and to take such satisfaction as they 
may find in the fact that they are beyond a 
doubt doing more to give you better radio 
than any other individual or group in the art. 
Think of them as human, and think twice 
before you write a hastily worded and sar- 
castic letter. 



The Log of a Radio Hobo 

The COVERED WAGON in the Middle West, Which Captain Irwin Calls a 
Radio Paradise Radio and the Farmer The Farm Offers a Great Field 
for Radio Salesmen News of the COVERED WAGON on the Radio Circuit 

BY CAPTAIN JACK IRWIN 




SOMEBODY is asleep at the switch. 
When I started on my travels in the 
RADIO BROADCAST COVERED WAGON, 
one of the objects of the journey was 
to ascertain first hand from the farmer ex- 
actly what radio was doing to assist him in his 
business and to amuse him in his leisure. 
I have listened daily to the broadcasting of 
produce market reports and imagined that 
the farmers were 
equipped to re- 
ceive this informa- 
tion, and the 
weather forecasts. 
What do we find? 
After traversing 
more than one 
thousand miles of 
highway through 
some of the finest 
farming districts 
of the Eastern and 
Middle Western 
states we find that 
less than five per 
cent, of the farmers 
are equipped with 
radio receivers. 

We looked for mile after mile in vain for the 
familiar antenna on farm buildings. We 
stopped frequently at ranches where the fields 
and buildings indicated prosperity and the 
outward signs pointed to luxury within, but 
seldom did we find what we searched for. 

Inquiries made during these visits proved 
that it was not lack of interest in radio matters 
that led to the absence of radio facilities. In 
almost every case great interest was shown 
and a keen desire expressed by both old and 
young for a broadcast receiver. We have 
been asked over and over again what receiver 
was best adapted for a particular need. 
Fortunately, with the complete equipment 
we carry on the COVERED WAGON, we were 
able to make suggestions based in many cases 
upon results obtained on the premises of the 
people interested. Unlike many of the fans 



PREPARING A MULLIGAN 

Better known in the army as "slumgullion." 
and the WAGON at the side of a road in 
transcontinental trip 



in the towns and cities, the rural prospective 
radio owner is not inclined to interest himself 
in assembling a receiver from parts made by 
himself or purchased. He prefers to learn of a 
complete manufactured receiver that will 
bring in reasonably distant stations. To such 
interested persons I have always put the same 
question. Have they searched for their re- 
quirements in the pages of radio magazines, 

or have they 
shopped for radio 
receivers in their 
visits to town? 
The answer has al- 
ways been invari- 
ably the same. 
They felt that 
what they had read 
about radio only 
left them confused, 
and their visits to 
dealers made them 
more so, as the 
latter claimed such 
extraordinary re- 
ceptive qualities 
for their product 
that the farmer 

was skeptical. In other cases we found pro- 
spective purchasers waiting for some immed- 
iate neighbor to install a set, which "he would 
do this fall" and if he was successful, well, " I 
guess we will get one like it." The army is 
not the only place they "pass the buck!" 

THESE FARMERS SHOULD HAVE BUSY ANTENNAS 

IT IS reasonable to expect that the condi- 
tions that I have found on the main tra- 
veled highways must prevail in less settled by- 
ways to which my limited itinerary does not 
permit a visit. I think that both the manu- 
facturer and the retailer are overlooking one 
of the most promising fields in the radio 
business. Farmers are almost waiting to be 
convinced that the set offered to them is the 
one that will produce the results that they 
anticipate for their money. From the expe- 



Captain Frwin 
Kansas on his 



296 



Radio Broadcast 



rience of the writer it would seem that the 
old itinerant tinware peddler with his wagon 
could be resurrected to advantage in the re- 
tailing of radio apparatus in rural commun- 
ities. Without exaggeration, we could have 
sold our sets on our WAGON dozens of times 
after giving demonstrations in farmyards. It 
is my personal opinion that the dealer must 
devise other methods than those now prevail- 
ing to reach one of the most receptive markets 
open to the radio industry. The farmer may 
purchase almost every other commodity he 
equires by mail, but when it comes to a radio 
receiver he must be shown. 

MUNICIPALLY OPERATED RADIO 

DISCOVERED in Detroit to what extent 
broadcasting was employed as a public util- 
ity. The COVERED WAGON arrived in that city 
on the eve of the annual international motor 
boat races. The evening before the opening 
day, several mysterious looking wagons were 
drawn up along the river bank, each shrouded 
in coverings that hid the contents. Sub- 
sequently we learned that these wagons were 
owned by the Detroit Parks and Boulevards 
Department and contained broadcast re- 
ceivers, each with a huge wooden horn to be 
used in announcing the results of the races to 
the assembled spectators. We found that 
every public park in the city would be similarly 
furnished with such receivers. They had 
not been especially installed for the important 
motor boat events, but had been designed and 
installed by the municipal authorities to 
broadcast the band concerts from Belle Isle, 
one of the largest and most beautiful city 
parks in the world. By means of these 
mobile receivers and giant loud speakers, 
citizens of the city in every park or public 
gathering place in Detroit could enjoy the 
band concert. This utilization of radio saved 
the city the expense of furnishing several 
bands for its parks. The idea originated with 
General Heckle, Commissioner of Parks and 
Boulevards, who had learned from practical 
experience during his service in the war of the 
advantages of radio. 

THE POLICE "STATION" 

'T^HE city owns and operates a transmitting 
* station at police headquarters. From 
this station was broadcast frequently particu- 
lars of any crime. Every precinct station 
throughout the city was equipped with a 
receiver and loud speaker, thus enabling the 
officers on duty in each station simultaneously 
to learn of the details of newly reported 



crimes as they were filed at headquarters. 
For instance, as each stolen automobile was 
reported, the number of the license, engine, 
and the make of the car was broadcast with 
other essential information that would lead 
to its recovery. Officials assured me that a 
very large percentage of stolen cars had been 
recovered as a result of this up to date method. 
This station has the most appropriate call 
letters of KOP! 

Another excellent use the city finds for this 
municipal station is in connection with the 
city owned street cars. The repair trucks and 
cars of the railroad are equipped with receivers 
operated with a loop. When a breakdown 
in the system occurs, the broadcast station 
calls the number of the repair crew responsible 
for that section of the road and supplies the 
particulars of the trouble and the locality. 
The police department has equipped several 
speedy patrol automobiles for rapidly trans- 
porting police reserves to the scene of such 
hold-ups. These fliers, as they are called, are 
also equipped with radio receivers that enable 
the crew to keep in constant touch with head- 
quarters. Radio has been so successful in 
solving communication problems in the city 
management in Detroit that it is planned 
further to utilize the new system by extend- 
ing its use to the public schools. 

THE GREAT LAKES ARE A RADIO PARADISE 

OUR journey has progressed as far as the 
Great Lakes, and we envy the diversified 
programs that citizens of this region of the 
Middle West enjoy. Not only are they plenti- 
fully supplied with excellent broadcasting 
stations in their own particular zone, but their 
central locality enables them, with even small 
receiving units, to bring in programs from the 
Atlantic and far West stations. While listen- 
ing in for a couple of hours each evening, a fan 
can gather in a dozen or more excellent stations. 
The fact that the division of times also adds 
to their advantage enables the Great Lakes 
fan to obtain DX without sitting up until the 
wee sma' hours, as his brother fan in the East 
must do. While the night is yet young he 
can hear the Atlantic stations sign off and 
turn his dials for Western stations working, 
say, on mountain time. At this time I am 
particularly enjoying these advantages. We 
have been most anxious ever since commenc- 
ing this trip to obtain distant stations in the 
particular spot we happened to be each night. 
Prior to our arrival in the Great Lakes district 
this entailed much hardship in the loss of sleep, 
which we particularly needed after driving all 



The Log of a Radio Hobo 



297 




HALF WAY POINT 

The COVERED WAGON on the Liberty Highway, 1,576 miles from New York and 1,563 miles from San Fran- 
cisco. It was in the Middle West and West that Captain Irwin found the farmers so very much interested 

in radio, but so poorly supplied with sets. 



day in the exhilarating country air, and even 
when we succeeded in warding off friend 
Morpheus we feared to disturb our temporary 
neighbors should there be fellow tourists 
near us. Excellent as broadcast music may 
be, there is a time and place for the best 
things, and a tired tourist camp is certainly 
not that place. 

THE AUTOMOBILE TOURISTS 

SPEAKING of our audiences, although 
the weather for the last two weeks (I 
am writing in early September), has been very 
chilly, we continue to meet thousands of 
automobile tourists. Some are en route home, 
but many are still touring. Each night as we 
camp in a new locality, each farther west, 
we are surrounded by a number of tourists 
whose license plates indicate that they are 
from north, south, east, and west. Wonder- 
ful companions on the trail they are. As I 
remarked in another article, I find it hard to 
write only of radio topics. The intensely 
interesting personalities we meet will long be 
remembered. Before 1 began this tour, I 
had read in a magazine devoted to outdoor 
life that in 1923 the estimated number of 
automobile tourists numbered several hundred 
thousand. I remember that the actual 
number seemed incredibly large and I 
made a mental note at the time that the 
writer had exaggerated, but my personal 
experience to date indicates that 1924 will 



exceed that estimate of last year. Now 
of the thousands we have met, we have not 
encountered a dozen carrying radio receivers. 
Even those who do possess receivers in their 
touring equipment do not use them often. 
A very large number are ardent fans and 
speak enthusiastically of their receptive feats 
at home. These tourists are very substantial 
citizens and the equipments are marvelous 
in ingenuity. 

Some of the cars resemble furniture moving 
vans. Heads of happy smiling youngsters 
may often be seen protruding from an auto- 
mobile load of camping equipment. Mr. 
Ford, if he could take such an extended trip 
as we now are enjoying, would have food for 
thought if he could but see what his efforts 
have led to! So far 1 seem to have encoun- 
tered two outstanding classes of tourists. 
One is the substantial citizen already alluded 
to, the other is the itinerant worker who 
travels in the lowly, often ancient and dilapi- 
dated Ford, works for a period in one place, 
accumulates enough capital to carry on to his 
next objective point, and then repeats the pro- 
cess. Both are well informed, not on world 
topics perhaps, but upon American national 
problems. 

In every tourist camp men and women fore- 
gather from every state and exchange amic- 
able notes upon their diversified experiences. 
Two great inventions have brought Ameri- 
cans together, the automobile and radio. 



The International Broadcasting 

Tests 

Last-Minute Facts About the Plans for Internationa] Broadcasting During the 
Week of November 24th to 30th in the Tests Conducted by RADIO BROADCAST 



BY WILLIS K. WING 



BY THE time this copy of RADIO 
BROADCAST reaches the hands of the 
reader, the International Radio 
Broadcast Tests will be ready to 
start. The week of November 24th to 3Oth 
is destined to remain long in the minds of 
radio fans because the plans this year insure 
thrills for the listener that can be secured in 
no other way. Every important broadcasting 
station in the United States, Cuba, Porto 
Rico, Hawaii, Canada, and Great Britain 
will be "on the air" during their allotted 
time in the test week. 

We have often been asked exactly what the 
purpose of these tests is. Last year, the 
transatlantic test was primarily to find out 
whether or not the ordinary super-sensitive 
receiver could bring in the English broad- 
casters, if American transmitters on the same 




Life; from a recent issue 

"OH BOY! I'VE GOT SCOTLAND" 



wavelengths were silent. We purposed also to 
allow the English listeners to hear American 
broadcasting under the most favorable con- 
ditions of time and atmosphere. Both aims 
were achieved, as radio folk on both sides of 
the water will assure you. American broad- 
casting was heard in England very generally 
during the tests last year. It was about one 
month after that that the British broadcasting 
company successfuly rebroadcast the pro- 
grams of KDKA over their own circuits. 

It is an established fact that listeners on 
each side of the Atlantic can hear the other, 
given highly sensitive receivers and favorable 
conditions. But those conditions have to be 
supplied. American listeners cannot hear 
English and Continental stations while their 
own broadcasting stations are sending on 
about the same waves. So, during an hour 
each evening of the tests, American listeners 
can tune-in on the foreign broadcasts un- 
hampered by interference from United States 
stations. Listeners will have another oppor- 
tunity to try their sets under conditions which 
could be found at no other time. After all, 
it is an experience for a listener in an isolated 
spot in Oregon to hear a program direct from 
London. That is just what happened in the 
tests last year. All the thrilled listeners were 
not in Oregon, either, for our reports, tabu- 
lated after the tests were over, showed there 
were great numbers of successful listeners in 
every state in the Union, and all the provinces 
of Canada. 

FEATURES OF THE TEST THIS YEAR 

THE International Esperanto Society is 
deeply interested in the potentialities of 
the International Tests and they have ar- 
ranged to put on a brief program in Esperanto 
from at least ten important American and 
Canadian stations. 

The proponents of this language feel that 
the tests will give them an unusual oppor- 
tunity to put their international language to a 



The International Broadcasting Test 



299 





Barra t's, London 

COOPERATING IN THE TESTS 
Is the new Chelmsford station (?xx) of the British 
Broadcasting Company. The power is a maximum of 
twenty-five kilowatts, sent out on a wavelength of 
1600 meters. The mast is 400 feet high. The oval 
shows the 
large lead-in 
insulator. The 
other insert 
shows a por- 
tion of the 
transmitting 
appa ratus. 
Listeners here 
whose receiv- 
ers will tune 
up to 1600 
meters should 
hear 5 xx 



practical test. They have arranged that 
members of their society in foreign countries 
will listen for the programs. Many who have 
given thought to radio problems have felt 
that with the increase in international broad- 
casting, it might soon become a serious ques- 
tion whether or not an international language 
were not a necessity. 

Program directors of all the stations have 
been hard at work making a special effort to 
have the best talent they can muster before 
the microphone during this week. Last year, 
it will be remembered that such persons of 
importance as Secretary of State Charles E. 
Hughes, Owen D. Young, General James G. 
Harbord, Henry Ford, and others spoke to the 
British listeners. Similar events of impor- 
tance will take place this year. Marconi 
himself spoke in England last year. 

The staff of this magazine has visited broad- 
casting stations personally in the eastern part 
of the country. The editor, Arthur H. 
Lynch, recently completed a trip which in- 
cluded the Marconi and La Presse stations 
at Montreal, CKCO at Ottawa, CKAC at To- 



ronto, and WGY, Schenectady. 
The writer visited, among 
others, WGR at Buffalo, one of 
the stations which was suc- 
cessful in getting its signals to England last 
year, wwj, at Detroit, WJAX, and WTAM at 
Cleveland. Short addresses were made over 
the air at most of these stations, telling of 
the plans for the test. 

DETAILS ABOUT THE TEST 

AMERICAN stations will open the test, be- 
ginning their transmissions at ten o'clock, 
eastern standard time on the night of Novem- 
ber 24th. Promptly at eleven p. M., eastern 
standard time, they will all close down, and the 
foreign stations will send. The Pacific Coast 
broadcasters, then, will begin their programs at 
seven o'clock, local time, which corresponds to 
the Atlantic Coast stations' start at ten. 
American stations will send for an hour and re- 
main silent for the hours specified each evening. 

On the next page are the call letters and 
wavelengths of the English stations. Ameri- 
can stations whose wavelengths are nearest to 
that of the English station are indicated in 
the last column. 

When you know the dial adjustment of 
your receiver for the American station whose 



3OO 



Radio Broadcast 




Harris & Ewing 

AT THE WASHINGTON RADIO CONFERENCE 

Commander E. C. Edwards, Supervisor of Canadian Radio, Captain 
P. P. Eckersley, Chief Engineer of the British Broadcasting 
Company, and Arthur H. Lynch, Editor of this magazine, and 
organizer of the International Radio Broadcast Tests. Mr. 
Edwards, Captain Eckersley, and Mr. Lynch completed arrange- 
ments for the November tests at a recent conference in Washington 



wavelength is nearest that of the foreign sta- 
tion, a minimum of time will be lost in adjust- 
ing your receiver to the foreign stations. 

WHEN YOU HEAR THE FOREIGN STATIONS 

ELABORATE plans have been made at 
d Garden City, at the RADIO BROADCAST 
Laboratory to receive the foreign programs. 
Another special receiving laboratory has been 



set up on the seashore, away 
from all radiating receivers and 
power-line noises, so the pro- 
grams can be received and ac- 
curately checked. Direct radio 
connection with London will 
be possible through a control 
key at the Laboratory con- 
nected to the high-power trans- 
mitter of the Radio Corporation 
of America at New York. Each 
evening, we shall make up a re- 
port of those listeners in all parts 
of the country who report to us 
that they heard the foreign pro- 
grams. These will be quickly 
tabulated and rushed by radio 
across the Atlantic. 

Every listener, no matter 
where he is, is asked to send 
a prepaid telegram to RADIO 
BROADCAST magazine when he 
hears a foreign program. The 
telegram should contain the 
name and address of the sender, 
the name and call letter of the 
sending station, and any neces- 
sary facts about the program 
heard. Those who live near 
enough may telephone their re- 
ports to the office of the ma- 
gazine at Garden City 800. We 
shall also be glad to have reports 
by letter when you receive 

the test programs. All communications will 

be acknowledged. 

WHOLESALE COOPERATION 

THESE tests have been made possible by 
the cooperation of the American, Canadian, 
and English broadcasters, the Radio Corpora- 
tion, the General Electric, the Westinghouse 
Company, and the London Wireless World. 



STATION 
Paris 
London 
Chelmsford 
Aberdeen 
Birmingham 
Bournemouth 
Cardiff 
Edinburgh 
Manchester 
Liverpool 
Newcastle 
Sheffield 
Plymouth 
Leeds 
Brussels 



CALL 

PTT 
2 LO 

5 xx 

2 BD 

5 IT 

6 BM 

5 WA 
2 EH 
2 ZY 

6 LV 

5 NO 

6 FL 
5 PY 

2 LS 



WAVELENGTH 
450 

365 
1600 
405 

475 
385 
35' 
325 
375 
318 
400 
303 
335 
346 
265 



AMERICAN STN. 
WMAQ 
WEBH 

WOR 

WFAA 

WGY 

WCBD 

KDKA 

WEBH 

WGR 

WHAS 

WE El 

WB/. 

WLS 

KFNF 



WAVELENGTH 
448 

37 

405 
476 
380 

345 
326 
370 

3'9 
400 
303 
337 
345 
266 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



301 




Always look for the Magnavox 
Trade Mark when buying radio. 



CV/S the rapid progress of the radio art leads every experienced 
CSl/ user to expect supremely high standards of efficiency in his 
equipment, it becomes of vital importance to know what appara- 
tus deserves your investment in hard earned cash, 

mit positive control by a single dial. 

The Magnavox Tubes have ex- 
tremely high amplification factors, and 
as detectors, give sharper tuning and 
eliminate microphonic noises. 



Regarding the quality of Magnavox 
Radio Reproducers, their distinctive 
characteristics are too well known 
throughout the radio world for special 
explanation or comment. 

Those for whom radio has become 
an actual daily need, however, will 
welcome a brief word about the new 
Magnavox Radio Receivers and Vac- 
uum Tubes. 

The unique feature of the Magna- 
vox set is the gearing together of its 
several resonant circuits so as to per- 



It is well worth your time to examine these 

products at the nearest Magnavox store. 

Literature on request. 

THE MAGNAVOX COMPANY 

OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA 

'New York: Chicago: San Francisco; 

350 W. 3 1st St. 162 N. State St. 274 Brannan St. 

Canadian Distributors: Perkins Electric Limited 
Toronto, Montreal, Winnipeg 



12R 



Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 




WHEN YOU WRITE THE GRID . . . 

Don't fail to enclose a stamped, self -addressed envelope with your 
inquiry if you expect a personal reply. 

Don't be impatient if you do not receive an immediate answer. Every 
letter is answered in the order of its receipt. Do not send a second letter 
asking about the first. 

Look over your files of RADIO BROADCAST before asking a question 
which might have been covered in a previous issue. 

Don't ask for a comparison between manufactured apparatus. The 
addresses of manufacturers of articles used in the construction of ap- 
paratus described in RADIO BROADCAST will be given on request. 

Don't include questions on subscription orders or inquiries to other 
departments of Doubleday, Page &* Co. Address a separate inquiry to 
the Grid. 

Don't send us a fee for answering your questions. The Grid Depart- 
ment is maintained for the aid and convenience of readers of RADIO 
BROADCAST and there is no charge for the service. 



QUERIES ANSWERED 



WHAT is THE CORRECT VALUE OF RHEOSTAT TO Do QRID LEAKS AFFECT THE SENSITIVITY OF MY 

USE WITH A UV-2OI-A TUBE? RECEIVER? 

G. M. F. Tulsa, Okla. 



HOW MAY I APPLY A FINELY VARIABLE NEGATIVE 
POTENTIAL TO THE GRID OF A VACUUM TUBE? 

D. McG. Philadelphia, Pa. 



A. J. N. Keyport, N. J. 

THE VOLUME OUTPUT OF MY RECEIVER IS DIS- 
TORTED. HOW MAY I CONTROL IT? 

C. D. M. Waco, Texas. 



HOW IS A C BATTERY INSERTED IN AN AUDIO- 
FREQUENCY AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT? 

R. T. L. Augusts, Maine. 



PROPER RESISTANCES FOR TUBES 

WE HAVE been asked numerous times 
why 1 5- and 2o-ohm rheostats are 
recommended for use with uv-2oi-A 
tubes. Likewise we ask, why, too. According to 
Ohm's Law R equals }-, that is the resistance of 
a circuit is equal to the voltage supplied, divided by 
the current in amperes flowing through it. 

According to the data supplied by the tube 
manufacturer, the resistance of the uv-aoi-A is 20 



ohms. This figure is arrived at by dividing 5, the 
operating voltage of the tube, by .25 the current at 
which it is operated. 

By applying the same formula we find that with a 
6-volt storage battery the resistance of the circuit is 
24 ohms. Since 20 ohms of this is to be attributed 
to the tube, the rheostat will necessarily have to 
take care of the extra 4 ohms. Therefore a 4-, (>-, or 
lo-ohm rheostat will be ample for controlling the 
tube filament. 

In general, to find the resistance for any rheostat, 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



SOS 




a 



AN Ultradyne receiver operating in New York City easily tunes 
out the powerful broadcasting of WOR, Newark, N. j. 405 
meters and brings in WDAR, Philadelphia 395 meters; PWX 
Havana, Cuba 400 meters; WDAF Kansas City 411 meters. 

Regardless of close similarity in wave-length, the Ultradyne 
selects any station within range brings in broadcasting clearly, dis- 
tinctly, faithfully. 

In addition to this Ultra-selectivity the Ultradyne is the most 
sensitive receiver known. It employs the "Modulation System" of 
radio reception, the achievement of Mr. R. E. Lacault, EE., 
A.M.I.R.E., Consulting Engineer of this company and formerly 
Radio Research Engineer with the French Signal Corps Research 
Laboratories. 

The " Modulation System " responds to weaker signals than the 
conventional method of detection because it provides greater rec- 
tification. Weakest signals are made to operate the loud speaker. 

Ultradyne performance is the envy of the radio industry. 

Write for descriptive circular 

PHENIX RADIO CORPORATION 

5-7 Beekman Street NEW YORK 



,-f 



MODEL L-2 






Modulation Plus Regeneration 
in the New Ultradyne 

To the "Modulation System" of radio 
reception, R. E. Lacault has . success- 
fully applied the use of regeneration in 
the new Model L-2 ULTRADYNE. 

The result is ultra-sensitivity never 
before thought possible. The use of re- 
generation produces tremendous ampli- 
fication which is more noticeable when 
receiving weak signals. 

The Radio Section of the U. S. Bureau 
of Standards has proven by actual meas- 
urement that regeneration becomes more 
effective as the received signal dimin- 
ishes in strength. 

Regeneration applied to the "Modula- 
tion System" allows the ULTRADYNE 
to respond to an extremely small amount 
of energy. This energy is further am- 
plified thousands of times by the inter- 
mediate frequency amplifier before it is 
detected and made audible. This am- 
plifier is designed for maximum effi- 
ciency without decreasing the tone or 
quality of music and speech. 

The reception of distant stations is 
only limited by atmospheric conditions 
and causes beyond the control of Model 
L-2 ULTRADYNE. 

Loud Speaker Reception Using 
LOOP Aerial 

Efficient loud speaker reception using 
a loop aerial is possible with the Model 
L-2 ULTRADYNE. Ordinarily loop re- 
ception is considerably less efficient than 
an outside aerial. However, the appli- 
cation of regeneration to the "Modula- 
tion System" reduces the resistance of 
the loop circuit, thereby allowing the 
loop to pick up infinitely weak signals. 

The use of a loop also increases se- 
lectivity and decreases static and other 
interference. 

How to Build the New Model 
L-2 ULTRADYNE 

This 32-page illustrated book gives 
latest authentic information on drilling, 

wiring, assembl- 

i ing, and tuning 
the new Model 
L-2 Ultradyne. 
This book ex- 
i plains the "Mod- 
' ulation System" 
! in detail and 
also deals with 
the application 
of regeneration to 
this new system 
I of radio recep- 
I tion. 

It is edited 
by R. E. La- 
cault, inventor of 
j the Ultradyne Re- 
ceiver. Price, 5 Oc. 



Model L-2 ULTRADNE 
Kit Is Ready 

This is the new Model L-2 Ultradyne 
Kit which contains one low loss tuning 
coil, one low loss Oscillator Coil, one 
special low loss Coupler, one type "A" 
Ultraformer, three type "B" Ultra- 
formers, fo'.ir matched fixed Condensers. 





$30.00 



The Ultraformers are new improved 
lung wave radio frequency transformers, 
especially designed by R. E. Lacault, 
inventor of the Ultradyne. As a pre- 
caution against substitution, R. E. La- 
cault's personal monogram sal(R.E.L. ) 
is placed on all genuine Ultraformers. 
All Ultraformers are guaranteed as 
long as this seal remains unbroken. 



Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 



304 



Radio Broadcast 



INPUT 



I POTENTIOMETER 
M/WWWVI 

^lIlllllF 




FIG. I 

substitute in the equation the voltage of the battery 
and the current rating of the tube. From the 
quotient derived, which is the total resistance of the 
circuit, subtract the resistance of the filament of the 
tube. The filament resistance of a tube may be 
ascertained by applying the equation to the oper- 
ating characteristics of the tube, usually supplied 
upon thewrapperor tube carton by the manufacturer. 

FINELY VARIABLE BIAS VOLTAGE 

FOR applying a finely variable voltage to the 
grid of an amplifying tube or for controlling 
the voltage of a C battery similar to the 
method employed by Mr. Silver in his seven-tube 
super-heterodyne, we recommend the circuit shown 
in Fig. i. The C battery is of the standard 4?-volt 
type, the potentiometer 1 50, 200 or 400 ohms. 



TO 

TUNER 



;. 00025 

mfd. 




FIG. 2 



GRID LEAKS 

THE selection of a grid leak for your receiver 
requires care and judgment. Not all the 
variable grid leaks now on the market may 
be depended upon to give reliable service. 

The importance of the grid leak may be under- 
stood when it is explained that the value of the leak 
controls to a large degree your distance reaching 
qualities. Strong, loud signals from local stations 
require a greater leakage to prevent the grid of the 
tube from becoming blocked. 

Now, then, if this same large value of leak is used 
for the reception of weak, distant signals it is fair to 
assume that the signals will also be leaked out 
through the comparatively easy path the large grid 
leak offers. Therefore a variable leak, positive in its 
action, is necessary. We offer the suggestion as 
shown in Figs. 2 and 3 to this end. While the 
arrangement is not entirely economical, it is never- 
theless efficient. Several grid leaks of various 
values are mounted as shown. The tap switch ar- 
rangement allows the proper selection of leak value 
for the station being received. 



AVOIDING DISTORTION IN THE AUDIO OUTPUT 

THE same device shown in Figs. 2 and 3 for a 
variable grid leak may be arranged to 
control the volume output of a receiver. 
For the values of leak shown, substitute resistance 
between 25,000 and 100,000 ohms (.025 to.i megs). 
These are placed in the audio frequency amplifier 
circuit across the secondary of the transformer of 
the last stage. Overloading and distortion may 
be controlled with this unit. Any good con- 
tinuously variable resistance may be substituted. 




SWITCH POINTS 



FIG. 3 

THE C BATTERY 

A METHOD for employing a C battery in a 
standard two-stage audio-frequency ampli- 
fier is depicted in Fig. 4. Ordinarijy, the 
lower side or grid return of the secondary is con- 
nected directly to the negative side of the fila- 
ment supply. But to insert the C battery, the 
lower side of the secondary is connected and then 




FIG. 4 

brought to the negative side of the C battery. The 
positive side of the C battery is then connected 
to the negative side of the A battery. 

It will be seen that instead of directly bringing 
the grid return to the negative A lead it is first 
brought to the C battery which is inserted in its 
position between the negative A and the lower side 
of the secondaries. 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



Evereadv 
Heavy Duty 
"B" Bat- 
tery , 45 
volts. Three 
Fahnestock 
dipt. Length 
8 3/16 in. 
width 
4 7/16 in. 
height 
73/16 in. 
weight 
13 3/4 Ibs. 
Price $4.75. 



I 



*3i 
4J 



9>*25j 

**JU<^ 

fl* 1 



,***' 






REDUCE 

Operating Costs 

THOUSANDS of people are already 
cutting their "B" Battery costs one- 
half, or even two-thirds, by using 
the new Eveready "B" Battery No. 
770 on their heavy drain sets. 

This new Eveready Heavy Duty 
Battery marks a marvelous advance 
in reducing "B" Battery costs. 

If your "B" Batteries have lasted 
only two months on a five or six 
tube receiver, this Eveready Heavy 
Duty "B" Battery will increase the 
service two to three times. 

Use this Eveready Heavy Duty 
"B" Battery on any receiving set 
on which the "B" Batteries last less 
than four months. When thus used 
to its full capacity, it is the cheapest 
as well as the best source of "B" 
energy ever offered. 

Manufactured and guaranteed 6l/ 
NATIONAL CARBON CO., INC. 

Headquarters for Radio Battery Information 
New York San Francisco 

Canadian National Carbon Co., Limited 
^ Toronto, Ontario 

EVEREADY 

Radio Batteries 

"they last longer 



Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 



New Equipment 




FIAT BANK-WOUND LOOP 

A collapsible loop antenna of merit. The manner in which 
the loop is held rigid is very satisfactory. It is neat in 
appearance and of sturdy construction. The wood is 
highly polished mahogany. Made by the Radio Appliance 
Laboratory, 1529 Howard Ave., Chicago, 111. Price $15 



A LOUD SPEAKING TELEPHONE 

Which gives exceptionally fine reproduction, 
is the Western Electric No. 540-AW. The 
projector consists of two cones of specially se- 
lected material resembling parchment. The 
apex of one cone is connected by a driving rod 
to an electro magnetic unit that responds to 
current impulses from the receiver thereby 
causing the cones to vibrate and reproduce 
the received signals. Made by the Western 
Electric Company, 195 Broadway, New York 
City. Price $35 




A RADIO TUBE SOCKET 

Constructed so that the tube does 
not have to be twisted into place. 
Each contact is a spring clip that 
clinches the tube prong without 
strain. The silver plated 
contact and respective lug 
is one continuous piece, 
doing away with binding 
post connections. Made by 
The Cutler-Hammer Mfg. 
Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 




M-B-G RADIO CABINET 

A moderate priced combination cabinet table- 
with battery compartment. This arrangement 
is ideal for eliminating the confusion of batter- 
ies and wires in the radio corner. The manu- 
facturer also makes a plain table and one with 
battery compartment. The purchaser can fin- 
ish the table as he wishes. Made by the Express 
Body Corporation, 44 Lake St., Crystal Lake, 111. 




MORRADYNE RECEIVER 

Bridgeport, Conn. 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



307 




Natural 

tone quality - - - ivondcrful 
wlume "With a~FADA. Neutrola 



In the "Neutrola," FADA has 
produced a radio receiver that pos- 
sesses every essential to your com- 
plete enjoyment of radio. It is a 
new and better designed five-tube 
Neutrodyne set, refined to give the 
most faultless reproduction of mu- 
sic and voice. You can, without ex- 
aggeration, imagine yourself in the 
very presence of the musicians and 
artists. Selectivity is but one re- 
markable feature of the "Neutrola." 
With powerful local broadcasting 
stations operating, the "Neutrola" 
cuts through them and brings in 

outside stations, hurt- 

dreds of miles away, on 
the loud speaker with 
minimum interference. 



The "Neutrola" cabinet is of 
genuine mahogany, inlaid with a 
lighter wood. A decorative grill 
covers the built-in loud speaker, 
and a drop desk lid hides the panel 
when the set is not in use. The 
"Neutrola," is fitting company 
to the finest furniture in the 
home. 

In adition to the "Neutrola" 
there are other FADA Neutro- 
dyne receivers in sizes and styles 
to meet every desire; three, four, 
and five tube receivers in plain 
and art cabinets at prices ranging 
from $75 to $295, each 
extraordinary in re- 
sults; each a remarkable 
value. 



F. A. D. ANDREA, Inc., 1581 Jerome Avenue, New York 





FADANeutroIa 

Five-tube FADA Neutro- 
dyne, with self-contained 
loud speaker. Genuine ma- 
hogany, artistically deco- 
rated with wooden Inlay. 
Ample space for all bat- 
teries and charger. Drop 
when not in use. Price (ex- 
clusive of tubes and bat- 
teries), $220. 





FADA Neutro Junior 
No. 195 

Three-tube Neutrodyne. 
A wonderful performer. 
Price (less tubes bat- 
tries etc.) $75. 




FLa d i o 



FADA Neutrola Grand 

No. 185-90- A 

The flve-tube Neutrola 
185-A mounted on FADA 
Cabinet Table No. 190- 
A. Price (less tubes, 
batteries, etc.) $295. 



Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 




Our Authors 



CRANK E. BUTLER, whose story "Mak- 
* ing Wireless History With De Forest" 
forms the leading article for this month, is 
now radio expert for La Salle & Koch in To- 
ledo, Ohio. It is quite true, we think, that 
radio men up to the present have been far 
too busy making radio history to take much 
time to write it. There are a number of other 
articles in this series which will appear in 
later numbers of this magazine in which 
Mr. Butler relates facts about early wireless 
struggles which are fully as interesting as any 
fiction. 



JULIAN KAY is at present continuing 
his research work at Harvard University, 
and absorbing, so he admits, much of the good 
Boston atmosphere. He has written several 
more of his excellent explanatory articles which 
we hope to print in later numbers of the mag- 
azine. 



AN EXTREMELY busy person these days 
is Zen Bouck, whose constructional ar- 
ticle on "A Knock-Out Amplifier" appears 

on page 226. 
For what with 
devising ways 
and means to 
escape hearing 
the flood of last- 
minute political 
radio oratory 
and doing his 
reulgar research 
and design at 
his New York 
laboratory, he 
asks us to judge 
if his time is 




ZEH BOUCK 



not rather well filled. It is. 



A NOTHER of James C. Young's interest- 
* ing articles appears in RADIO BROADCAST 
this month. In the current WORLD'S WORK 
he has a story called "Breaking Into the 
United States." Most of Mr. Young's work 
appears in various New York newspapers. 




ROLAND F. BEERS 



CHORTLY after 
^ h e graduated 
from Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Insti- 
tute, Roland F. 
Beers, taught elec- 
trical engineering at 
his alma mater. He 
then went into the 
transformer design 
department of the 
Western Electric 
Company. He is 
now a consulting 
engineer in Bing- 

hampton, New York, where he manages- to 
find some extra time for radio. 



G. H. BROWNING, who with Mr. F. H. 
Drake, and Mr. Volney D. Hurd, pro- 
duced the set which he describes on page 282, 
is in Cambridge, Massachusetts at the Har- 
vard School of Engineering. 



HOWARD S. PYLE, 
recently resigned 
from the Radio Service 
of the Department of 
Commerce and after 
several months spent as 
a radio consulting engi- 
neer is now one of the 
operators attached to 
the new Radio Cor- 
poration of America coast station woo at 
Chicago. 



THE article by Dr. W. H. Eccles on "The 
Importance of the Radio Amateur" which 
appeared on page 83 of RADIO BROADCAST for 
November, was reprinted through the courtesy 
of the Wireless World and Radio Review 
(London). We regret that a credit line to 
that effect was inadvertently omitted from 
the article. 




HOWARD S. PYLE 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



433 




Give Radiotrons 



Radiotron WD-11 

The ideal 
dry cell tube. 





This symbol of 

quality is your 

protection 

It isn't a genuine WD-11 
unless it's a Radiotron. 
It fen't a genuine WD-12 
unless it's a Radiotron. 
It isn't a genuine UV-199 
unless it's a Radiotron. 
It isn't a genuine UV-200 
unless it's a Radiotron. 
Ittsn'tagenuineUV-2Ol-a 
unless it's a Radiotron. 



Take a peek into any radio fan's set 
and you know what to give him for 
Christmas. Note the type of Radiotron 
he uses. Go to any radio store and 
when you buy, look for the name 
RADIOTRON and the RCA mark. 
Then you are sure to be giving him 
genuine Radiotrons. And mighty sure 
to be giving him the gift for a merry 
Christmas. 



Radio Corporation of America 



* 



233 Broadway, New York 



Sales Offices 
10 So. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 



28 Geary St., San Francisco, Cal. 




REG. u. s. PAT. orr. 



Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 





Drawn from life, by Cartoonist \V'. R. Brad 
ford, of the Philadelphia North American 

"Oh, I am the hog of the air. 
Wherever you tune. I am there; 
I am the prize squeaker, 
I fill your loud speaker 
The ether is free. I don't care. 




RADIO 
BROADCAST 



Vol. 6, No. 3 




January, 1925 



Sound: First and Last in Radio 

The Romance of Radio Radio the Superlative Degree of Communica- 
tion Sound and Radio Importance of Scientific Knowledge of Sound 
in Broadcasting A Discussion for Layman and Technician Alike 



BY B. F. MIESSNER 

Consulting Engineer, Wired Radio, Inc. 



GENII," said Aladdin to the phan- 
tom who appeared as he rubbed his 
wonderful magic lamp, "build me a 
palace fit to receive my betrothed, 
the Princess Buddir al Buddoor. Let it be 
built of porphyry, jasper, agate, lapis lazuli, 
and the finest marble of various colors and 
surmounted by 
a dome of gold 
and silver. Let 
there be a spa- 
cious garden, a 
treasure house 
filled with jewels 
and precious 
metals, kitchens 
and store houses, 
stables and 
horses, and a 
royal staff of ser- 
vants." 

It was about 
the hour of sun- 
set when Aladdin 
gave these orders 
and the next 
mornirjg before 
the break of day, 
the Genii pre- 




THE PYRAMIDS OF CHEOPS 

fhe secret of their building died with the dynasties that 

built them. Had modern arts of communication then 

been developed, the constructional marvels in building 

them would now be known 



sented himself saying, "Sir, your palace is 
finished." 

Who among us does not remember with 
delight this story from the Arabian Nights' of 
the boy Aladdin and his wonderful lamp? 
He had only to rub his lamp and give his 
commands to the Genii who immediately ap- 
peared to obtain 
whatsoever h i s 
boyish heart de- 
sired. 

If Aladdin were 
to come to life 
to-day he would 
rub his eyes and 
not his lamp, for 
millions of real 
magic lamps are 
in actual use in 
hundreds of thou- 
sands of homes. 
He would find 
the users of these 
lamps are not in 
a fairyland of 
myths and fables, 
but in a land just 



asentrancingand 
even more won- 



436 



Radio Broadcast 



derful because of its reality. What would he 
think and feel, and say if you sat him down in 
your own home before your own magic box with 
its magic lamps, turned a few knobs and let 
him listen to the music and voices of half of 
the world? How could it be possible to hear 
these wonderful things and still remain at 
home? 

In the twinkling of an eye you can take him 
on explorations over 
thousands of miles, 
from your own cozy 
fireside to the gay, 
bustling life of great 
cities, the shivering 
blizzards of the 
North, the languid 



Something About Sound 



summers of the 
South, or the quiet of 
the great West. 

Can there be any 
among us with imag- 
ination so cramped 
or mind so rigidly- 
harnessed to daily 
tasks that he cannot 
see and feel the ro- 
mance and power of 
radio? 

But now there 
comes among us a 
great and wonderful 
newthingthat reaches 
us, not through the 
all-seeing eye attrib- 
uted to God alone, 
but through an all- 
hearing ear radio 

which each and every one of us may own. 
The "Call of the North," the "Voice of the 
South," the "Heart of the West" all are 
here in the air we breathe, pervading even our 
very own bodies, wanting only the magic car to 
translate their ghostlike presence into the 
living, breathing voices of song, of eloquence, 
of entertainment, of instruction or knowledge. 

RADIO LENGTHENS OUR EARS 

IN RADIO, we are developing a means 
through which the sense of hearing may 
come to mean more, perhaps, than vision ever 
meant. All of the value that sound and the 
hearing of it ever possessed, is now being 
multiplied thousands and millions of times by 
this new and wonderful servant, which finds 
its way into even' nook and cranny of the 
world with the speed of lightning. This sixth 
sense reaches out over bounds and barriers and 



Most of us have heard a greal deal of talk 
about "distortion" in radio. That unfortu- 
nate word is coming in for a rather severe 
doing hy a great many who have no idea what 
it means. It is running "efficiency" a pretty 
close race for the title of radio's most o\ cr- 
worked word. 

Mr. Miessner, the author of this, the first 
of a series of articles on the application of 
acoustics to radio, knows what he is talking 
about and has that rare ability in an engineer, 
of making his ideas understandable to others 
without first insisting upon a thorough dis- 
cussion of something as remote as the fourth 
dimension. 

Whether you are interested in radio tech- 
nique or not you will find this accurate state- 
ment of fact entertaining and will, we feel 
sure, when tempted to criticize some flaw in 
the art, realize that astounding progress 
has already been made, and marvel with us 
at the wonderful results now being obtained 
by the contortions of two little diaphragms. 
TIIF. EDITOR. 



brings back to our own hearth stones, the 
voices and sounds of all the world. Radio is 
to the ear what the telescope is to the eye. 

Progress is impossible without some means 
of communication, and in radio a new means 
of communication has been given to mankind. 
It is a far cry from the crude signalling of olden 
days, by smoke clouds, semaphores, or run- 
ners, to the telegraph, telephone and radio 
of to-day. 

When one Indian, 
craftier than his fel- 
lows, discovered a 
method of chipping 
flint for his arrow 
heads, it took thou- 
sands of years for that 
bit of knowledge to 
spread over a single 
continent. What has 
become of the lost 
arts of the Egyptians 
in the rearing of the 
pyramidal tombs of 
their Pharaohs, in 
embalming, in glass 
making? Think of 
the tempered copper 
process of the Aztecs 
now lost to mankind, 
wiped out together 
with its creators, for 
the lack of means to 
spread their knowl- 
edge to the rest of 
the world. 

The progress of the 
ages from stone, to 

wood, to iron, to steam and to electricity, is 
a story interwoven with the development of 
communication. 

WHAT IF WE ONLY HAD SMOKE CLOUDS? 

/CONSIDER for a moment the effects on 
^ you and me, if we still had only the 
smoke clouds of the Indians, the runners of 
the ancient Greeks, or even the town criers of 
our own Colonial days instead of our tele- 
graph, telephone, cables, newspapers and now 
the radio. What would have become of 
Watt's steam engine? It would surely have 
been buried where it was born and the age of 
steam might never have come over the world. 
What would have become of Lister's antisep- 
tic, the printing press of the Chinese, Whit- 
ney's cotton gin, Dalton's atomic theory, 
Daguerre's photography, the motion picture, 
the phonograph, the flying machine, and the 



Sound: First and Last in Radio 



437 



other stepping stones of our present existence? 
Where would we be along the road of progress, 
if Edison's electric light was still only com- 
mon knowledge in the little community of 
West Orange, N. J.? How could our great 
cities and complicated modern life be possible 
if all the wisdom that individuals and groups 
have hewn out for themselves the world over 
were not made available to each one of us by 
means of our modern 
methods of communi- 
cation? 

Radio broadcasting 
is one of the really 
great developments of 
this rapidly moving 
age. 

SOUND WE BROADCAST 
AND SOUND WE RE- 
CEIVE 

RADIO as we know 
it to-day is pri- 
marily an acoustical 
instrument. The in- 
telligence we send by 
radio is the intelli- 
gence conveyed by 
sound. The trans- 
mitting and receiving 
apparatus serve 
merely to transport 
sounds from one place 
to another or to many 
others. Its intricate 
electrical factors are 
merely a part of the 
whole whose one func- 
tion is to reproduce 
sound. It is sound 

that we broadcast and sound that we receive. 
From microphone to loud speaker each part 
serves merely as a link in the chain which 
connects one place with another by sound. 

The success of the whole scheme of broad- 
casting as an instrument of communication 
depends upon how accurately sounds in one 
place can be reproduced at another. To 
perfect the instrument then, we must con- 
centrate our attention on this single purpose. 
We must understand the place of sounds in 
our own normal existence, know their nature 
physically, and how the links in the ap- 
paratus composing the broadcast chain fit 
this purpose. We must forget for a while the 
numberless variations of a few radio circuits, 
stop talking about batteries, distance, and 
other incidental matters, and spend some of 




our collective energy on the real fundamental 
thing we are most concerned with the acous- 
tics of radio. 

Sound, though few of us realize it, exerts a 
tremendous influence in our daily lives. Of 
all the five senses, seeing, hearing, feeling, 
tasting, and smelling, hearing is surely one 
of the most important. 

How many of us have ever stopped to think 
of this world of sound 
and what it means 
how sound can tell us 
of the myriad things 
going on about us, 
the presence of which 
we might otherwise 
never know! We are 
constantly alive to 
these sounds hear- 
ing them, classifying 
them picturing the 
things producing 
the m i n t e rpreting 
them and their mean- 
ings all without ef- 
fort, subconsciously 
automatically trans- 
lating them into what- 
ever meaning they 
may have for us. 



Brown Brothers 
THE TOWN CRIER 

Was the time-honored method of communica- 
tion for a long period. He depended on sound, 
and to-day, we depend on sound, through the 
radio, the telephone, and the telegraph 



SOUND RULES OUR 
DAILY LIVES 

AS I sit here in my 
study with all my 
senses, save hearing, 
voluntarily cut off 
from the outside 
world, I can still 
retain a remarkable 

moving picture of what is going on about 
me as conveyed to my senses, alone through 
these subtle influences called sound. Because 
sound is a result of action, it is action or mo- 
tion of some kind that we sense when we hear 
sounds. Every sound we hear is produced by 
motion of some kind. Nearly all sounds, 
therefore, are suggestive of action and are so 
interpreted as we listen. 

Through my open window I hear a certain 
sound that is unmistakably the rustling of 
the leaves of a tree in the breeze. I hear an 
intermittent banging which is without ques- 
tion a carpenter hammering on a near-by 
house. A certain snip-snip tells me my 
neighbor is trimming his hedge another 
whirring rattling noise says another mows his 
lawn. Shrill, trilling sounds tell of crickets, 



438 



Radio Broadcast 



other of frogs and birds or other insects, 
quite as clearly." A continuous characteris- 
tic rumbling and heavy bumping tells of an 
approaching automobile. Without seeing, 
I know it has stopped before my house, that 
the driver gets out, walks up to our door, raps 
on it, that the door is opened, that he asks 
for information, gets it, and departs! I can 
tell that it is an electrically driven car and 
know he goes on and not back. 

WE CAN ALMOST SEE BY SOUND 

ANOTHER car approaches, getting louder 
and louder. The motor slows and 1 
hear a slight creak of the brake; now the 
motor races furiously with a short grinding 
and whining and the motor again quiets 
with another brake creak; then another 
furious racing and grinding for a moment 
and as the pitch lowers these sounds weaken 
and disappear amid the other remaining 
sounds. 

How do I know that this was a Ford motorcar 
and that it turned in m\ drivewav, backed out 




THE PRINTING PRESS 

Of the newspaper and the magazine and the hook spread intelligence to- 
day in quantity and efficiency undreamed of in earlier days. The 
knowledge of how to use the press filtered through Europe and America 
through the aid of greatly developed methods of communication 



and around and went back the way it came? 
That is a difficult question to answer, but I 
am just as certain as if I had seen it with my 
eyes. 

1 hear other sounds that I know come from 
a piano. I know, too, that they come from 
a house across the street and am sure are pro- 
duced by a player action and not manually. 
Only the three first beats are necessary to tell 
me that the selection is Rachmaninoff's "Pre- 
lude in C Sharp Minor." 

Our sound memory retains accurate records 
of literally millions of different sounds just as 
our visual memory retains pictures of endless 
kinds and arrangements of visible objects. 
With vision we classify and distinguish ob- 
objects by form, position, movement, sur- 
roundings, and color. By long accumulated 
experience we have grown proficient in the 
art of describing them by words. But with 
sound it is very much more difficult. We can 
describe the appearance of a pipe organ un- 
mistakably, but to describe its sound ac- 
curately is quite another matter. 

We can with relative ease 
describe a person with whom 
we are familiar, but are 
quite completely at a loss in 
truly picturing the sound 
of his voice. And so while 
we live all our lives in this 
world of sound hardly real- 
izing its presence, it is con- 
stantly conveying a remark- 
ably great and accurate 
knowledge of our surround- 
ings, of the ideas our 
fellowmen wish to convey 
to us, and very much more 
besides by the association 
of ideas in the realms of 
the other senses. 

Realizing this we become 
interested in sound objec- 
tively. We want to know 
what it is that we call 
sound, why sounds differ, 
and how we hear. 

Most of all we are inter- 
ested in sound because we 
are interested in radio. We 
have come to realize what 
a wonderful, far-reaching 
influence broadcasting is 
coming to have, and because 
we know that broadcasting 
is the art of instantaneous 
reproduction of sound, we 



Sound: First and Last in Radio 



439 



know that we must understand sound in 
order to reproduce it accurately. 

Radio reproduced sound is not the same 
as the original and the degree of similar- 
ity varies with the character of the sound. 
Some sounds reproduce well enough that 
our understanding or pleasure in listening is 
not marred. 

HOW RADIO CHANGES SOUND 

OTHER sounds reproduce so poorly 
that we cannot understand or enjoy 
them. For instance, a banjo or violin, with 
the best equipment now available, are re- 
produced with considerable accuracy. The 
degree of similarity may be as close as that 
between a man himself and a good photo- 
graphic likeness. However, in the man him- 
self, many details can be observed which are 
not shown in the photograph. Likewise 
with these original sounds and their reproduc- 
tions. Other instruments like the piano do 
not reproduce so accurately. Some tone 
ranges are good, others poor. The upper mid- 
range reproduces well, but the extreme high 
and extreme low are poor. The very high 
notes are far too weak and the extreme low 
notes are much too thin and lacking in the 
powerful rounded smoothness produced by 
the piano tones themselves. Here the like- 
ness may be as close, say, as a pen and ink 
sketch of the man; it is recognizable, but there 
is considerable detail missing. 



WITH the bass viol, the reproduction 
amounts to hardly more than a carica- 
ture, and it requires considerable imagination 
to recognize it. 

In general, there is a lower level of loudness 
in the reproduced sounds for high and low 
pitches, and in somewhat the same manner 
very weak and very strong sounds are sup- 
pressed. 

In a broadcasting studio we can easily hear 
the faint ticking of a clock across the room, 
but this would never be heard at a reproducing 
speaker. If a very loud sound like a pistol 
shot or drum beat were made with almost 
painful intensity in the studio, the reproduced 
sound intensity at a receiver would be greatly 
lacking in volume. 

These differences between the reproduced 
sound and the original are caused by what we 
call distortions. They are produced in 
many different ways and cause a wide varia- 




IF THOMAS EDISON AND HIS LAMP 

Had been known only in West Orange, the 
world would still be backward in its development 



tion from the ideal true likeness of the re- 
production for the original sound. 

Who has not viewed himself in a poor mirror 
or in those of a curved form such as are found 
in the large amusement parks? Who has not 
viewed moving pictures from a side seat near 
the front or looked through improperly fitted 
eyeglasses? What we see is sometimes a 
very grotesque and unnatural -reproduction 
of the original which is due to incorrect rela- 
tion of the various lines and parts one to an- 
other. Surely everyone has looked through 
colored glasses and has seen all colors save one 
subdued and that one accentuated. A ghastly 
example of such color distortion occurs in 
mercury vapor lamp illuminations as used in 
moving picture studios or factories. Color 
in Optics, and pitch in Acoustics are very 
similar, and very similar distortions occur in 
both. 

SOMETHING ABOUT DISTORTION 

IF WE take a mixture of all colors such'as we 
have in sunlight or other white light and 
send them into a room through a colored 
window glass, the light in the room may be 
said to be distorted. Objects illuminated 
by it appear very different than in white light. 
If the glass be tinted only slightly the dis- 
tortion may be small, and other colors may 
pass through in reduced intensity. But if 
the color be deep, only one color passes 
through and very great distortion results, 
such as occurs with the violet mercury vapor 
lamps. These give out monochromatic or 
one color light, and only that color in objects 
illuminated by it is visible. 



440 



Radio Broadcast 




e Brown Brothers 

THE PHONOGRAPH 

Is an excellent example of the development of 
communication and exchange of ideas by sound 

A complex sound like that of an orchestra 
contains a very wide range of pitch in its tones 
and is similar therefore to white light in 
optics. If such a mixture of tones passes 
through a horn or diaphragm or other acoustic 
device which possesses a strong tone charac-, 
teristic, the sound passing through will he 
distorted. If the tone characteristic is marked 
as in certain kinds of acoustic windows (glass 
globes with ear tube and. sound opening) 
called Helmholtz Resonators, practically only 
one tone will be heard. All others will be sup- 
pressed and this one will be accentuated. 
Obviously, the distortion would be so pro- 
nounced that what was heard through the 
acoustic window would be only a very gro- 
tesque acoustic caricature of the actual music 
of the orchestra. 

Horns, diaphragms, and various parts of 
the electrical equipment in a broadcast 
system possess this tone color characteristic 
which greatly influences the final reproduced 
sound. Furthermore, some sounds entirely 
absent from the broadcasting studio appear 
in the reproduction. 

NEW SOUNDS IN THE RADIO RECEIVER 

HOW serious this distortion is, tew fully 
realize. But if one has things so ar- 
ranged in a broadcasting studio that he can 



listen to either the original sound in the studio 
or to its radio reproduction from a loud 
speaker in an adjoining room merely by the 
opening and closing of a sound-proof door, a 
tremendous difference is apparent. Until 
the reproduction is indistinguishable from the 
original, the true object of broadcasting can- 
not be accomplished. 

Realizing then that there is room for great 
improvement in the reproduction of sounds by 
radio, we must turn our attention first to the 
physical nature of sound, insofar as it is re- 
lated to this process of radio reproduction, 
and then to the various elements of the radio 
system whose function it is to convert the 
sound energy into the various other forms 
necessary in radio and back again into sound. 
It is here that the inaccuracies and distortions 
in reproduction creep in. The original sound 
energy cannot itself be sent to great distances. 
Radio, a totally different kind of wave energy, 
is called into play. These radio waves have 
the peculiarly fitting property of being silent 
unless properly translated, and they can be 
sent to an unlimited number of distant locali- 
ties at once. 

Since sound waves cannot be converted 
directly into radio waves, other conversion 
steps must intervene. In some of these con- 
verting elements of the system, the original 
sound vibrations exist as physical or me- 
chanical vibrations, in others, as magnetic or 
electric vibrations. In order to accomplish 
the final result, many transformations and re- 
translations of the energy occur. 

When one considers the complexity of these 
processes, it seems remarkable that the final 
result is so good as it is. Consider for a 
moment a piece of fine literature of intricate 
grammatical structure with deep and wide 
emotional appeal. Let this be translated 
from, say, the original English first into 
Chinese, then from Chinese into German, 
again into Greek, and farther through perhaps 
a dozen such translations and finally again 
back into the original English. Would it 
be surprising if only the crudest outline of the 
author's meaning appeared in the final re- 
translation? 

And yet, this is what, in effect, is done every 
day in the process of radio broadcasting and re- 
production. The final translation into sound, 
considering the intricate nature of the process, 
retains a remarkable likeness to the original. 
For this degree of perfection thus far attained 
the major amount of credit must be given to 
those who have devoted their careful atten- 
tion and attacked the problem as one of 



Sound: First and Last in Radio 




IN THE TELEPHONE EXCHANGE 

Enormous quantities of communication by sound pass every day. In wire telephony, as in radio tele- 
phony, we send out sound and sound we hope to receive at the other end. Too little attention in radio 
has been paid to the fact that we want perfect sound at both ends of the circuit 



acoustics. Improvement in this art will be 
made only by a deeper study of the nature 
of sound and its relation to these manv trans- 



lating devices like the microphone, the am- 
plifier, or the loud speaker which comprise the 
radio sound reproducing system. 



A second article by Mr. Miessner uill discuss in a 
most interesting fashion, the physics of sound. It 
will appear in an early number of this magazine. 



RADIO-the'Voice of the 




WHEN WNYC sends out its evening 
call from the high Gothic tower 
of the Municipal Building on 
lower Manhattan Island, it 
speaks with the voice of the only American 
city which commands a place "on the air." 
To put the matter a little differently, this is 
the single station owned and maintained by 
an American city. Perhaps it may seem 
strange that this should be the one truly 
representative municipal station at a moment 
when institutions of every sort are turning to 
radio with a sure instinct for publicity. But 
plans under way may be expected to result in 
several new municipal stations. A half-dozen 
others scattered across the country fall into 
this classification, although not directly owned 
by local governments. Thus it may be said 
that the day of the municipal station has 
definitely arrived; that the personalities of 
cities are to be made familiar throughout the 
ether. 

This development brings far-reaching con- 
siderations. Some observers affirm that the 
municipal station will be freer of prejudices 
and restrictions than any other kind of station 
possibly could be; but another phase of public 
opinion holds that the political element is 
likely to become troublesome. Doubtless, the 
true estimate lies somewhere between these 
extremes. It is beyond question that the 
next year or two will witness the installation 
of municipal plants in growing numbers. 

Long ago a famous poet asked the Roman 
populace to "lend me your ears." That same 
request is being made to-day in the name of 
American cities, anxious to command a hearing 
from the world, by means of radio. A forcible 
case in point arose when WLAG shut down in 
Minneapolis. Instantly the city government, 
the community's business men, and the com- 
munity itself, felt the loss of prestige. An old 
friend had departed. Instead of the fair name 



of Minneapolis being wafted around the world 
every night, the microphone was silent, and 
Minneapolis suffered. 

Such a condition could not be tolerated in 
a city so fair and hustling. A number of its 
citizens said that "something should be done 
about it," and presently something v/as done. 
The Washburn-Crosby Company, the big 
millers, offered to assume all liabilities in ad- 
dition to half the cost of maintenance for 
three years, at $100,000 a year. Ten other 
business concerns came forward with the 
necessary $5,000 each, and now Minneapolis 
has its station going again, better than ever, 
perhaps; every night cities throughout the 
world may listen-in across the reaches of space 
when their neighbor entertains. Incidentally, 
St. Paul shares in this glory and the expense. 
Its quota of the $50,000 is 40 per cent. 

WHERE MATTER DOES MORE THAN SERVE MIND 

'"pHE experience of Minneapolis is a typical 
A instance of the associations that gather 
around a radio station. It is something more 
than a mere mechanical creation; indeed, this 
is a place where matter is harnessed in the 
service of mind. It is a poor sort of station 
that does not develop a definite identity in the 
consciousness of a multitude. If we reason 
upon the matter, we must see that this result 
cannot be escaped. Even the voices of an- 
nouncers become so familiar that the absence 
of one for a night is promptly detected. 
When the personality of a man is so easily 
conveyed and understood, how much greater 
is the opportunity to spread broadcast the 
civic spirit which distinguishes many cities. 

And cities throughout the land are beginning 
to understand the possibilities which await. 
Late they may be in starting, but it is likely 
that their alacrity in catching up will more 
than offset the delay. Boston is contemplat- 
ing a station near the Parkman bandstand on 



Radio The Voice of the City 



443 




THE VOICE OF NEW YORK CITY 



The New York Municipal Building. The top insert (photo Underwood & Underwood) shows John F. 
Hylan, Mayor, under whose administration 850,000 was spent in purchasing the station. The two lower 
inserts show the elaborate reception room and studio of the station 



Radio Broadcast 



Boston Common to be connected with all of 
the sixty-five parks in the city. Many of 
these parks are provided with stands for music 
and speakers in the summer months. It has 
been proposed so to arrange the system that 
a concert or address in any park could be 
picked up and radiated from the central 
station. Or a varied program might be sup- 
plied by means of 
selections from the 
several parks. At 
other seasons in- 
door programs 
would offer oppor- 
tunity to let the 
world know that 
the spirit which 
once flared on Bos- 
ton Common still 
lives in the breasts 
of its citizens, but 
now applied to 
peaceful pursuits. 
; Probably no sta- 
tion in the country 
can offermoreof in- 
terest than WNYC, 
New York's own. 
Situated on the 
twenty -fifth floor 
of the ; Municipal 
Building tower, it 
has special advan- 
tages of location. 
At 7:30?. M.,when 
the station "takes 
the air," lower 
New York has fal- 
len into its nightly 
slumbers, after an 
intensive day. No 
place in the coun- 
try is so much like 
a deserted village 

as is this section at that time. The big pile 
of the Municipal Building rises up in serried 
floors, overshadowing City Hall Park and the 
lesser buildings gathered around. 

Away up in the tower, so far up that a man 
in the street below could not see the light, is 
WNYC. If a visitor be lucky and runs the 
gauntlet of elevator men, guards, and other 
functionaries, he arrives at the studio in time 
for a pleasant illusion. Stepping through the 
door of WNYC'S own home means going from 
the marble and glass of an office building into 
a tented palace that seems to have been created 
for romance. There is a colorful awning sus- 




pended below the ceiling and brilliant cane 
furniture to match, with a fountain in the 
center where spraying streams converge over 
the changing hues of an electric globe. 

It required a vision of the first order to 
conceive this station and carry out its in- 
stallation. The conception was that of 
Grover A. Whalen, until recently Commis- 
sioner of Plants 
and Struct ures, 
and a prominent 
figure in the ad- 
ministration of 
Mayor John F. 
Hylan. Mr. Wha- 
len suggested the 
plan early in the 
year. Mayor Hy- 
lan thought well of 
it. Other officials 
opposed. It would 
cost too much 
money, maybe a 
prodigious sum. 
But Mr. Whalen 
said that he want- 
ed merely $50,000. 
But, it was ob- 
jected, that would 
not even purchase 
the plant. "Give 
it tome," said Mr. 
Whalen, in effect, 
"and I will show 
you." 

From that $50,- 
ooo WNYC was in- 
stalled and devel- 



WNYC 

The cage antenna of the New York City municipal radio 
station atop the Municipal Building. The station first went 
on the air during the Democratic Convention and since 
has been the storm center for some acrimonious disputes. 
Mayor Hylan made an address about the transit situation, 
in which he attacked the Transit Commission. A member 
of the Commission demanded the right to reply from the 
same station, but was unwilling to have his speech cen- 
sored by the Mayor. This was finally done, however 



oped. Mr. Whalen 
first cast around 
for a station. He 
found that the sta- 
tion used in Rio 
de Janeiro during 

the recent exposition there, would be sold. 
And he became the buyer, in the city's name. 
The whole apparatus was shipped to New York 
and set up again. The plant corresponds 
exactly to the former wjz station in Newark, 
of which it is a copy. 

The first program was sent out on July 8, 
1924. And from that day, WNYC has held 
a well-defined place "on the air." By degrees 
its programs have been turned into a definite 
direction which differs widely from the average 
program, intended for entertainment only. 
It is the announced purpose of WNYC to mix 
a larger measure of instruction and enlighten- 



Radio The Voice of the City 



445 



ment with its entertainment. That effort 
has been carried forward with a degree of 
success which raises up many interesting possi- 
bilities for other municipal stations. 

WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH THE STATION 

JUST now a plan is under advisement which 
would link the station with all of New 
York's 632 schools, scattered through five 
boroughs, comprehending some 300 square 
miles of ground. If a lecturer endeavored to 
visit these schools, one a day for 300 days a 
year, he could not reach the last in less than 
two years. Therefore it is impossible for any 
instructor in the schools to extend his influence 
beyond a few. By means of WNYC he could 
achieve the work of two years in a half hour. 
That is but one aspect of the station's educa- 
tional plans. It is expected to open radio 
extension courses dealing with many themes, 
along the lines already laid down by a number 
of colleges. These courses will be devised to 
reach the adult public sitting by its fire at 
night. The other educational programs will 
be' broadcast during school hours. 



Still another avenue of development has 
been opened by invitations to workers in almost 
any field who have substantial achievement 
to their credit. Not long ago the return- 
ing Olympic athletes described from WNYC 
just how it felt to come back victors from 
Colombes, after winning from the first athletes 
of the world. Such a message was largely 
entertainment, with a dash of instruction. 
But on. the next night, perhaps, speakers from 
this station discussed such a momentous mat- 
ter as the future of New York transit, one of 
the city's most difficult problems. 1 n this case 
the entertainment was small indeed, but it 
may be believed that the instruction was not 
without value. 

The mission of WNYC is not always enter- 
tainment or instruction. It has a grim 
purpose in part. Every night at 7:30 and 
10:30 a man in blue coat and prominent brass 
buttons sits down at the microphone. 

"WNYC broadcasting," he says, "for the 
New York Police Department. General alarm 
for Harry Martin, age 30, 5 ft. 6 in. tall, weight 
about 140 pounds. Dark face, with bold fea- 




HOW THE NEWS IS SPREAD 



Important events are broadcast from the municipal radio station and others in New York, and picked 

up by receivers and amplified so that great crowds may hear. The photograph shows crowds in City 

Hail Park, New York, in the shadow of the \Voolworth Building, listening to broadcasting. The city, 

Mr. \oung points out, may accomplish real service, with a properly run broadcasting station 



446 



Radio Broadcast 




WHEN SOMETHING IS SAID, PEOPLE LISTEN 
Digests of the meetings of the Board of Estimate and Apportion- 
ment, the Commissioners of the Sinking Fund, and the Board of 
Aldermen are put on the air from WNYC in New York on the days 
these meetings occur. Besides the more political elements of the 
city programs, they also contain the usual musical and oratorical 
features 



tures and frowning eyes. Has a slight limp. 
Dangerous man. Escaped from Welfare Isl- 
and early to-day. Believed traveling west." 

The listener rather catches his breath at 
such use of radio. It is an eerie thing this 
pursuit of a man by air. An observer wonders 
what chance there will be of detecting Harry 
Martin among all the other men in the country 
of that general appearance. But his specula- 
tions are cut short by a new description which 
the officer is spreading far and wide. This 
time another man is wanted. And presently 
it is another, until the department has sent 
out particulars of some twelve or fifteen men 
whom the law demands. 

A surprising number of these are appre- 
hended, not always directly by the intervention 
of radio, but its use has become an inval- 
uable part of an intricate whole. In a number 
of cases radio has made it possible promptly to 
broadcast descriptions of dangerous persons, 
with the result that their arrest soon followed. 
No quicker method is known to criminal pro- 
cedure, and it has the power of drama as well. 
Descriptions of missing persons also are sent 
out, about four a day. Not long ago a stolen 
automobile was captured by a policeman on 
Williamsburgh Bridge within twenty minutes 
after the number had been broadcast from 

WNYC. 

WHAT OTHER CITIES ARE DOING 

1 HAVING WNYC, busily engaged in its 
** high tower, the next radio plant which 
the United States Department of Commerce 



classifies as a municipal station, 
will be found at Stevens Point, 
Wisconsin, using the call signal 
WLBL, and operated by the Wis- 
consin Department of Markets. 
The West is progressive in the 
matter of municipal stations, for 
there is another near by, in 
Omaha, conducted by the Cen- 
tral High School, and known to 
many listeners as WNAL. The 
Boise High School in Boise, 
Idaho, has a municipal station 
identified as KFAU. In Dallas, 
Texas, the Police and Fire Signal 
Department of the city govern- 
ment operates WRR, while the 
Detroit Police Department owns 
and operates station KOP, and 
there is a sixth station, KFPR, 
under direction of the Los 
Angeles County Forestry De- 
partment. 

These six stations, with WNYC, are commonly 
classified by the Department under the title 
of municipal plants. But the New York 
station has the distinction of being the sole 
station directly operated by any city govern- 
ment. It is likely that a similar plant soon 
will "take the air" in San Francisco, where 
somewhat jealous eyes have been turned 
toward Los Angeles and its station. The city 
council and various business organizations 
there have the details under consideration. 
If the city does not install a station, it is be- 
lieved that private enterprise will supply the 
need. 

Municipal radio stations enjoy some peculiar 
privileges. One of these is the willingness of 
entertainers to contribute their services. 
Although many entertainers find radio so rich 
in prestige that they are willing even to pay 
for the opportunity of broadcasting, it is one 
of the unsettled questions confronting the 
public and the owners of stations, as to how 
these services shall be compensated. In the 
case of municipal plants it seems generally 
agreed that the stations do not yield a profit 
to anybody concerned, and entertainers more 
willingly extend their help. This is an im- 
portant consideration that calls up many other 
questions which must be ''answered. As the 
municipal plants develop and the demand for 
radio entertainers increases, people will cer- 
tainly compare the municipal station with the 
other stations. And so now we have the old 
question of governmental competition in a 
new way. 



Radio The Voice of the City 



447 



THE GREAT AND SILENT VOID WAITS 

INSOFAR as the political phase is concerned. 
1 there seems little reason to believe that any 
city administration would overlook such op- 
portunity to sound its praises. That is not 
in the nature of things human or radio. 
But it is just as certain that any fulsome use 
of radio to spread word of the deeds performed 
by Mayor What's-his-name would be likely to 
fall upon a great and silent void. The radio 
public probably makes up the most sensitive 
audience which any speaker could be sum- 
moned to address. Political propaganda is 
not wholly unwelcome, as evidenced in the 
recent campaign for President, where it was 
tested on a larger scale than ever before. 
But it soon was learned that the best political 
speech was the shortest, a policy rigidly fol- 
lowed by speakers of all political shadings. 

There is no reason, of course, why a political 
address should be objectionable. On the 
contrary, it frequently is enlightening. Few 
matters have a larger influence on the welfare 
of the nation than its government, and politics 
is but another name for government. The 
political address properly is a part of radio. 
But when all this has been granted, it is even 
more certain that the American radio public 



would not yield its ears for even five minutes 
to the man who dispensed bombast about 
himself. So it may be believed that the good 
sense of the public will be the surest check on 
the misuse of municipal stations by spell- 
binders. 

With so many advantages evident to city, 
nation, and public arising from municipal 
stations, it requires but one scant glance to 
perceive that a number of these stations will 
be added to the radio resources of the United 
States. Perhaps in time the municipal station 
will take the place, in some measure, of the 
numerous stations which have sprung up be- 
cause there was nothing better in the neigh- 
borhood. It is a fair guess that the average 
municipal plant will draw about it the best 
to be had in any city, as concerns both enter- 
tainers and public confidence. Such stations 
inevitably will crowd to the wall others of 
uncertain status that merely fill a gap in the 
evolution of radio. 

SELLING PRESTIGE 

IT IS wholly conceivable, even distinctly 
probable, that municipal stations will be 
rapidly financed in some such manner as the 
Minneapolis station. If a similar proposal 
should be submitted to the business communi- 







ONE OF THE TWIN CITIES 

Minneapolis, Minnesota. \\ hen WLAG recently closed, business men of both cities felt that civic pride 
and actual definite benefits both demanded that the locality continue to have a broadcasting station. 
They raised sufficient money to operate the station and vvcco is the result. Mr. Young points out that 
a city broadcasting station can give a very important idea of the character and advantages of the city to 

listeners in other parts of the nation 



44 8 



Radio Broadcast 




LISTENING TO POLITICAL BROADCASTING 
Interested politicians during the recent Democratic Convention in 
New .York kept tally cards of the balloting in Madison Square 
Garden. The municipal service may be extended beyond this, 
however. New York plans, for example, to broadcast market in- 
formation daily to New York housewives. At a given hour each 
morning, housewives who own radio sets may tune-in and learn 
what foods are cheapest and what in the most abundance, and 
govern their purchases accordingly 



ties of almost any city above 100,000, a plant 
would be the probable result. Proceeding 
along a slightly different line, cities may supply 
plants and call upon organized business to 
undertake maintenance for the common good. 
Whatever the method, it cannot be doubted 
that the municipal station will have a rapid 
expansion. There are so many evident ad- 
vantages that it may be wondered why these 
stations have not come into their own long ago. 
But it need be only pointed out that the whole 
radio industry is so new and still in such a 
highly formative state that many goals are 
yet to be reached. 

There is something of inspiration and much 
of glory in the thought that before the lapse 



of many years municipal sta- 
tions strung across the country 
will keep American cities in in- 
timate touch, day or night, 
through their own plants. The 
assurance that these will be 
operated for direct public benefit 
is one of importance. They 
neve^ can be accused, as all 
other stations have been, of fos- 
tering private enterprise. As- 
suredly there is nothing to be 
censured in this enterprise, con- 
sidered by itself, but wherever 
private interests enter, the pos- 
sibility of criticism also must 
arise. Municipal stations will 
have nothing to sell unless it 
be the prestige of their cities; 
and if some candidate occa- 
sionally oversteps the bounds of 
radio, he may depend upon a 
prompt tuning out, his worst 
punishment. 

The prediction is familiar that 
the number of commercial stations must de- 
crease rather than expand. But despite the 
closing of some stations the number has gone 
steadily upward instead of down. Even with 
the stations now projected, it is probable that 
this expansion soon must reach its logical work- 
ing out. And the moment additional muni- 
cipal stations are opened, the pressure on 
weaker commercial plants will be hard to resist. 
It is likely that municipal enterprise will help to 
correct a condition that has caused some con- 
cern. In any event, an America girded with 
plants owned by its cities will be a fine evi- 
dence of civic spirit; a spirit which well may 
serve to draw the whole nation closer together 
by the invisible bonds of the air. 



HELP FOR THE EXPERIMENTER 

A NEW department will appear in RADIO BROADCAST regularly which contains helpful 
./I contributions from readers. We hace had many excellent suggestions about little ^in^s of 
construction which were proved so helpful that we think oil our readers ought to share in them. 
We incite contributions which must be typewritten and not oeer three hundred words long. We 
are not interested in jreak. ideas but will only consider (hose which are of decided value. Pay- 
ment of between $5 to $10 will be made for each suggestion accepted. 



A Motor-Generator Unit for 
Radio Battery Charging 

How to Assemble a Simple Mechanical Unit, Efficient, and 
Particularly Low in Upkeep The Parts are Easy to Secure 



BY JAMES MILLEN 



IN PRESENTING this construction article on the building of a battery 
* charger, RADIO BROADCAST feels that it is giving to its readers a device of 
great value and usefulness. While the method here described of charging 
storage batteries is not by any means new, Mr. Millen has simplified the 
motor-generator charging method in usable form for the average radio fan. 
This charger is comparatively cheap in first cost and upkeep, and what is 
highly important, will charge a set of radio, or any other batteries much 
more quicklv than usual methods at the command of the radio enthusiast. 

THE EDITOR 



M 



ANY radio fans have no doubt often 
desired a more rapid means of 
recharging their storage A batteries. 
As, at best, a storage battery 
delivers only 75 per cent, of the energy fed 
into it, it will take longer to charge the 
average battery by means of the ordinary 
two-ampere charger than it will to discharge 
the battery when used with some of the 
modern multi-tube sets. Of course the so- 
called five-ampere chargers will do the job 
more quickly, but they are both more noisy 
and more expensive. The approximate time 
required to charge a 100 ampere-hour six-volt 
battery by means of several of the chargers 
in most general use is given in Table i. 
It is a well known fact that the motor- 
generator is one of the most efficient and 
rapid methods of battery charging, but due to 
the high initial cost of such machines, they 
have never come in- 
to popular use. 

The purpose of 
this paper is, there- 
fore, to describe the 
construction of a 



motor -genera tor 
type charger which 
can be made from 
standard parts 
which ought to cost 
no more than the 
best of the five- 



FABLE [ 



TYPE CHARGER 

Two-ampere tube charger 
Five-ampere tube charger 
Three-ampere chemical charger 
Motor generator .... 

This table shows the approximate time required 
to charge a fully discharged 100 ampere-hour 6-volt 
storage battery by means of several different types 
of chargers. It costs with generator approximately 
twenty-five cents to charge completely an entirely 
discharged loo-a, h. battery, in about twelve hours. 



ampere type chargers now on the market. 
Such a motor-generator will completely charge 
an empty 100 ampere-hour battery in about 
twelve hours at a total cost of about twenty- 
five cents for the current consumed. 

In large cities which are usually supplied 
with direct current, there are only two methods 
of battery charging. The most convenient 
of these two methods is the direct use of the 
house current through a suitable resistance 
to the battery. The efficiency of such a 
system is very low, however, due to the high 
IR drop (about 100 volts) which must take 
place across the resistances. Thus, when 
charging a 6-volt battery at a ten ampere rate 
from a 1 10 volt d. c. line, the power consumed 
by the resistances and dissipated as heat is 
102 x 10 or 1020 watts, while that consumed by 
the battery is only 8x 10 or 80 watts. Thus 
the efficiency of this method of charging is 
only eight per cent. 
The cost of charging 
a loo ampere-hour 
battery is about 
ninety cents. The 
only other method 
of charging batteries 
from d. c. is by 
means of a motor- 
generator, whose 
efficiency is much 
higher. The initial 
.cost and space oc- 



TIME 



IN HOURS 
80 
3 6 

55 

12 



450 



Radio Broadcast 



cupicd by a motor-generator is generally, how- 
ever, much greater, so that where considerable 
use of a single six-volt battery is not to be 
made, the ultimate value of a motor-generator 
is questionable. 

THE VALUE OF THIS OUTFIT 

FOR use on alternating current, though, 
where some device is necessary to 
convert the alternating current into at least 
pulsating direct current, the motor-generator 
offers many advantages when used with 
batteries of from 60 to 100 ampere-hour 
capacity. With larger batteries, the use of 
the motor-generator becomes almost essential. 

The use of a motor-generator charger is not 
advisable with batteries of less than 60 a. h. 
capacity. In the recent comparative tests 
made by the Bureau of Standards at Washing- 
ton with the different type battery chargers 
available for radio use, the motor-generator 
was found to be the most efficient. 

Some of the advantages of the motor- 
generator are: 



1. Highest efficiency 

2. Quickest method of charging 

3. Longest life (no bulbs, etc. 



to burn out) 



The only disadvantages possessed by the 
motor-generator is its high initial cost. 
This is true of the complete units available 
in the electrical market, but it is the purpose 
of this paper to describe a motor-generator 
type charger which in many cases can be had 
for the mere effort of assembling it and in 
any case for a less financial outlay than is 
required for the ordinary five-ampere charger. 



THE CHARGER COST TWELVE DOLLARS 

THE photograph shows an exceedingly 
well made and efficient charger which 
cost less than Si 2. Of this, 59.90 was for the 
motor. It was a new ^ h. p. self-starting 
split phase General Electric induction motor 
which turns over at 1725 r. p. m. on 1 10 volts 
60 cycle a. c. The Westinghouse generator 
was obtained from a wrecked Chalmers which 
had come into the possession of the local 
garage. This charger has now been in use 
for more than a year, and has never had to be 
adjusted or tinkered with. 

Excellent generators may be obtained at 
junk prices at any of the automobile wrecking 
yards. The average price is $5.00 for a 
guaranteed generator. It is also possible, 
however, to purchase second hand generators 
in good condition at a reasonable price at 
most garages and repair shops. Inquiries 
made at a number of local garages revealed the 
fact that it is quite easy to obtain a very 
satisfactory second hand generator from this 
source for less than $10. New generators 
cost from Si 7 up, depending upon the make. 
The points to watch in buying an old gener- 
ator are: 

Reason for selling 

Condition of commutator 

Condition of windings 

Condition of bearings 

(most generators have ball bearings, which, if not in 
good condition, may be readily replaced) 

In order that the motor might also be used 
for other purposes it was mounted as shown 
in the photograph and connected to the 





FIG. I 

A picture diagram of the charging layout. The no-volt line is fused directly 
after the switch. A single fuse is also included^ for protection in the charging circuit 



A Motor-Generator Unit for Radio Battery Charging 



451 



generator by a belt instead of directly with a 
universal joint. This also makes possible 
the use of different sized pulleys for obtaining 
different generator speeds, and thus altering 
the charging rate. Slots are provided in the 
base in order that the two shafts may be 
properly lined up and the belt kept tight. 
The base was made from a piece of i8"x 10" 
x 2" oak. The pulleys were home-made, but 
if a lathe is not obtainable, then they may be 
purchased from a dealer in second hand 
machinery, or they may be turned directly 
on their own shafts as was the case with those 
shown in the photograph. In order to run 
the generator as a motor from the storage 
battery for this purpose, it is merely necessary 
to press the cut-out contacts together. A one 
inch single-ply belt was used, although an 
automobile fan belt is also admirably adapted 
to the purpose. 

In order to eliminate any possibility of belt 
trouble, especially where the motor is not to 
be put to any other use, (such as running a 
small lathe, emery wheel, etc.) the generator 
may be directly coupled to the motor by 
means of a universal joint. The universal 
joint (or coupling) which comes with most 
generators will prove ideal for this purpose. 
The shafts of the motor and generator should 
be carefully lined-up and the two units 
securely fastened to the base. The universal 



is then securely fastened in place by means of 
the tapered pins and Woodruff key provided 
for this purpose. Of course a high order of 
precision is not absolutely essential in this 
work as the flexible coupling is more than able 
to take care of a slight inaccuracy in align- 
ment. 

Another substitute for the belt is the chain 
drive. The average chain drive is slightly 
more expensive, more noisy, more difficult to 
install and must be lubricated. It will, 
however, make a very satisfactory drive where 
it is not deemed advisable, to use direct 
coupling. 

In order to test out the efficiency of the 
belt drive, a revolution counter was attached 
to both the motor and generator and frequent 
checking showed that the losses due to belt 
slipping could easily be kept negligible. 

THE PARTS AND THEIR COST 

A GOOD motor-generator charger can be 
made entirely from new material for 
approximately $29, or about the same price as 
a five-ampere tube charger. (List price about 
$28). The following parts will be required: 

New Ford Generator, with cut-out $17.00 

New H. P. Induction motor 9.90 

Wood base i . 50 

Ammeter 1.50 




Hourt Studio 



THE COMPLETED UNIT 



Containing a % horsepower motor, driving an old automobile generator. The motor is at the left and the 

automobile generator at the right, with an ammeter between. The separate automatic cutout is shown 

detached. This is merely a rough model. An accompanying drawing shows a suggested base layout 



452 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 2 

A complete hook-up, showing the apparatus illus- 
trated in the photograph, i, 2, and 3 are connec- 
tions to the cutout device shown as separate in 
the photograph. A is the ammeter. Note the fuses 
indicated in the no-volt alternating current line 

Re-built Ford generators sell for $10 at 
almost all Ford repair shops. 

When a high grade second hand generator of 
the two brush type, similar to the one shown 
in the photograph, can be obtained in good 
condition, its use will result in a more efficient 
and flexible charger. 

Ford generators deliver 1 1 amperes at 8.5 
volts to the average six volt 100 a. h. bat- 
tery when directly coupled to a 1725 r. p.m. 
motor. As the voltage of these generators is 
not readily alterable, it is advisable to use a 
belt drive where a lower charging rate is 
desired, as in the case of small capacity 
batteries. The Ford generator revolves in a 
counter-clockwise direction when viewed from 
the commutator end. 

CARE OF MOTOR AND GENERATOR 

MOST generators are entirely enclosed in 
metal shells which completely protect 
them from dust, oil, and water. The 
only attention they require is a few drops 
of oil occasionally. If a second hand gener- 
ator is to be used, then it may be necessary to 
clean the commutator and possibly to replace 
the brushes. In order to get at the com- 
mutator, remove the steel band that is 
fastened around one end of the case. If the 
commutator is found to be corroded or rough, 
it may be easily cleaned and smoothed with 
No. oo sand-paper. Never under any circum- 
stances use emery cloth on the commutator 
of any motor or generator. All the small 
particles of copper, carbon and sand dust 
should then be carefully removed. The 
commutator should also be examined to see 
that none of the segments are shorted together. 
If a small piece of copper from one segment 



touches the next, it should be scraped away. 
Next examine the brushes to see that they 
make an even contact, but without pressing 
hard enough on the commutator to cause 
excessive heating and wear. The pressure on 
the brushes is controlled by means of small 
springs. If the brushes are worn to such an 
extent as to need replacing, then it is advisable 
to get just the right kind from the maker of the 
generator. Make-shift brushes are merely a 
source of continual trouble. In replacing the 
brushes care should be taken not to crack any 
of the insulating bushings which support the 
brush holders, as they must be well insulated 
from the generator frame. Extreme care 
must also be exercised to keep all oil and 
grease from the commutator and brushes. 

The third or adjustable brush found on 
many generators may be shifted in order to 
change the charging rate of the generator for 
any given speed. When this brush is dis- 
placed in the direction in which the armature 
turns, the charging rate will be increased, and 
vice versa. The charging rate of the Westing- 
house generator previously referred to (which 
has only two brushes) is alterable by means of 
the small adjusting screw en the end of the 
case. On some generators, such as the Ford, 
there is no method of altering the charging 
rate except by changing the speed. Under 
such conditions it becomes necessary to use a 
rheostat in the i jo-volt line, cone pulleys for 
changing the generator speed, a rheostat in the 
batten' line, or, best of all, a field rheostat, 
which may easily be placed in the line leading 
from one end of the field coil to the third 
(small) brush. 

It is not necessary, however, to change the 
charging rate by such means every time a 
battery is charged, as the charge will auto- 
matically taper. Thus if charging is started 
at 16 amperes it will have dropped to 10 by the 




FIG. 3 

Details of the generator coupling-flange 



A Motor-Generator Unit for Radio Battery Charging 453 



time the battery has become nearly charged. 
An initial rate of 8 amperes will taper to 
about 4 amperes, which is, perhaps, the best 
all round rate at which to charge a 100 a.h. 
battery. Under such conditions the time 
required for a complete charge will be about 
20 hours. Some generators will not deliver 
more than 1 8 or 20 amperes without danger of 
burning out the armature. The maximum 
safe charging rate can be ascertained from the 
plate on the generator. 

The efficiency of the generator whose 
charging rate could be varied without varying 
the speed, was found to vary with the charging 
rate. This is mainly due to the rapid decrease 
in efficiency of a. c. motors when operated 
at less than the rated load. With the pre- 
viously mentioned Westinghouse generator 
running at a constant speed of 1400 r. p. m., 
the maximum efficiency (30 per cent.) was 
obtained at 13 amperes. (Generator efficiency 
alone was 80 per cent.) 

The ammeter shown in the illustrations is a 
Weston 20-0-20 but a cheaper automobile 
dash meter, although not necessarily accurate, 
will serve to show when the battery is properly 
connected and the approximate charging rate. 

Some generators, such as the Westinghouse, 
have built-in cut-outs, while those that do not 
will require external ones. The cut-out is 
necessary in order to prevent the battery from 
discharging back into the generator in case the 



3 



110V. A.C, 




MOTOR GENERATOR 

}f=&=^E 



OUTPUT TO BATTERY-' 



The basic wiring circuit of the 
motor-generator unit 



motor should stop when no-one is around to 
disconnect the battery. All low voltage 
wiring should be done with No. 10 or heavier 
wire. 

And now a few words about battery charg- 
ing. Contrary to general opinion a high 
initial charging rate is not in any way in- 
jurious to a battery as long as the tempera- 
ture of the electrolyte does not exceed iio F, 
and the gassing is not excessive. Excessive 
gassing tends to loosen the active material in 
the battery plates, and thus shorten the life of 
the battery. 

Unless a cut-out is being used, it will be 
necessary to disconnect the battery from the 
generator when not charging. This may be 
accomplished by means of a single pole knife 
switch. 



THE FACTS ABOUT REFLEX CIRCUITS 

A RE informatively and interestingly iold in another article by Julian Kay in kis excellent 
JTi "What's In a Name?" series. Mr. Kay tells what the various types of reflex circuits 
are. and how they work., in addition to the general radio Information which many of our 
readers haoe followed in his previous articles with much profit an3 interest. This article will 
appear in an early number. 




bint of View 





How tKe Radio Public Should Be Pleased 



SOME day large delegations of radio 
listeners-in are going to march from 
one broadcasting station to another 
and the managers of each will be in- 
formed with much sternness that their own 
passionate fondness for the sort of music called 
jazz is not shared 
by anything like 
a majority of the 
people who. buy 
receiving sets." 

This was the 
opening para- 
graph ~ of an edi- 
torial on radio 
music that ap- 
peared recently 
in the New York 
Times. 

\\e can easily 
visualize that 
procession. Tens 
of thousands, in- 
creased town by 
town by other 
tens of thou- 
sands, growing 
and growing, un- 
til there are 
millions of them. 
This is no exag- 
geration. Pro- 




THE GRAND PIANO 

Finished in old ivory to correspond with the style of the 

studio at station CKAC, La Presse, Montreal, Canada. In 

front can be seen the magnetic Marconi type microphone, 

used exclusively by this station 



reading it would necessarily cease for the 
time being, which would be a good thing, for 
that would mean at least a temporary cessa- 
tion of jazz. 

To make a conservative statement, more 
than a billion dollars are spent in this country 

each year for 
good music, 
meaning by this 
term the greatest 
music ever' com- 
posed. This 
money is spent 
in patronage of 
concerts and 
grand opera, and 
for music lessons 
and the buying 
of music scores. 
With but few- 
exceptions, the 
greatest musical 
artists of Europe 
find in America's 
patronage of mu- 
sic their chief 
source of income. 
And they are 
accorded this 
patronage year 
after year, from 
the people of big 



tests against radio musical programs are uni- cities and of small cities, because the American 



versa!. 

Unfortunately, the people who object to 
having the radio monopolized by jazz are the 
sort of people who do not voice their objections 



public knows good music when it hears it 
and wants to hear as much of it as possible. 
These same people are spending millions of 
dollars each year that their children may have 



through letters to broadcast directors. Were musical instruction. Taking this country as 



it otherwise, many of the stations would be 
so flooded with mail that all other work than 



a whole, the standard of such instruction is 
high. Even in the smallest towns may be 




MRS. CARL CHINDBLOM 

Wife of Representative Chindblom of Illinois and .an 
outstanding figure in the musical life of Washington 



456 



Radio Broadcast 



found teachers who are guiding their young 
pupils toward an appreciation of the best in 
music. The day -when Susie Simpkins of 
Simpkinsville, as her highest musical ambition, 
looked forward to the day when she could 
play "Hearts and I lowers," has long since 
passed. All the Susies in all the Simpkins- 
villes are now playing Haydn, Mozart, Men- 
delssohn, and Beethoven sonatas, and the 
simpler pieces of Grieg and Schumann. And 
thev like this music, like it far better than the 

J 

cheap stuff 'of which they would grow tired it 
they practiced it for a week. 

In the larger communities the musical in- 
struction of the young people is so advanced, 
and on so high a plane in every respect, that, 
nowadays, a student beginning before ten has 
a well-developed taste for the best music long 
before he or she is out of the 'teens. 

But it costs the parents much money to 
give their children such musical opportunities, 
and requires intelligent supervision as well. 

Times without number has the editor of this 
department heard a mother or a father say: 

"No, I will not have a radio set in my home. 
Under no circumstances would 1 permit the 
developing musical taste of my children to be 
influenced by such music as is broadcast night 
after night." 

One man said: 

"No one would think of calling me high- 



brow if 1 refused to have a mechanical con- 
trivance in my home that for hours each day 
talked aloud .and murdered the English lan- 
guage with every sentence. \Yhy, then, should 
1 be called highbrow if 1 refuse to have some- 
thing in my home that, day after day, distorts 
and murders music? All 1 can say is, if this 
means being a highbrow, then may I live and 
die one!" 

Another man, after hearing a so-called 
musical program broadcast by a commercial 
firm, exclaimed: 

"I'll never buy one of their products! I'll 
bet they're just as bad as that music!" 

The program had been composed wholly of 
ja// with numerous unspeakable saxophones 
predominating. 

Fourteen Red Hot Mamas 

CAMH a woman's voice over the tele- 
phone: 
"Are you the one that writes that 
'Listeners' Point of View' in RADIO BROAD- 
CAST?" 
"Yes." 

"Well, 1 want to tell you that we've bought 
a radio set and it's perfectly awful!" 
"What kind of a set have you?" 
"Oh, 1 don't mean the set is awful. It's 
wonderful. We can get all the stations. 
But the music! Last night we tuned-in four- 




THE KDKA LITTLE SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Victor Saudek, Conductor. Seated, left to right: Milton Lomask, Pierre De Backer, Leo Kruczek, violins; 
Elmer Hennig, 'cello; Raymond Bandi, viola; James Younger, 'cello; Herbert Saylor, viola; Rest Baker, 
violin. Standing, left to right: Stephen Konvalinka, trombone; John J. Harvey, trumpet; \Villiam Nugter, 
drums; Karl Haney, bass; Victor Saudek, Conductor; Stephen Miller, Jr., piano; Al\ in Hauser, flute; S>. 

Sapienza, clarinet 



The Listeners' Point of View 



457 




Thomas Coke Knight 



HELEN TAYLOR, MILDRED DELNA, AND ANNA PINTO 



Who have been heard from wjz. Miss Taylor is a coloratura soprano who recently made her radio debut 

from this station. Miss Delna, a soprano, has been heard with pleasure by, wjz's audience. The tones of 

Miss Pinto's harp have pleased radio listeners at various times for more than three years 



teen stations and even" one announced that 
the orchestra would now play 'Red Hot 
Mama'! And everything else was just like 
that." 

She talked for quite a time. She com- 
plained justly that she had no guide in the 
advance programs published in the papers as 
to where she could get the good music. All 
that the programs indicated was that at such 
or such an hour a musical program would be 
given. "And it's always such rot!" was her 
wail. 

When Good Music Is Broadcast 

OF COURSE, it isn't "always such rot." 
Taking the country by and large, 
quite a bit of good music is broadcast 
each week. But it is insignificant in quantity 
when compared with the cheap and tawdry 
stuff that is sent out over the air. And it is 
generally so mixed up on a program that con- 
tains the worst as well as the best that many 
people who might hear it fail to do so because 
they have tuned-out in disgust. 

To quote again from the Times editorial: 
"Jazz, especially when it depends much on 
that ghastly instrument, the saxophone, 
offends people with musical taste already 
formed, and it prevents the formation of 
musical taste by others, and even its votaries 
are cautious enough have enough respect for 
their reputations with civilized people to say, 
'Oh, we don't ever listen to it. We only 
dance to it.' But the often mentioned radio 
audience does not dance, at least while it is 
justifying its name, and there is no imaginable 



excuse for giving it jazz, hour after hour, every 
evening from nearly all the stations." 

From Mr. Gordon Balch Nevin, well-known 
author of various books on music, a composer 
and organist of the First Lutheran Church at 
Johnstown. Pennsylvania, some comments 
have been received upholding the policy of 
this department in decrying the hodge-podge 
musical program so prevalent at present in 
broadcasting. A portion of Mr. Ne\ in's letter 
reads: 

I am not one of the class of musicians who dislike 
popular music, the music of the day, even jazz, for 
that matter. I do not adopt an up-stage attitude 
in regard to this class of music. In fact, there are 
times when, for perhaps half an hour, 1 find, good 
jazz played by a real orchestra to be a mental tonic. 
But I do most certainly object to the very thing so 
often mentioned in "The Listeners' Point of 'View" 
the haphazard and scrambled arrangement of 
most radio programs. 

I wonder if the broadcasters are not missing an 
opportunity to evolve" the novel and unusual type 
of program. In my own recital work 1 have found 
the all Wagner, or American,- French, or German 
.type of program, also, to some extent/the historical 
or chronological type, to be very good and helpful 
for the. .listener.. At least, there is a certain coor- 
dination and continuity .that gets somewhere.. 

I hope to see sofne competent singers giving pro- 
grams, each selected from some one composer or 
nationality. When they do this there will be 
enough of us who will not spin the dial on them. 

Mr. Nevin then goes on to cite an example 
of the mentality of some listeners-in. . He was 
in a broadcasting station while a Bible lesson 
was being sent out. The instant this pro- 



Radio Broadcast 



gram closed, some "half-wit," as he so aptly 
describes him, telephoned in requesting that 
"Hot Mama Blues" be played. "Comment 
is futile," he adds. 

The pity of it is that, times without number, 
program directors accede to such requests. 
Why do they do it? Do they actually think 
that the radio audience is wholly composed 
of morons? 

Mrs. Nobody of Podunk is giving a party. 
She telegraphs to some broadcasting station 
that they all want to hear such and such 
numbers. Immediately all the listeners-in, 
probably tens of thousands of them, are also 
supposed to want to hear this same trash. 

Suppose you had bought a ticket for a 
public concert. And, suppose, instead of 
hearing the sort of program you expected to 
hear when you paid for that ticket, you were 
obliged either to leave the hall without having 
had your money's worth, or to sit there and 
listen to a lot of junk that this, that, or the 
other person in the audience took it into his 
head he wanted to hear. What would become 
of our cdncert programs if they were conducted 
in this fashion? 

And what is going to become of radio pro- 
grams if every Tom, Dick, and Harry can 
telephone or telegraph in and have the num- 
bers he requests played or sung? 

"The Public Be Pleased" How? 

BUT we must please the public!" ex- 
claim the broadcast directors. 
That is exactly the point we are 
making. The public is not being pleased with 
radio musical programs. For the public con- 
sists of intelligent people of discriminating 
taste as well as of those to whom music means 
only jazz.'. 

Station KSD, which is operated by the St. 
Louis'Post-Dispatcb, is one of the few broad- 
casting stations in this country that recognizes 
the musical cultivation of many among the 
radio audience. The broadcasting by this 
station this season of fifteen x:bncerts by the 
St. Louis Symphony Orchestra is an epoch- 
making; "event in radio entertainment. These 
concerts' are not' staged simply for the radio. 
They are the regular subscription programs 
and are broadcast direct from the Odeon 
Theater, where all these subscription concerts 
are given under the direction of Rudolph 
Ganz. 

Five of these programs have already been 
broadcast, and the remaining ten will be put 
on the air December 27, January 10, 17, 24; 
February 7, 14, 21, 28; March 7 and 14. The 



dates all come on Saturday evening. The 
concerts begin at 8 o'clock, Central, and 9 
o'clock Eastern Standard Time. 

The broadcasting of these programs is not 
only giving a large public opportunity to hear 
many among the classical symphonic works, 
but also to hear new works of important sig- 
nificance, among them Vaughn Williams's 
"London Symphony," the much talked-of 
symphony by Hanson, Igor Stravinsky's 
"Fireworks" one of the most notable among 
modern compositions Ernest Schelling's "Vic- 
tory Ball," Honegger's "Pacific 231," and 
Respighi's "Three Old Dances." 

One can just hear some people saying, 
"Oh, the public doesn't care for that highbrow 
stuff!" 

Doesn't it? Why, then, are there now in 
this country fully fifty symphony orchestras 
that each season give programs of the best 
orchestral music? And why is it, then, that 
other cities and towns are making heroic 
efforts to have their own orchestras? 

Why? Because of the widespread public 
demand for great music. 

Do Listeners Want Their Programs 
Explained? 

MR. JAMES C. MOFFET, of Louisville, 
Kentucky, has written to this de- 
partment suggesting that radio an- 
nouncers in presenting a musical program 
preface each number with some explanatory 
remarks, given in non-technical language. 
He believes this would help to popularize good 
music, and that this form of musical education 
can be put out better over the radio than 
through any other medium. He adds: 

"The concentration of mind induced by 
listening-in on any explanation on the radio, 
with nothing to distract the attention of the 
listener, as in a public hall or concert room, 
would make this form of exposition peculiarly 
valuable. I know that I remember what I 
hear over the radio better than what I receive 
as one of a big audience at a concert or lec- 
ture." 

Although it would not be advisable to 
preface each number on each musical program 
broadcast with explanatory remarks, it would 
undoubtedly be a constructive plan if this 
were done at stated intervals. There is an 
unlimited amount of interesting information 
from which to draw for such talks and still 
keep them within the comprehension of the 
layman. 

Explanatory programs have indeed been 
tried, from time to time, by various stations. 



The Listener's Point of View 



459 



So far as the present writer's knowledge of 
these experiments goes, the prefatory talks 
generally sounded as if being given, not by an 
authority on the subject, but by some one who 
had crammed for the occasion. The results 
in such a case, no matter what the subject 
talked about, are bound to be disappointing, 
to miss fire. 

In order to talk about music or any musical 
composition in a way to hold the interest of 
the listener, the speaker must know a great 
deal more about his subject than simply the 
phase of which he is at the moment presenting. 
A broadcasting station can never successfully 
give educational musical programs until will- 
ing to pay some thoroughly competent special- 
ist, who is also a good talker, to give these 
explanations. 

All other subjects than music, when dis- 
cussed over the radio, are discussed by well- 
known authorities on these subjects. This is 
as true of astronomy as it is of pugilism. But, 
as a rule, when anything is said about music, 
it seems to be considered that anybody can 
say it. 

At present, the most conspicuous exception 
to this rule may be found in the series of 
talks on orchestral instruments being given 
through station KDKA by Mr. Victor Saudek. 

As even-body knows who owns a radio set, 
Mr. Saudek is director of the KDKA Little 
Symphony Orchestra. But he is much more 
than this. His current musical work .along 
various lines and his experiences in the past 
place him among the leading authorities in 
the country on orchestral instruments and 
their use. 

Mr. Saudek was for many years a member of 
the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, playing 
in that organization first under Victor Herbert, 
then for six years under Emil Paur. He is 
at present teacher of orchestration in the 
combined music departments of the Univer- 
sity of Pittsburgh and the Carnegie Institute 
of Technology. He is also director of the 
Woodwind Ensemble at the latter institution. 
He has delivered many lectures on orchestral 
instruments for the Board of Education of the 
Pittsburgh public schools, and also for various 
colleges. In addition to his work as director 
of the KDKA Little Symphony, he is organizing 
a light opera company for this station. 

In his weekly talks on orchestral instru- 
ments which are now being given at KDKA, 
Mr. Saudek divides the instruments into their 
four natural groups the strings, the wood- 
wind, the brass, and the percussion instru- 
ments. The history of each instrument, or 



co-related instruments, is briefly given, and 
this is followed by a clear discussion of the 
chief characteristics of the instrument, after 
which its qualities are illustrated by the play- 
ing of excerpts from that instrument's part in 
an accredited orchestral work. 

The concluding feature of this series of talks 
which will continue for some twelve weeks 
from their inception the middle of last Novem- 
ber, will be a concert in which the more un- 
usual instruments, such as the woodwind 
group and the horn, will be used. 

A very interesting feature of this concluding 
concert will be the cooperation of the radio 
audience. The instruments will be announced 
not by name but by number, and the audience 
will be asked to send in the names of the instru- 




THE MADONNA 

As she appears when taking the place of the absent 
Nun in the Cathedral, in Morris Gest's production 
of "The Miracle." staged by Max Reinhardt at the 
Century Theatre, New York, and broadcast by 
WGBS (GimbePs, New York) during this station's 
opening week. Lady Diana Manners is here seen 
in this role 



460 



Radio Broadcast 



ment corresponding to each numbered solo, 
or the names corresponding to the numbers of 
such ensemble groups as may be used. 

Here, in its most instructive and delightful 
form, is musical education over the radio, given 
by a professional specialist in the subject 
treated. Such a broadcasting feature will go 
far toward wiping out memories of musical 
disappointments experienced after one has 
tuned-in. 

Mr. Saudek might well make these illus- 
trated talks on orchestral instruments an 
annual feature at KDKA. For there is abso- 
lutely no question as to their success. 

In his work with this Little Symphony, Mr. 
Saudek has brought the organization to a 
point of excellence where it has no superior 
among the orchestras regularly associated with 
broadcasting stations. Many of the sixteen 
men who make up the orchestra's personnel 
are virtuosi, with training gained in regular 
symphony work. Taking the programs in the 
aggregate, this orchestra broadcasts much 
good music. One looks forward to the day 
when they will set aside one hour two 
evenings a week and give, during that hour, 
nothing but music worthy of being heard at 
a public symphony concert. If, let us say, 
such a program was given every Tuesday and 
Friday, or Monday and Thursday, or Wednes- 
day and Saturday from eight to nine, and this 
was continued month after month, the 



1 Y 






'f Iffe t^ 



Waters, San Francisco 
COMMITTEE AND READERS 

A service that is meeting with far-reaching success is broadcast daily at 
station KPO, San Francisco, immediately after the Naval Observatory 
time signals. First, the chimes you see in this picture are played, and, 
as chimes are always very lovely over the radio, the opening of this 
service immediately engages attention. There then follows a reading 
of the scriptures, always from those portions that are not controver- 
sial, but of a character to make universal appeal. The director of the 
station may be seen (in gray suit) standing in front of the chimes 



audiences listening-in would be so large that 
the other broadcast stations might well rejoice 
that they could not know how they were being 
neglected. 

Good Music That Is Popular 

PIANIST who knows from experience 
that radio listeners enjoy good music, 
is Mrs. Carl Chindblom of Washing- 
ton, D. C., who has been heard a number of 
times through station WRC of that city. 

Endowed with exceptional musical talent, 
Mrs. Chindblom from childhood had the 
advantage of training under the best masters. 
She is the daughter of Hjalmar Nilsson, who 
has directed Swedish male choruses in this 
country for twenty-five years and has received 
decorations for his musical work from the King 
of Sweden and the Singers' Union in Sweden, 
as well as in America. At the age of fourteen, 
Mrs. Chindblom, then Christine Nilsson 
"but no relation to the famous singer," she 
explains went to Stockholm where she pur- 
sued her piano studies. 

Mrs. Chindblom is the wife of Representa- 
tive Chindblom of Chicago, who, next March, 
will finish his third term as representative of 
the Tenth District of Illinois, and who is also 
a member of the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee. Although corresponding secretary of 
the Congressional Club which is composed of 
wives of the members of Congress, occupied 
with social duties and the 
management of a home, 
Mrs. Chindblom still keeps 
up her musical work through 
taking lessons and public 
playing. Her cosmopolitan 
life has confirmed her natu- 
ral faith in the people's love 
for good music provided 
they have opportunities to 
hear it. 

"It did not occur to 
me," she said when speak- 
ing of her broadcasting ex- 
periences, "to play trashy 
music. For that matter, I 
could not have played it, 
anyway, for I have not 
concerned myself with such 
music. Why should one, 
when so many like to hear 
the best? 

"And why should I think, 
just because I happened to 
be playing for an invisible 
instead of a visible audience, 



The Listener's Point of View 



461 




\Vhitc-, New York 



THE LAMED PIPER 

(Werner Krauss), healed at the foot of the wonder-working statue 
of the Madonna (Lady Diana Manners) in "The Miracle" 



that my listeners would want mawkish or 
cheap numbers? 1 cannot understand why 
any one who is accustomed to playing good 
music should be willing to play any other 
kind when broadcasting. 

"One of the best received numbers I have 
broadcast, is the D'Albert Suite the one with 
the AllemanJe, Gavotte, and Musette. It is 
built, you know, on classical lines, very much 
in the style of Bach, but with the mod- 
ern touch so characteristic of D'Albert who, 
noted first as a great pianist, can well lay 
claim to being, if not equally great as a com- 
poser, one that has added much to modern 
piano literature. 

"Another number that has also been much 
liked by my radio audience is the Preludinm 
from Grieg's Holberger Suite. Then 1 have 
also broadcast a Schumann Nocturne, Scar- 
latti's popular yet very classical Pastorale, the 
Liszt arrangement of Mendelssohn's "On the 
Wings of Song," and the "Concert Fantasie 
on Swedish Folk Songs," by Emil Larsen, one 
of Chicago's leading musicians. 

"What are my feelings when playing for 
an invisible radio audience? Well, it is diffi- 
cult to describe them because they are not 
essentially different from my feelings when 



playing for a visible audience. But I always 
have the feeling that there is an audience out 
there beyond near and far and the absolute 
consciousness of this is an inspiration. And 
1 am. always on my mettle, for I know that, 
over the radio, every wrong note, every slight- 
est mistake, stands out with glaring distinct- 
ness. 1 know this from having listened so 
much to others. When a number is announced 
with which I am familiar, 1 listen always in 
the hope of learning something from the per- 
formance, and I very often do learn something, 
either regarding technical execution, or inter- 
pretation, and sometimes both. 

"Although 1 play a good deal in Washington 
each winter at musicales and concerts, and 
last winter gave a number of programs with 
Congressman Woodrum, the 'Singing Con- 
gressman' as we call him, the enjoyment was 
no greater, if as great, as that I experience 
when playing for radio audiences. I do not 
know whether this feeling 1 have about radio 
listeners is shared by others who broadcast. 
1 only know that it is the way I feel. There 
is always in my mind the thought that among 
those listeners 1 cannot see may be some who 
are thoroughly competent to criticise, and who 
will know from my playing just what sort of 



Radio Broadcast 




Aldene, New. York 

NATHAN ABAS AND HIS PENNSYLVANIA HOTEL CONCERT 
ORCHESTRA 

Tri-weekly features on wjz's programs. This is the real thing, and not 
a jazz orchestra, which may account for the fact that it is one of the 
most -popular organizations now broadcasting regularly. Their Sunday 
evening concerts] given at 7 o'clock, Eastern standard time, are espe- 
cially well worth hearing 



musician I am. The result is, that when 
before the microphone, I feel that I am playing 
for the most exacting yet appreciative of 
audiences." 

Because she does not use her music as a 
means of livelihood, Mrs. Chindblom is not 
personally concerned with the question of 
payment for broadcasting. But she is com- 
pletely in accord with the stand taken by 
professional musicians who depend on their 
music for their living, that they should be 
paid for radio appearances, 

Praiseworthy Work of a New 
Broadcaster 

UNSTINTED praise is due the manage- 
ment of WGBS [Gimbel Brothers of 
New York] in that they had the ar- 
tistic vision to broadcast, during their opening 
week, Morris Gest's production of "The 
Miracle," which has had a long run at the 
Century Theater, New York, and, at this 
writing, is scheduled for a six weeks' run in 
Cleveland, Ohio, the only city outside of New 
York where it will be presented. 

It might be thought, upon first considera- 
tion, that a performance appealing first of all to 
the eve could not successfully be broadcast. 
But "The Miracle" is an exception because 
the story, drawn from classic legend, is of 
itself so beautiful and so dramatic, and be- 
cause it is given a noteworthy musical setting. 



During the broadcasting 
of this production, Mr. 
Fred Eric, well-known actor 
and stage director, gave a 
graphic and sympathetic 
synopsis of the story as it 
was revealed on the stage. 
These descriptions were 
vivified by Englebert Hum- 
perdinck's music for chorus, 
orchestra, and organ music 
of a kind all too seldom 
heard over the radio. 
Humperdinck, one of the 
greatest masters of orches- 
tration among modern com- 
posers, a writer of some 
of the most graceful and 
lovely music composed dur- 
ing the last quarter of a 
century, is best known by his 
two fairy operas, Hansel 
und Gretel, and Die Konigs- 
kinder. He died a few 
years ago, suddenly, at 
Neu-Strelitz, of apoplexy. 
He came to this country in 1910 when 
Die Konigskinder received its first produc- 
tion on any stage at the Metropolitan 
Opera house with Geraldine Farrar in the 
role of the Goose Girl. He drew largely on 
German folk song for the foundation of his 
works, using them with unexcelled finesse and 
effectiveness. He was a close and under- 
standing friend of Richard Wagner and 
assisted him in preparations for the first pro- 
duction of Parsifal in 1880 at Bayreuth. 
Living a simple and unostentatious life, both 
as artist and as man, Humperdinck never- 
theless gained world recognition during his 
lifetime. 

Having set such a standard as the broad- 
casting of "The Miracle" during their opening 
week, it is hoped that those who are to guide 
the work at WGBS will live up to this standard 
in the future. 



CROM Alice L. Nealeans, of Newport, 
* Kentucky, comes the statement, in a 
letter: 

"Your 'scrambled programs' raps will set 
makers of these 'Air Entertainments' to 
separating the material and keeping hours for 
jazz and hours for high grade music, giving 
certain hours to each, regularly, so that radio 
fans may know when to tune-in and when to 
tune-out." 

May Miss Nealeans prove a true prophet! 



A Kit for the 
Radio Detective 



How to Use a Sensitive, Portable Re- 
ceiver to Find Interference of All Sorts 
Some Radio Tests of Great Value 
and Interest to the Experimenter 

BY 
ROBERT H. MARRIOTT 

First President Institute of Radio Engineers 



MR. MARRIOTT 

With the pack loop re- 
ceiver described in this 
article 



NOT far from the point at which these 
paragraphs begin, the observing 
reader can see several photographs 
of a radio compass station mounted 
on the writer on Mount Rainier. 

That is the kind of a radio compass station 
that can travel almost anywhere. That sta- 
tion is not too wide to go through doors nor 
too heavy for a youth. It is not too heavy 
for an old chap either, but of course if an 
old chap carries it in and around public 
places, it will probably be due to a lack of 
the dignity that usually comes with age, or 
due to youthful spirits, or because he wants 
to learn facts about interferences and the 
reception of radio to the extent of braving 
the remarks of others. 

The radio compass station operator, in 
this case, is the means of transportation or 
beast of burden and, if he travels in public 
places, he may be referred to as a beast of 
burden. Somebody will surely say he is an 
"ass." Also, inexperienced young dogs and 
snappy dogs may bark at him. The wise 
humans and dogs will behave quite properly. 

That kind of transportation for a compass 
station does not produce electrical disturbances 




to interfere with the compass readings. Also 
the operator is the pivot. Operator, receiver 
and coil turn together, which prevents chang- 
ing tuning because all parts remain relatively 
the same. 

An automobile carrying a loop cannot go 
up stairs and in narrow places and the ig- 
nition has to be shut off to use the radio com- 
pass. Also a coasting automobile often moves 
too fast to detect sources of interferences or 
variations in receiving ability. 

Those of you who go camping in places 
where human transportation is the only avail- 
able transportation, will recognize that thing 
on my back and shoulders as a special form 
of pack board made with braces over the 
shoulders instead of straps. This special 
pack board is just as available to carry fishing 
gear as to carry scientific instruments.- In 



464 



Radio Broadcast 



another photo you can see my son wearing a 
regular orthodox Indian style pack board 
loaded with food and I am behind him with 
the special pack board loaded with the rest 
of the camp duffle, ready to go through brush 
and streams. Both boards are strong enough 
to carry fifty pounds or more. The Indian 
type is superior for going through brush, while 
the brace type can be 
thrown off quickly if 
you fall in water over 
your head or where 
you want to shed the 
pack quickly. 



THE PACK-BOARD 



A Radio Set on Your Head 



WHEN using the 
special pack 
board for radio com- 
pass work, the radio 
receiver is supported 
by the braces in front 
of the operator, where 
he can see the dials 
and make adjust- 
ments. Almost any 
kind of sensitive fairly 
long range receiver 
will do if the tubes re- 
quire very little bat- 
tery. The receiver in 
the photographs in- 
cludes a regenerative 
detector and three 
stages of audio fre- 
quency, using peanut 
tubes that require 

about one volt and one fourth of an ampere 
each. Forty volts were used in the plate 
battery. That receiver was not built es- 
pecially for this kind of use. It was chosen 
because it was convenient and light in weight. 
The compass coil, as can be seen, is mounted 
at one side. It consists of eighteen turns of 
No. 23 cotton covered wire, about three eighths 
of an inch apart. The coil frame is of very 
light spruce and fitted together with screws. 
A folding coil would do about as well, but it 
might not be as strong for its weight. A clip 
is provided so that eight, twelve, or eighteen 
turns may be used. Also, the little coil in 
series with the loop that couples to the tickler 
is tapped, so altogether a range of from 200 
to about looo meters can be covered in re- 
ceiving, with the tube oscillating. An os- 
cillating tube is sometimes better for picking 
up disturbances. 



Can easily be very valuable, while at the 
same time, subjecting its bearer to a certain 
amount of ridicule. Mr. Marriott's inter- 
esting article tells how he built up a simple 
portable receiver, using dry cell tubes and 
a loop which he mounted on a pack board 
and used to trace interference from power 
lines, radiating receivers, and improperly 
operating domestic electrical devices. Since 
this magazine published a series of articles 
on "Man-Made Static" by A. F. Van Dyck 
in March, April, and May, 1924, interest 
in tracing and reducing unnecessary inter- 
ference from these sources has grown very 
greatly. Other radio periodicals have since 
taken up the cause, and the general receiving 
situation is sure to be much improved, for 
power companies and even some of the 
thoughtless individuals are almost always 
willing to do all they can to reduce inter- 
ference of all sorts, when it is brought to their 
attention. Local dealers can plot radio 
maps of their territories with a set of this 
kind, and radio club members wishing to 
perform public service can well take up this 
sort of thing themselves. THE EDITOR. 



The batteries are carried on the back on 
the pack board surface. Other things may 
be carried on the pack board at the same 
time. I sometimes carry such things as 
electrical measuring instruments on it. In 
another photograph is shown the board and 
some voltage measuring equipment that I 
used on Mount Rainier. I used them to find 
static potentials. 
They are not part of 
the compass equip- 
ment. In traveling 
through brush the coil 
frame and receiver can 
be removed from the 
side and from the 
braces and packed on 
the back. For carry- 
ing the outfit as bag- 
gage on an automo- 
bile or in a train every- 
thing is packed on the 
front of the board be- 
tween the braces. 
Blankets and clothes 
serve for packing ma- 
terial, and a tarpaulin 
serves for the cover of 
the package. 

A little khaki cloth 
cover not shown in 
the photo, fits over 
the receiver in front 
and another piece of 
khaki over the back 
for damp weather. 
All of the wood used, 
which was spruce, 

and the khaki are waterproofed by wetting 
them with gasoline in which paraffme has 
been dissolved. The gasoline evaporates and 
leaves the paraffme in the pores of the 
wood and cloth. Waterproofing the strips 
that support the coil wires is necessary. 
Spruce is one of the best woods because it is 
strong for its weight, but almost any avail- 
able wood will do. 

WHAT GOOD SAMARITANS CAN DO WITH THIS SET 

WHY have I told you about this and why 
am I going to say more about it farther 
along in the article? Because lots of people 
can build such arrangements as good as 
this or better and use them to find causes 
of interference, and otherwise to develop 
radio. Having found the causes of inter- 
ference, those causes can be eliminated 
through the arts of diplomacy and electricity, 



A Kit for the Radio Detective 



465 



and the reception of broadcasts will be im- 
proved. Cutting out interference is one of 
the most important things in improving local 
receiving. One reason why a lot of inter- 
ference is not cut out is because enough people 
do not know what the causes are. With such 
arrangements as this they can find the causes. 



men who would not use glittering words to 
attract fame or money and who, therefore, 
attracted Ijttle or no attention. 

Another- way in which radio was advanced 
by getting more people interested in its de- 
velopment was through the United States 
amateurs. They made radio an indoor sport. 




A CLOSE-UP OF THE RADIO COMPASS RECEIVER 

Showing how a simple receiving set, which can be operated on a loop can 
be mounted on the loop frame, which carries the dry cells to run the set 



The advancing of an art and science and 
the correction of evils depends very largely 
on how many people learn the facts. For 
example, the apparatus for radio was in- 
vented and the idea of using it for communi- 
cation was conceived and published long 
before Marconi made his developments. But 
Marconi or his associates made a lot of noise 
about it and that interested a lot of people 
who investigated the facts and started develop- 
ing radio. 

In their publicity, to advertise Marconi 
and to raise money, they brought to light in- 
formation and possibilities that had pre- 
viously been quietly discussed orally and in 
print by conservative professors and old 



Still another way was the Institute of Ra- 
dio Engineers which was founded and de- 
voted entirely to disseminating information 
for the advancement of the radio science and 
art. Scientific and popular publications 
played a part in all those ways. 

LOCAL RADIO DETECTIVES 

NOW that radio receivers are located prac- 
tically everywhere, there are too many 
possible sources of interference to cover the 
interference subject by articles stating where 
interferences may be found. Another kind 
of education is necessary. We have got to 
train a lot of local disturbance finders. Some 
local radio detectives with radio compasses 



Radio Broadcast 



are needed to do the finding and spreading of 
information. 

When broadcasting first started, the un- 
initiated blamed all interference on amateurs 
and static. Now in the summer time a great 
deal of interference is blamed on natural 
static that comes from defective electric 
lighting and power circuits. ' Also, winter 
and summer, some one short range notorious 
interference is blamed for what other local 
interferences do. A chap's own bed warmer 
may be causing the interference that he blames 
on the Blank electric light company. 

To stop interferences, first, find the interfer- 
ence producer; second, use your best influence 
to have that interference cease. Power com- 
panies are glad, usually, to do their share. 
Individuals are almost always reasonable 
about such matters, once the true situation 
has been presented to them. 

Those who take the trouble to do this radio 
investigating will find it decidedly interesting. 
Thev will do not a little to advance the radio 




ON MOUNT RANIER 

With the pack set. One attachment for the re- 
ceiver allows the strength of static discharge to be 
measured 



art in their locality. Especially will they 
advance the art, if they tell others how they 
do it and the results they get. 

There is a tendency to expect the Radio 
Inspectors of the Department of Commerce 
to find all interferences and correct them. 
The trouble with that idea is that there are 
not enough such inspectors and no Congress 
is going to appropriate enough money to 
get enough inspectors. All of the present 
inspectors together could not take care of 
the interferences in New York, and there are 
a lot of folks and territory west of Hoboken. 
If you find the interference and it is some- 
thing the inspectors have jurisdiction over, 
they will take action. 

A radio compass station made up in the 
form of a pack is much easier to carry than a 
suit case arrangement, and it leaves the hands 
free. One can carry about fifty pounds on a 
pack board as easily as one can carry twenty 
pounds in a suit case. And a pack board 
radio compass, as shown in the photos, weighs 
only about twenty-five pounds. By using a 
lighter receiver and smaller batteries, that 
can be reduced to ten pounds. By going to 
extremes and using radio-frequency ampli- 
fication only it could be reduced to five pounds 
or less. Also all the equipment could be 
included in one package. 

HOW THE PORTABLE COMPASS IS MOUNTED 

IN THE accompanying photographs you 
can see the pack board radio compass 
standing alone. The back frame is of one 
inch by one inch spruce and consists of two 
uprights and a cross piece at the top and 
bottom fastened by dowel pins and stiffened 
by sheet aluminum bent around the joints 
and held by screws. Khaki cloth is stretched 
tightly over the frame and tacked fast. 
Stiff brass hooks in the frame serve to allow 
packing cords to be fastened to them. A 
light stick from the bar holding the receiver 
serves as a leg so the pack board will stand 
alone when the receiver is in place. Two 
pieces of sheet aluminum with felt on the 
under side are attached to the front braces 
and back by single screws so the aluminum 
tilts slightly to conform to the slope of the 
shoulders. 

One way to put on the device is to set the 
pack board on the edge of a table and duck 
under one of the shoulder pads and rise up. 
Another way is to stand to one side of the 
pack board, say the right side, and place the 
left hand under the left pad and the right 
under the right pad and raise the pack up 



A Kit for the Radio Detective 



and over the head and then let it down upon 
the shoulders. 

You can probably design a better looking 
outfit and undoubtedly you can provide a 
better looking operator, packer, or beast of 
burden, whatever you want to call this pho- 
tographed biped. 

WAYS AND MEANS OF USING THIS "DETECTOR" 

TO FIND the cause of a disturbance, put 
the pack board compass on, turn on the 
filament battery and tune-in the disturbance 
with the detector oscillating, if tuning is 
necessary. Then turn around until the 
disturbance is loudest and then till it is weak- 
est or out. Those two positions should be 
at right angles and the disturbance should be 
in the direction of the wires in the compass 
coil when the disturbance is loudest, that is 
it should be either in front or back of you, 
providing it is from some place some distance 
away and there are no conductors in your 
immediate neighborhood. Then walk for- 
ward until the disturbance gets weaker or 
stronger. If it gets weaker, turn around 
again and if the direction of the wires is the 
same for maximum disturbance, walk in the 
opposite direction. If everything is ideal 
for compass work, you probably will walk 
right up to the cause of the disturbance. 

If the interference comes from a neighbor 
with a regenerative detector and you set 
your radio compass so it oscillates, you prob- 
ably will be able to follow the squeal right up 
to the neighbor's house. Then if you "squeal 
on" or "tell on" him to the other broadcast 
receiving neighbors they will probably join 
with you for a persuasive conference with 
the interfering neighbor. Of course if he is 
a stubborn Scotchman you may have to call 








TO MEASURE STATIC 

The pack set is arranged as shown in the photo- 
graphs. The average experimenter would have no 
reason to use such a device, but there are some who 
might be interested in making such measurements 



THE RADIO PACK SET READY FOR ACTION 

Mr. Marriott and his son, near their home in Brem- 
erton, Washington, ready for a journey of test and 
experiment with the loop receiver which the author 
uses for searching out interference from power lines, 
imperfect household electrical devices, and other 



on the Presbyterian preacher for aid. If he 
is a dealer in stubborn water called "Scotch," 
boycott him. If you have a drop of Scotch 
in your blood, please forget this. If your 
drop of Scotch is in a bottle, offer it to your 
interfering neighbor. 

If the disturbance is caused by the lighting 
or power circuits of the public service com- 
pany that you all are buying service from, the 
correction should be easy. Some of the 
power companies who have high voltage lines 
want to know when people hear such distur- 
bances on their lines because such noises may 
mean leaking insulation which will break down 
some time and shut down their service. 

Some of the present interfering apparatus 
was made or is owned by the General Electric, 
Westinghouse, Western Electric, and Bell 
Telephone companies. Those companies are 
also.interested in broadcasting, therefore they 
should naturally want to prevent interference 
from their machines and devices, and want to 
know what you find. 

There are a lot of effects that may make the 
spotting of the source difficult which, if you 
are not in a hurry to find a particular source, 
are very interesting. 

If the disturbance is carried bv a wire line 



4 68 



Radio Broadcast 



overhead or underground, the disturbance will 
be loudest when the horizontal wires are paral- 
lel to it, and the disturbance may follow the 
line for a considerable distance. 

WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN TESTING 

IF YOU have a large mass of metal in the 
house like a large futnace, all broadcasts 
and all disturbances may be loudest when the 
coil is pointing toward the furnace no matter 
which side of the furnace you may be on. 
That is providing you are alongside the fur- 
nace. You may get the same result from a 
tall iron structure or a wire coming down 
a tall pole. 

If there are wire lines running along one 
side of your lot you may get a broadcast 
station on the other side and not at all or 
in a different direction on the wire line side. 
Generally speaking any conductor you pass 
close to will produce a change in apparent 
direction or in volume. Another interesting 
thing is that to get zero sound in finding 
directions the coil must be tilted sometimes. 
This is done by leaning over sidcwise. 




THE TESTER 

May use telephones for reception, as Mr. Marriott 

does here, but one who wished to use a small loud 

speaker could create considerable interest 



If you live in a part of the United States 
where summer thunder storms are common 
occurrences, it will be interesting to pick up 
their directions and follow them around, 
away, or over. When they are overhead or 
all of them are far away in several localities, 
the static will probably seem to come equally 
strong from all directions. 

The pack board radio compass is a good 
device for comparing the receiving char- 
acteristics of different localities because you 
have the same apparatus to use in all the 
places instead of a different antenna and dif- 
ferent ground connection in each place. For 
example: I used it at Bremerton, Washington 
on Puget Sound and then went up on Mount 
Rainier and concluded that the strength of 
broadcasts from KGO at Oakland was about 
five to ten times as strong at Bremerton than 
I found them in Paradise Valley on Mount 
Rainier. 

Not only is the pack board radio compass 
useful for broadcast listeners and amateurs 
to enable them to divest their neighborhoods 
of interferences and to learn about radio but 
it is useful for merchants to learn of inter- 
ferences and to chart their city and sales 
territory, marking the localities where receiv- 
ing conditions are good, bad, and indifferent. 
Also if they want to have some fun and pos- 
sibly make some sales they can put a light 
loud speaker on the pack board and tune- 
in broadcasts, for others to hear in passing. 

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE 

ONE evening, recently, I was out with the 
pack set checking up on the absorbing and 
direction changing effect of some wire lines. 
Going around the block I live in about dusk, 
I passed the Kitsap Inn. I noticed a woman 
on the porch, but not being so young as most 
radio engineers I was more interested in 
radio effects and did not pay any attention to 
her. I do not know whether she was a new 
comer to the neighborhood or whether she 
was peeved by my inattention. Anyhow she 
telephoned in to the Bremerton Police De- 
partment that there was a crazy man going 
around with a radio set on his head. 

A few minutes later, a mechanic who was 
ambitious to become a sleuth, came along 
and paid attention to the lady on the porch 
and being informed of my conduct followed 
me at a safe distance. 

This man with the positive sleuth bias 
seemed to believe that I was carrying a dia- 
bolic ray apparatus which I was trying to 
train on the Navy Yard which is about a mile 



A Kit for the Radio Detective 



469 



and a quarter long. At any rate, something 
like that was telephoned to the Bremerton 
Police about the time 1 was passing across 
the street that separates Bremerton from 
Charleston. 

After the first alarm, the Bremerton police 
came to look for me, after the second alarm 
a Charleston policeman was added to the 
posse. Not finding me they called out the 
sheriff. The neighborhood afterward told 
me that police were seen searching even 
behind garbage cans. 1 don't know whether 
any of them looked in a garbage can or not. 
This went on for about two hours and in the 
meantime 1 went home and set my pack com- 
pass on a table along side of a tuned antenna 
wire, plugged in the loud speaker and sat 
down. 

A little later an automobile full of men 
pulled up just below my house on the wrong 
side of the street and made so much noise 
that I thought they were full and went out on 
the porch and sat down on the steps to pet 
the dog and watch the men. About that time 
one of them said, "There is a fellow sitting on 
the porch of that house, maybe he knows some- 
thing about it." Whereupon he came over 
and asked me if 1 had seen a fellow going 
around with a radio set on his head. 1 said, 
No, but that 1 had been going around with 
one on my back shortly before. Then he 
started in to ask questions about like most 
people ask when they meet me wearing the 
pack compass. 

Others came up until there were eight or. 
nine of them and the questions seemed rather 
qnusual, which caused me to ask why all the 
delegation and so much interest. I didn't 
know they were police because they were in 
plain clothes. Then they told me the whole 
story and 1 invited them in and let them 




GOOD RECEPTION AREAS 

May easily be charted with a device similar to this. 
Local radio dealers could send several men out with 
a pack set and quickly make a dependable map of 
their territory. A direction-finding loop set used 
in an automobile is not always satisfactory be- 
cause the interference produced by the ignition is 
usually quite bothersome 



listen to concerts. Altogether we had a very 
enjoyable evening. They told my friend 
McCall, the mayor, and Mac told the news- 
paper reporters and. I don't expect ever to 
hear the last of it. 



"THE MAN WHO KNEW ALL ABOUT RADIO" 

7S THE title of a quite amusing story by William H. Cory, Jr. : Many 
radio folk will recognize their own portrait, perhaps, in Mr. Cart/'* 
mirror. It ttill be a feature of a coming number of RADIO BROADCAST. 




Underwood & Underwood 
A BROADCASTING STUDIO WITH A PLATE GLASS WINDOW 

The studio of WJZ-WJY in New York was recently moved down to the display windows of the Aeolian 
Building so that passing crowds might see just how broadcasting was carried on. Amplifiers were installed 
so that the watching crowd could hear as well as see what was going on 



THE MARCH OF RADIO 



BY 




Past 1 'resident , Institute of Radio Engineers 



What Has Happened to Important Radio Patents 



R^DIO certainly has proved a boon to 
those who reap their livelihood by get- 
ting manufacturers into and out of 
legal entanglements. Patents, by the 
thousands, on all phases of the radio art, have 
been granted or applied for, and it is doubt- 
ful that a single piece of radio apparatus 
could be manufactured in such quantity as 
to bring in worthwhile returns without some 
do/en attorneys being able to arrange dam- 
age suits on some count or other. Some men 
whose names stand reasonably high in the 
estimation of the lay public have adopted 
what mav be termed "steam-roller" methods 



of patenting radio devices. Hiring one or 
more attorneys, they draw up claims for any- 
thing they can conceive of whether they have 
made it work or not. Such men expect to 
make money on the "nuisance value" of 
their patents. We recollect seeing one man's 
name so often in the patent office records that 
he certain! v must have at least 200 patents, 
possibly more. Such a man is trying to use 
the radio art purely as a money-making prop- 
osition. It is questionable if a single really 
original valuable contribution will be found 
in his whole pile of patents. 

With a few such men in the game, and a 



The March of Radio 



47i 



few hundred others who are more conservative 
in the amount of work they turn in to the 
patent office clerks, it is small wonder that 
we continually hear of patent suits. During 
the past month, several very important suits 
were either started or decided, temporarily;. 
We say temporarily, because apparently no 
one but a lawyer, familiar with the various 
successive processes by which a suit can be 
continued, knows when a question is decided 
and when it is not. 

Through various transfers of patent rights, 
some exclusive and some not, the Radio Cor- 
poration of America attorneys were of the 
opinion that they could hold the De Forest 
Company to carry out sales according to their 
desires and policies, that is, the R. C. A. 
could tell the De Forest Company where and 
how they must stick these little tags we have 
all seen so many times telling us that these 
devices are "sold for amateur and experi- 
mental use only." Early in 1923 the R. C. A. 
did obtain an injunction against the De 
Forest Company under which the selling 
policies of the De Forest Company were 



controlled by R. C. A. After thoroughly re- 
viewing the case, vice-chancellor V. M. Lewis 
of Trenton, New Jersey has just handed down 
a decision which frees the De Forest Company 
from the restraining hand of the Radio Cor- 
poration. The legal arguments used are too 
intricate for a layman of our calibre to follow, 
but agreements between the De Forest Com- 
pany and Western Electric Company; and 
then between the latter company and the 
American Telephone and Telegraph Company; 
and then with the Radio Corporation some- 
times "for pay" and sometimes not, appar- 
ently convinced Chancellor Lewis that De 
Forest should be allowed to be free to compt-tr 
with the Radio Corporation in the sale of 
tubes and apparatus. 

In another suit, a small firm selling a few 
parts for a super-heterodyne has been sued 
by the Radio Corporation for infringement. 
The expert for the R. C. A. claimed that the 
five or more pieces collected in a box con- 
stituted the makings of a "super," although 
we had previously been informed that there 
were more than 4000 parts in the super as 




THE NEW U.S.S 'MARBLEHEAD 

The newest of the Navy's cruisers. The extensive use every naval vessel makes of radio is partially shown 
by the elaborate antenna installation aboard the Marblebead. 'This photograph was taken in the East 

River, New York 



472 



Radio Broadcast 




JACK BINNS AND HANS LADWIG 

Meeting at New York shortly after the trans- 
atlantic flight of the ZR-} was concluded. Ladwig 
was radio operator aboard the Zeppelin and Binns is 
famous as the first wireless operator to take part 
in a rescue at sea 



constructed by the Radio Corporation and 
that, according to Armstrong himself, even 
though we were furnished with a diagram of 
connections and given the actual constants of 
the various coils, condensers, resistances, and 
what not, none of us could build a super- 
heterodyne that would work. It seems that 
one's ideas as to what constitute a super- 
heterodyne depends upon what one wants 
to prove. 

During the War, someone thought of using 
an antenna under water as a receiver of radio 
signals. Under-water antennas were used 
to some extent for reception during the War. 
The principal use of such a device, however, is 
evidently on a submarine which needs to get 
radio signals when she is submerged. Dr. 
J. H. Rogers applied for a patent on a sub- 
merged antenna as did other inventors, some 
of them in government employ at the Bureau 
of Standards. The specific type of submarine 
antenna described by Dr. Rogers in his patent 
was an insulated wire connected to the bow 
of the submarine, running to the conning 
tower, down through the receiving apparatus, 
'back to the conning tower, and thence to the 
stern of the submarine where it was attached. 
The hull of the submarine thus constituted a 
part of a one-turn loop antenna. Messrs. 



Willoughby and Lowell of the Bureau of 
Standards tried to have Dr. Rogers's patent 
annulled on the ground that they were the real 
inventors, but the Court of Appeals of the 
District of Columbia has, after five years litiga- 
tion, declared Dr. Rogers the real inventor. 

The De Forest Company has started suit 
against the Government to recover damages 
for the use of three-electrode tubes purchased 
for the government through the General 
Electric Company and others. Apparently, 
the De Forest attorneys think there is a possi- 
bility of showing that the General Electric 
Company had no legal right to sell tubes to 
the Government. Two million dollars is 
named by the De Forest Company as its 
estimate of the damages suffered. 

Now, Attorney-General Stone has just 
handed down a decision which will probably 
prove to be extremely valuable to some of the 
American radio manufacturers. Some of the 
German patents seized by our government 
during the War may now be leased by the navy 
to American manufacturers. The Attorney- 
General held that there appeared to be no 
inhibition against the issuance of non-exclusive 
licenses to manufacture under the patent, but 
that the patent could not be sold. Use of 
the patents seized by the Government, several 
hundred in number, has heretofore been 
denied. Among the patents so leased is one 
of Schloemilch and Van Bronck covering the 
reflexing of radio circuits. We shall probably 
see a lot more reflex sets on the market in the 
next year or two, unless the alternating cur- 
rent tube should appear on the market within 
that time. Reflexing is a scheme for saving 
maintenance cost, but when an alternating 
current tube is available, the maintenance of 
a set will fall so low that the use of reflexing 
will not then be as general as it is now. 

Radio Helps the Air Pioneers 

CST month we called attention to the 
help radio nowadays extends to the 
Arctic explorer. Now, the explorer, 
instead of disappearing from the face of the 
earth for a year or two is in daily com- 
munication with those of us who prefer 
the humdrum life in a more equable climate. 
As we read of the transatlantic flight of the 
Z/?-3, we couldn't help but think of how 
modestly and almost unheeded radio was 
making possible the record-breaking trip. 
A dirigible like the ZR-$ hasn't a great deal 
of fuel reserve and can make. only about 70 
miles an hour without excessive gasoline 



The March of Radio 



473 



consumption. If she meets a head wind of 
much strength, she would actually be almost 
standing still, and a day or two of such stand- 
ing still with full fuel consumption would 
probably spell disaster for the trip. 

The Z/?-3 however, ran no chance of getting 
into such difficulty; she was constantly in 
radio touch with one continent or the other, 
and with dozens of ships in various parts of 
the ocean, to give her weather reports, and 
so was able to lay her course to avoid bad 
weather conditions. This feat without radio, 
would have boon entirely impossible. We 
can expect radio to play a role of ever increas- 
ing importance in pioneering of the kind our 
new dirigible accomplished. 

What "Low Loss" Means 

THE progress in any art is necessarily 
made in a series of steps, an improve- 
ment of existing methods here, a new 
idea and invention there, and perhaps im- 
provement in material and design of apparatus 
elsewhere. The change of communication 
scheme from code signals to the spoken word 
at one step increased the possible users of 
radio from hundreds to hundreds of thousands. 
The advent of the inventions of De Forest, 
Armstrong, Heising and others increased the 
range of the broadcast channels from tens of 
miles to thousands of miles. The increase in 
efficiency of apparatus brought about bv the 
thoroughgoing methods of the research en- 
gineers of the large electrical companies, and 
other smaller ones, such as the General Radio 
'Company, has given us more reliable sets, 
easier to adjust and operate, consuming less 
and less battery power. 

In the latter class of radio progress we have 
had such ideas as the unicontrol, the dry 
battery tube, the non-radiating set, etc., 
successively holding the stage in technical 
discussion and advertising. Of late the "Low 
Loss Condenser" has been the slogan of 
dozens of manufacturers regardless actually of 
whether the losses of their condensers were 
low or not. It seems likely that many of the 
"Low Loss" advertisements are based on con- 
jecture rather than fact. 

So much has the low loss idea been 
emphasized lately by radio manufacturers 
that it is likely the non-technical broadcast 
listener has, by the sheer repetition of this 
attractive phrase, become convinced that 
extremely low losses in a condenser are es- 
sential to satisfactory operation of his set. 
A condenser having a phase angle difference 



of one minute is thought to be twice as good as 
one having two minutes of angle. We have 
tested many of the better class variable 
condensers and do find that some of them have 
only one-half or one-third the losses of others, 
but this fact, striking as it may seem, should 
have but little" consideration in the choice 
of a condenser. The operation of a radio set 
depends on many other items than the tuning 
condenser. Some of these are the losses in the 
coil with which a condenser is always asso- 
ciated. No\v the losses in the average coil 
are about "fifty times as much as the losses in 
the avera'ge good condenser. So small, in 
fact, are the condenser losses compared to 
coil losses that when any one of a dozen of the 
better class tuning condensers is substituted 
for another, no appreciable difference in the 
behavior of the set is discernible, even with 
reasonably good measuring instruments. 

The lower losses a condenser has, the better 
it is, judged on this item alone, but the ques- 
tions of permanence of adjustment, relia- 
bility of contacts, smoothness of control, etc. 
should be considered by the condenser pur- 



-. 




MUCH EASIER THAN ORGAN GRINDING 

Is the life of travelling radio music man in Germany. 
A number of enterprising Teutons have equipped 
themselves with loop receivers and a loud speaker 
and go about the cities vending music. The state 
of the musician's uniform seems to indicate that 
the business is reasonably profitable 



474 



Radio Broadcast 




Harris & Ewing 



RADIO IN THE WASHINGTON NATIONAL MUSEUM 



A corner of this new museum is devoted to radio. The display at the left has a complete submarine installa- 
tion. A half-kilowatt quenched spark transmitter, complete with its motor generator is directly in front 
of the figure. Mounted on the white panel is a lightning switch and a Navy type receiver. The other 
displays are the standard Navy radio compass loop, and a progressive exhibit of vacuum tubes from the 
early De Forest audion at the left to the modern transmitting tubes below 



ehaser of at least as much importance as the 
losses. 

The Meaning of Super-Power 

ESPECIALLY since the recent Hoover 
conference, has there been much talk 
of super-power broadcasting stations. 
The word super-power station is not used in 
the sense that ordinary stations will be 
blanketed by its outpouring of radio energy, 
but rather that sufficient power will be sent 
out from the station so that static and other 
interfering signals will sink into insignificance 
when compared with the station's signals. 
Of course this is true now for even a 5OO-watt 
station, in respect to those listeners who are 
only a few miles distant from it, bu.t evidently 
those who contemplate super-power stations 
believe that their signals will be clear and dis- 
tinct for all listeners within, perhaps, a 300 
mile radius. At present, this range is obtained 
by the present stations only with much extra- 
neous noise. By sending out ten to fifty times 
as much power, the signals will reach out hun- 
dreds of miles before they drop in strength be- 
fow that of competing electrical disturbances. 



Many listeners are opposed to the idea of 
these high-powered stations, but we believe 
such stations are destined to come in the nor- 
mal march of radio. Just as our stations went 
from 50 watts to 500 watts, they will go from 
500 to 10,000 watts, and for the same reason, 
namely, to give more satisfactory communica- 
tion to a larger number of people. Those who 
live near these coming super-power stations 
will, of course, be subject to more interference 
than are neighbors of the present stations, 
but the convenience of the few can never be 
allowed to impede a movement which is in 
the interest of the many. To give as little 
trouble as possible, the high-powered stations 
must be situated several miles from a large 
city. They will be controlled from the city 
studio by wire connection. 

Better programs and better technical opera- 
tion will come with the larger stations, and 
these spell progress for the broadcast art. 
The licenses issued to such stations will, of 
course, be provisional only, so that if a large 
share of the radio audience find the super- 
power idea objectionable, a return to the 
present low-powered stations may be readily 
brought about. 



The March of Radio 



475 



Antennas Ane Not a Lightning 
Menace 

WHEN radio receiving first started on 
its phenomenal career of popularity, 
many of the more cautious pseudo- 
scientists predicted a corresponding increase in 
the number of fires started by lightning 
These bootless prophets averred that the 
radio antenna would serve as a convenient 
channel for the lightning bolt to enter the 
home. We dared to combat this view, for we 
thought that the increase in lightning hazard 
would be almost nothing, because of the 
general disposition of the ordinary receiving 
antenna. 

A recent bulletin of the Bureau of Standards 
confirms our original opinion. Whereas the 
radio antenna cannot be regarded as a very 
efficiently installed lightning rod, it need not 
be considered as an inviter of lightning, either. 
The Bureau puts an antenna in the same cate- 
gory, insofar as danger from lightning is 
concerned, as rain gutters, downleads, wire 
clothes lines, and metal roofs. This should be 
useful information for the insurance companies 
which have frequently in the past regarded the 
radio receiving set as an 
increased lightning risk. 



permitted? New York's is probably the most 
influential municipal station, so that it is worth 
while to study its operations, with the idea of 
forming an opinion of their value. 

In New York the mayor uses the station 
whenever he will, speaking on any subject 
which he cares to select. In case his policies 
are being attacked, he can at once prepare a 
brief (or pay someone else to prepare one that 
he may read) showing that he is "supporting 
the interests of the people," whereas all 
others represent the "interests" and are seek- 
ing to rob the public. If his opponents want 
to combat his, perhaps, unreliable statements, 
they may do so through the city's radio 
station, but their remarks must be written, 
they must stick to their written notes, and 
these must be sent to the mayor's office for 
censoring before the speech is delivered! 
Others must stick exactly to the material 
which has been thus censored, whereas if the 
mayor himself is scheduled to speak on the 
city's budget, for example, he may forget all 
about the budget and spend his time vilifying 
some public servant who has dared to question 
the soundness of some of his doctrines. Surely 
here is a situation in the broadcasting field 



A 



Municipal Broadcast- 
ing Stations 

MUNICIPAL station 
such as WNYC in 
New York City is a 
very questionable benefit 
to those citizens whose tax 
contributions pay for its 
erection and maintenance. 
Especially is this true when 
the calibre of the municipal 
office holders is as low as is 
the case even in many of 
our largest cities. 

Evidently a municipal 
station must be largely 
under the thumb of the 
mayor or his appointees. 
It may be used for propa- 
ganda of the most biased 
sort, for unanswerable at- 
tacks on those servants of 
the public who happen to 
be of political faith different 
from that of the city's tem- 
porary ruler. Is this use of 
a city-owned station to be 







If *** ** 

m at m * ' 
i * f 5 * " 




STATION WGBS, NEW YORK 

Recently put on the air. This station is a companion to WIP, operated 

by the same firm at Philadelphia. The insert shows one of the towers 

in the process of construction 



476 



Radio Broadcast 




FOR RADIO RESEARCH 

This entire building, recently erected by the Radio 
Corporation of America in New Vork City, houses 
the technical and test staff of the organization, 
under the leadership of Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, 
chief broadcast engineer 

which should be heralded from the housetops, 
so that stations of this sort may send out their 
messages to receivers which are all tuned to 
some other channel. 

Is this condition morally and legally sound? 
Broadcasting has been put in the same class 
as newspapers, insofar as responsibility to the 
public is concerned. Is a mayor privileged 
to run a paper, of which he is the censor, to 
espouse the virtues of his regime? Certainly, 
it is done in many cases. But here is a differ- 
ent question. Is a mayor privileged to spend 
the city's money, collected equally from his 
followers and from those differing with his 
ideas, to purchase a newspaper for his own 
use? Isn't that what this municipal broad- 
casting station amounts to? 

More ARA Public Service 

THE American Radio Association is still 
carrying on its good work. Instead of 
making vague complaints about inter- 
ference and other troubles, it picks out a defin- 
ite point of attack and makes admirable con- 
structive criticism. Instead of writing reams 
about the decrements, of spark stations and 
the impossibility of tuning-out such signals, 
a letter is sent to the Postmaster-General stat- 
ing that a Postal mail-boat, doing very heavy 
radio traffic around New York harbor, is using 
an antiquated spark system which is seriously 
interfering with broadcasting channels. Their 
complaint says further, "if the Post Office 



Department cannot afford to provide a modern 
transmitting apparatus for this mail-boat, 
several broadcast listeners stand ready to 
contribute to a fund to purchase the equip- 
ment and thus save the programs from the 
bombarding interference caused by this ob- 
solete transmitter." 

What is Happening on Short Waves 

A" SOON as short-wave channels had 
been shown feasible for distances much 
greater than was ordinarily thought 
possible for them, all the commercial com- 
panies started experimentation in this field, 
and to-day a large number of stations are 
carrying on such work. The Radio Corpora- 
tion station at Tuckerton, designed primarily 
for transatlantic work, with a 15,900 meter 
wavelength, has had its license changed so 
that it can use in addition 103, 100, 97, and 93 
meters. KDKA is carrying on its pioneer work 
in this field and WGY has several short waves 
in use, one as low as 15 meters. POZ in 
Germany and UFT in France have been talking 
to Argentina (LPZ) on 77 meters. Two Italian 
stations, IDO and IHT, have been working with 
each other on 106 and 1 17 meters. The Navy 
reports that successful experiments have been 
conducted with wavelengths as low as 54 
meters. It will be remembered that Marconi 
recently sent a 92-meter wave from Poldhu, 
England to Buenos Aires with a small frac- 
tion of the power ordinarily used to span a 
6000 mile separation. In these tests he used 
Hertz's scheme of parabolic reflectors. 

From the calibre of the experimenters now 
working in this field we can soon expect to 
have reliable data on short wave channels, 
how much fading occurs compared to longer 
waves, whether short period fading is suffi- 
ciently aggravated to make these frequencies of 
thousands of kilocycles unsuitable for tele- 
phone channels ( or not, and other information 
of equal importance. 

Recent Distance Records 

A THE winter months approached, the 
distance-breaking contest started in 
earnest. ' Not only is the absorption of 
the radio signal much less in winter time than 
in summer, but, of far', greater importance, 
the noises from static disturbances are only a 
small fraction of the summer-time values. 
The latter effect is undoubtedly the one which 
accounts for the long-distance communication 
records in winter time. 



The March of Radio 



477 



We have always thought that airship 
transmission could only be carried on over 
short distances. It would be remarkable 
enough if an airship could keep in touch with 
its base even by land-station relaying, but if 
the performance of the Sbenandoab is to be 
regarded as other than freak, such relaying 
may not be necessary. The dirigible, an- 
chored at her mast in San Diego, was using a 
5O-watt set adjusted to radiate on 90 meters. 
Her signals were picked up by one of the navy 
boats while cruising in the Pacific 4400 miles 
away. At the same time the naval air station 
near Washington was in almost daily communi- 
cation with the Sbenandoalj, separated from 
Washington by the wholespan of our continent. 

Two British amateurs, one in England and 
one in New Zealand, with home-made equip- 
ment, have been able to communicate with 
each other, although half the earth's circum- 
ference intervened. Remarkable as this may 
sound, we shall probably hear of such feats 
more and more regularly. An American 
amateur, H. Johnson, at Short Beach, Con- 
necticut, reports that he held two-way com- 
munication with a New Zealand amateur, 
the distance between them being qooo miles. 



But all these transmissions must still be 
regarded as freaks by any honest observer. 

The Artist, Not the Broadcaster , 
Must Pay Radio Royalties 

A DOUBLE bomb shell landed in the 
camp of the American Society of 
Composers, Authors, and Publishers 
when Federal Judge Knox handed down his 
remarkable decision recently on the question 
of royalties and broadcasting. The owner 
of the copyright of a piece of music had asked 
the judge to stop the unauthorized broad- 
casting of the music. The judge's decision 
if it is allowed to stand as the law, will do 
much to prevent the coffers of the above- 
mentioned society from bursting with the 
radio harvest they had hoped for. 

The first part of the judge's decision states 
that the artist is the one giving out the pro- 
gram, not the broadcasting station. The 
station, in other words, cannot be held respon- 
sible for royalties, no matter what the copy- 
right situation may be. Royalties, if any, 
must be sought from the one sending out the 
program, namely, the performer. Secondly, 




Keystone 

A CORNER IN THE LONDON RADIO SHOW 

At Albert Hall. Some ot the more enthusiastic of the visitors are testing several of the latest 
models of British receivers at close range. The inlay work in the radio cabinets is quite elaborate 



47 8 



Radio Broadcast 







GENERAL JAMES G. HARBORD 

New York, President Radio Corporation 
of America 

"Let me invite your attention to the develop- 
ments in radio photography. Great strides in 
ibis direction have been made in the past year. 
It is not too much to say that we are in the eve of 
developments -whereby it will be in the realm of 
possibility to transmit a complete newspaper page 
from London to New York by means of radio 
and in a fraction of the time it would take to 
transmit the entire text of the page either by radio 
or cable telegraph signals. 

" Transoceanic broadcasting for purposes of 
entertainment is not yet in regular operation, 
but proposals for increasing the power of sending 
stations so that the programs, from London and 
Paris and Berlin may be easily heard in America 
are carefully being considered. 

"At present, transoceanic as well as marine 
radio messages are dispatched by means of 
telegraph code signals, but the transoceanic 
radio telephone, now under development through 
the American Telephone and Tele graph Company 
and the Radio Corporation, bids us to expect 
that before many years it will be possible and 
convenient for any one of us to pick up his tele- 
phone and in a short time be connected with his 
party in Europe, or with his stateroom, on some 
liner on the ocean." 



that the performer, if entitled by license or 
otherwise to use the copyrighted music at all, 
can use it for broadcasting without additional 
payment of royalties. In other words, if 
the performer has acquired the right to sing 
to an audience of ten people, he may, at 
no additional expense, sing it to 10,000 people 
over the radio channel. 

This decision, if allowed to stand as the law 
of the land, is the most important that has 
been handed down since broadcasting began, 



insofar as the general broadcast listener is 
concerned. It undoubtedly makes the roy- 
alty collecting agencies moan with anguish, 
but the millions of radio listeners will no doubt 
agree that it is a wise and proper decision. 

Some of the New York Times correspon- 
dents have been acrimonious about an editorial 
which appeared in that paper commending 
Judge Knox's solution of the question: 
"People who get their music over the radio 
do not buy it." "Broadcasting is a sort 
of bonus to promote the sale of radio sets." 
"This profit is partly due to the fact that the 
broadcaster steals the music"; After much of 
such baseless argument, this writer winds up 
with a statement which shows he is at least 
as human as the rest of us. "However, it 
(Judge Knox's decision) will probably not 
undermine respect for the law except in a 
comparatively small class of artists. Nearly 
everybody is in favor of a law which confis- 
cates the other fellow's property." 



Interesting Things Interestingly 
Said 



L. A. NIXON (New York; Secretary, Radio 
Trade Association, in a report on present 
broadcasting plans): "It seems to this committee 
that the true regulation of the power of a broad- 
casting station should be based on the listener; on 
the ability of the listener to discard the program 
offered by the high powered station and select 
another program in its place. 

"Restrictions should be placed on the interference 
caused by the transmitting station in the receiving 
set, rather than the power generated. By such a 
plan, it would be possible that a twenty-five KW 
station located in some places in the country might 
cause less interference than a fifty-watt station 
located in densely populated centers and poorly 
tuned." 

JAMES C. EGBERT (New York City; Director, 
I Columbia University Extension Service): "About 
a thousand persons took the Columbia radio 
extension courses last year, and a great many more 
merely listened-in. This use of radio for education 
is as yet in an uncertain stage, so that it is impossible 
to say yet just what the results will be. We have 
had definite courses of instruction and have issued 
syllabuses which served as guides for the lectures. 
We shall now issue syllabuses and give opportunity 
for the radio student to send answers to questions 
given by the instructor. These will be criticised 
and returned to the student. In this way, we shall 
test the efficacy of this new method .' of popular 
education." 



The March of Radio 



479 



/^ UGLIELMO MARCONI (London; In a state- 
vJ ment opening the New York Radio World's 
Fair) : ".Since last year, great strides have been made 
in the art of broadcasting, both in the United 
States and England. There have been some im- 
portant developments in simultaneous broadcasting 
from several stations, and I believe that on certain 
occasions in the United States, vast audiences of 
no fewer than 25,000,000 people have listened to a 
broadcast address. I anticipate that in the not far 
distant future, this great achievement will be 
surpassed and the broadcasting of messages through- 
out the world will become a matter of everyday 
occurrence. We on this side of the Atlantic are 
looking forward to the day when we can listen to 
American speakers on subjects of common interest." 

f^ IMBEL BROTHERS (New York City; in an 
V_J advertisement announcing the opening of 
their new broadcasting station WGBS): "Broadcast- 
ing, as we see it, is a limitless force in the hands of 
a limited number. With some comprehension, we 
believe, of the invaluable possibilities of radio, and 
with a deep sense of the responsibility assumed by 
the broadcasters, WGBS begins its broadcasting 
experiment with the desire to employ itself in the 
development of programs in keeping with, and 
wo^hy. of a force of such power. WGBS wishes to 
be a public servant in the full sense of the word." 

THE NEW YORK SUN (New York; in an 
editorial about broadcasting and politics): 
"With the tremendous volume of political talking 
that has been broadcast, there has necessarily been a 
great deal of listening. Of course, nobody can 
measure it. But this is certain: only the listener 
chronically and bitterly opposed to politics has 
escaped hearing more about the campaign than he 
would otherwise have heard. Probably a great 
number of the voters at the polls this year went be- 
cause of a quickened interest caused by radio. 

"This is as much as any believer in radio could 
ask. Radio is only a mechanical device. If it 
gives the politician an opportunity, that is all he 
can ask of it." 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE News 
Service; Washington: "The activity in ama- 
teur radio work and in broadcasting is still greater 
in the United States than in any other nation, the 
past year has brought about marked changes in the 
situation in many foreign countries. Naturally, 
the development has had its greatest growth in 
Europe. In the British Isles, France, Germany, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Holland, Belgium, Denmark, 
and Czechoslovakia, the broadcasting of programs 
of entertainment and news is on a regular basis. 
In Italy, Finland, Spain, and Austria, programs are 
sent out at irregular periods. There is a decided 
likelihood of regular schedules being adopted in the 
near future. In South America, Argentina stands 
out as having made the greatest progress in the 
dissemination of music and other entertainment by 
radio telephony. Chile also maintains a regular 
broadcasting service." 




Underwood & Underwood 
PROFESSOR MICHAEL 1. PUPIN 

Department of Electromechanics Columbia 
University 

" The weakest point in democracy has always 
been Jack of appreciation of expert knowledge. 
Railroads, telegraphy, telephony, radio broad- 
casting, electrical lighting, and electrical trans- 
mission of power are certainly public utilities, 
but the intelligent people of the United States will 
never consent that these things, requiring an 
enormous amount of intelligent expert knowledge 
be placed under government ownership. The 
machinery of our government, or any other gov- 
ernment known to man to-day is utterly in- 
capable of handling technical problems which 
require the highest type of training applied to 
the highest type of intelligence. 

"All of these public utilities are full of complex 
technical problems which cannot and never were 
intended to be handled by any government. 
In Europe, we see where there is government 
ownership, the utilities are being rim at very- 
heavy deficits." 



E. F. MC DONALD, JR. (Chicago; President, 
National Association of Broadcasters): "There 
is an effort afoot to change the name broadcasting 
to radiocasting. I wish to go on record as voicing 
a strenuous objection. Without explanation, ask 
one hundred people on the street what radiocast 
means, and the chances are if they answer at all, 
it will be a guess that the word has something to do 
with a radio receiving instrument. Ask the same 
group what broadcasting means, and they will 
tell you correctly. There is nothing to be gained by 
making the change. Why have this ne,w word 
when the vernacular already offers an adequate 
term?" 



For the Love of Mike 



BY A. COOPER ALLEN 

Draivings by George C. Williamson 



IT was the night before Christmas and all 
through the house there was a subdued 
air of expectancy. The light from the 
shaded reading lamp cast its mellow rays 
upon the big padded arm chair before the 
cheerful grate fire and crept partially up the 
four walls, leaving the ceiling in semi-darkness. 
The atmosphere of the room was warm and 
redolent of peace and piquant odor of cedar. 

Curled in a heap in the deep padding of the 
big chair was the boy, his eyes glued to the 
pages of a book. Occasionally he stirred, 
turned the pages, muttered below his breath 
and continued to read. The curly haired dog 
the boy's sole companion lay comfortably 
-breaming on his rug at one end of the daven- 
port, all unconscious of the joyous Christmas- 
tide. 9 

Over against the wall in the dining room 
was dimly outlined a long table which gave 
; back a glitter of silver, cut-glass, and the 
gaudy colors and tinsel of a small ornamented 
tree. Here and there about the two rooms 
were wreaths of Oregon grape, holly, and the 
red, red, berries of the madrone for this was 
a home in a little Oregon valley. 

The silence was absolute until there sud- 
denly came a half uttered whine from the dog. 
It ceased almost as quickly as it came. A few 
more moments of silence then again the half- 
Whining bark. The great chair creaked and 
the boy looked around at the quivering 
muscles of the dreaming dog. For a moment 
he regarded the animal intently as the peculiar 
barking increased and the dog's legs moved 
spasmodically as if in a labored run. 

"Aw, cut it out!" growled the boy. "If 
you want to ride that nighthorse, hike into the 
kitchen." 

The dog slowly opened his eyes, blinked a 
few times and promptly resumed his inter- 
^upted nap. With a yawn the boy slumped 
again into the chair and flipped a page of the 
book. 

Dead silence again. Only the tick-tock of 
the clock was heard. The boy's head drooped 
over the pages and then a faint tinkle, tinkle, 
as of bells came on the air. Santa Claus! 
The youthful eyes opened, the head raised 



and he listened. Plainly it came tinkle, 
tinkle, tinkle. 

The big chair creaked, the boy slid out and 
stood listening. Again came the tinkle. The 
boy moved to the back part of the house and 
a sleepy voice broke the silence. 

"Bobbie, is that you?" 

"Yas'm." 

"What are you doing?" 

"Lookin' for Santa Claus whadayu s'pose? 
1 heard his bells." 

" Bells?" came the female voice with a rising 
inflection. "What are you talking about?" 

"Well, I heard sleigh bells out back and 
came to investigate," retorted Bobbie. 

"Find out?" 

"Sure." 

"Sleigh bells?" 

"Yah-h-h," he drawled. "Bunk. It's 
rainin' droppin' from the roof on tin cans. 
Never have snow here. 1 wish " 

" 1 've told you to carry those cans away," 
interrupted the voice, "and you had better 

"Uh-huh," grunted the boy and the door 
slammed as he returned to the chair. 

Silence again, and then a stealthy noise at 
the front of the house. The dog pricked up 
his ears, jerked his tail a couple of times, and 
closed his eyes again the figure in the chair 
did not move. 

A SLIGHT scratching at the door then the 
knob slowly turned and the figure of a 
man with dripping hat and coat came through 
the opening. Furtively he looked about then 
entered bearing a long, oblong, bundle under 
his arm. Silently he crept across the room 
toward the Christmas tree on the table. 

He was undoubtedly Santa Claus but 
clothed in the conventional garb of the 
average business man. The only possible 
method of identification of the merry elf was 
his mysterious, stealthy, entrance. It was 
evident he feared discovery as he cautiously 
moved across the floor. He passed the high 
back of the big chair and glanced at the dying 
embers of the fire. Then he halted suddenly, 
arrested by a voice from the padded depths of 
the chair. 



For the Love of Mike 



481 



'"Low Sandy Glaus. Whatcha got?" 

"Bobbie! What are you doing up, at this 
time of night?" 

"Readin'." 

"Reading? What is so interesting to keep 
you up this late?" 

"Gulliver's Travels book review school 
all bunk," and Bobbie squirmed and 
yawned. 

"Well, you hop to bed right now. How 
do you expect Santa Glaus to come if you sit up 
all night? It's Christmas right now." 

"All right, Dad I'm goin'," and Bobbie 
uncurled his six feet of seventeen year old 
sinew and sauntered out. 

"Merry Christmas, Dad! Call me early!" 

Dad grinned and continued his journey 
across the room, planted the long package 
carefully upon the table and swept the 
polished silver tableware ruthlessly to one 
side. Then he removed his dripping hat and 
coat, hung them carefully in a pile on the 
Davenport and again opened the front door. 
Here he picked up sundry mysterious bundles, 
placed them on the table by the diminutive 
tree, muttering to himself "A battery, B's, 
horn." Seating himself at his desk he sought 
for and found a card and wrote rapidly upon 



it, placed it upen the large package and, 
snapping out the light, sought his room, 

AGAIN the cheerful fire upon the hearth, 
the peaceful quiet room, now flooded 
with light. I n the big chair was Dad, a brand- 
new pair of slippers upon his feet, a new 
smoking-jacket about his shoulders, and a pair 
of horn rimmed glasses upon his nose. In his 
hand a magazine, the page before his eyes 
lined with many names and strange hiero- 
glyphics SUch as PAQ, KXY, WBG, etc. 

On the table in the corner stood an oblong, 
mysterious looking, box with strange dials 
on its black face and beside it a queer black 
horn turned its mouth toward the room. 
Before this strange box sat Bobbie, the 
expression on his face denoting highly con- 
centrated thought while his fingers man- 
ipulated sundry wires leading in from the 
window. From back in the kitchen now and 
then came the rattle of dishes and snatches of 
song where Ma was busy putting away the 
remains of the Christmas dinner. 

Bobbie tightened a wire to a series of small, 
red-topped, boxes studded with brass taps, 
leaned back, and the concentrated attention 
changed to one of pleased expectancy. 




"HE WAS UNDOUBTEDLY SANTA CLAUS 
But clothed in the conventional garb of the average business man" 



482 



Radio Broadcast 



"Got her hooked up," he announced. 

Dad grunted and looked around in his chair, 
his eyes peering over the horn bows. Of 
course Dad had no great interest in the affair, 
for he was not very much impressed with 
radio. 

"Turn her on," he suggested after a wait. 

"Well, I have, haven't I?" grunted Bobbie. 

"Can't hear anything," apologetically. 

"Give her time, can't you?" 

Dad subsided, but, though the magazine was 
held before his eyes he saw nothing but his 
ears were twisted to the rear like a mule's. 

Silence dead silence. Bobbie turned the 
dials backward and forward. Silence. 

Bobbie lifted the cover. Inside, five 
tubes glowed with mellow light midst mystic 
combinations of wire and strange apparatus. 

"It says here " began Dad, but was 

suddenly stopped. 

" I don't care what it says Fm doing this." 

" W-e-1-1," drawled Dad, "you are evidently 
doing it wrong. I told you " 

"I got it," broke in Bobbie. "Got my A 




THAT CONTRIVANCE PROMISES TO DRIVE 
US ALL OUT" 



battery poles reversed. Now . . . ." 

A slight sound issued from the horn, 
Bobbie twisted the tails of the dials. The 
hissing turned to a frying sound. 

"You've got the kitchen," ventured Dad 
facetiously. " I can hear bacon frying." 

"For gosh sakes! Can't you keep still? 
I 'm gettin' 'em, if 

Dad left his chair and stood before the 
yawning mouth of the horn. Strange murmurs, 
crackles, and the sound of frying came forth. 
They listened in strained attention as the dials 
slowly turned. Suddenly there was a squawk 
and a whistle then only buzzing. 

"Nearly got 'em that time," Bobbie 
exulted. 

"You bet," Dad agreed heartily. "I heard 
him whistling for his dog." 

BOBBIE'S hands dropped from the dials and 
he sank back in his chair as his gaze rested 
upon his father's face in utter disgust. Dad 
subsided and sought sanctuary in his chair. 
Bobbie returned to the dials there were three 
big ones with some kind of scale marked on 
them, and there were a couple of other knobs. 
Bobbie was busy and his neck was stretched to 
the limit trying to get his ear nearer the horn. 
Faint sounds as of distant music and voices 
seemed to come from a hundred miles back in 
the black throat of the horn. Bobbie strained 
his ears and Dad held his breath in wrapt 
attention. Then a door at the back of the 
house slammed, dishes rattled and a woman's 
voice rolled through the room warbling 
snatches of a Christmas carol. A muttered 
explosion was half smothered in the throat 
of the boy as he impatiently thrust back his 
chair and made for the sound Dad only 
gasped. 

Bobbie returned and teft silence behind him 
Dad grinned. 

Again the slow, deliberate, turning of the 
dials without result. Then the voice from the 
chair: 

"Jones just turns one dial and gets 'em 
right away and 

" Y-a-h-h-h-h !" came scornfully from the 
young hopeful. "Single-tube regenerative 
cheap this is different. Ah-ha !" 

This time it was unmistakable. Far back 
back in the foothills of the machine could be 
heard a woman's voice high soprano. Dad 
slid out of his chair and stole silently up 
behind the absorbed operator. Back and 
forth Bobbie moved the dials and the illusive 
sound died away or returned, according to the 
manipulation of the dials. He placed his 



For the Love of Mike 



483 



hand upon a knob and began to turn. The 
volume increased and suddenly burst forth in 
all its glory and power: " Zitty-^it-^it-^it, 



Dad snorted. "It's a Zulu lullaby," he 
laughed. 

"For the love of Mikel" shouted Bobby in 
high dudgeon. "If you can't keep quiet, get 
out ! I was just about to get 'em - 

"Seems to me you got a whole beehive that 
time." 

"Gosh darn it that's just like you. You 
don't know the telegraph code when you hear 
it and and oh, heck!" What's the use!" 
Bobbie threw a switch, the sounds ceased and 
he pushed back his chair. 

Ma, in the kitchen, saw the door open 
slowly and Dad appear looking over his glasses 
in a quizzical way. 

"What's the matter?" she demanded, 
realizing there was something in the wind. 

"I beat it," explained Dad. "He got a 
Zulu band or a hive of bees or something 
buzzing around in the horn and - " 

" I suppose you had some smart remarks to 
make about it?" she broke in accusingly. 

"I only joked him a little," he acknowledged 
and his tones implied guilt. 

"Well, you leave the boy alone. I," with 
emphasis, "think he is doing just fine it isn't 
every boy his age, and never having had a 
radio before, could do as well. He - " 

"He hasn't got a thing yet. Cost nearly 
two hundred bucks I told him they are just 
in the experimental stage never heard any- 
one get anything but whistles and howls and 
noise." 

"But this is different," Ma stouth 
fended her idol, "this is a a- 
well, it's some kind of a dyne 
and it won 't make those noises." 

"It's already making them. 
If you don't believe it, go listen 
to it." 

"Then it's all your fault. You 
allowed yourself to be cheated." 
positively declared Ma. "You 
know I told you to be careful." 

" I got the one he picked 
out." 

"It was probably a bargain 
you always opposed the idea 
so you just picked any old thing 
and - ' 

But Dad had fled. As he 
wasn't ready to go to bed and 
he wouldn't go out he could 
only return to the "studio." 



He was completely bluffed so he sneaked in on 
tip toes, for Bobbie was once more at the 
machine. He made about four steps when 
Bobbie whirled. 

"For the love of Mike! Can't you keep 
still? Your shoes squeak so I can't hear a 
thing." 

"I got to move, don't I?" Dad defended 
himself and sneaked toward his chair. The 
slippers were new and Dad was not conscious 
there was a very mild, weak, little squeak in 
them. He halted with his back to the fire 
watching his son who had again turned to the 
dials, then, after several minutes, sat down in 
his chair, wriggled into a comfortable position 
and opened the evening paper. Instantly the 
storm broke. 



"OR the love of Mike! 
you- 



Just as I had 'em 



" Dad-burn it, do you expect me to sit here 
and twiddle my thumbs all evening?" Dad 
began to grow a bit irritable. He had 
opposed the installation of the "infernal 
thing" on the grounds of cost. He thought 
this business too "purely experimental." 
He had not expected to hear anything very 
much out of the set and, from self defense, had 
gone the limit and purchased what they had 
thought was the best and newest on the 
market, thereby hoping to get a slight return 
for his money. He was prepared to swallow 
his loss and expected failure, but he had not 
counted upon his peaceful home being rent 
and turned into a domestic battlefield. The 
flames of combat began to burn and, as Bobbie 
had much of his own disposition, the fur 
de- promised to fly. 




EVERY NOTE CAME THROUGH CLEARLY 



484 



Radio Broadcast 



"Well, you can listen, can't you? That's 
what it is for." 

A stinging retort was on the tip of his 
tongue when a movement in the shadows 
of the next room caught his eye and Ma 
beckoned to him. He arose and, with bristles 
standing straight up, stamped into the 
kitchen. 

"Now, Dad," she began when she had 
closed the door behind him, "remember, this 
is Christmas and there should be peace 

"Peace!" he shouted. "Ha, ha, ha! Ever 
since that blamed thing was turned on there 
has been nothing but growls and snarls. 
Why can't you all be good natured and 
tolerant like I am? This is Christmas but, 
all you two do is to try and brow-beat me 
and 

There was a sound at the door and Dad 
opened it. The dog sneaked into the room 
with tail between his legs and sought a 
secluded corner beneath the kitchen table, 
for he had indulged in an ardent flea scratch- 
ing bee just when Bobbie had again "nearly 
got 'em." 

"See! See!" Dad exulted. "Even the 



dog had to beat it. 
promises to drive us ail- 



That contrivance 



"Dad! Dad!" came excited cries from the 
front room and, forgetting all his troubles, 
Dad answered the call with Ma following 
close behind. Bobbie was sitting back, his 
face wreathed in a happy smile, as there came 
floating from the horn, and filling all the 
rooms, the clear, sweet, notes of an orchestra. 
There was no doubt of it, for every note came 
distinctly and without distortion. Dad and 
Ma halted on either side of the happy boy 
Ma supremely blissful and tears of pride in the 
eyes of Dad as he rested one hand upon Bob- 
bie's shoulder. 

"Who is it?" whispered Dad in awed tones. 

"Don't know yet listen!" 

The sweet strains died away. There 
followed a moment of silence, then a clear 
voice distinctly announced the call letters and 
the name of the city. 

"Pittsburgh!" exulted Bobbie. 

"Pittsburg, and this is Oregon!" echoed 
Ma in an awed whisper. 

"Pittsburgh!" proudly exclaimed Dad. 
"For the love of Mike!" 




E. F. W. ALEXANDERSON 

Chief consulting engineer of 
the Radio Corporation of 
America examining the auto- 
matic receiving apparatus at 
Radio Central, Riverhead, 
Long Island 




STANDARD THREE-CIRCUIT COILS AND THE 
ROBERTS RECEIVER 



THE principal difficulty encountered 
in the construction of the several 
Roberts receivers described in recent 
issues of RADIO BROADCAST is the 
obtaining or construction of the designated 
spider-web coils, and the mechanical arrange- 
ment of the variable tickler. Spider-webs 
have been recommended by the various au- 
thors, regardless of the possible inconvenience, 
probably because such inductances were 
specified in the original article by Mr. Rob- 
erts, and because, as experience has shown, it 
is not an over easy matter to design other 
inductances for this receiver. 

The spider-web is not a particularly ef- 
ficient type of inductance (which again dis- 
pels one of radio's pet illusions), several engi- 
neers having found it 
inferior to the conven- 
tional single layer coil 
(the solenoid) for a 
given value of induc- 
tance. 

After several 
months of experiment, 
this department has 
found the several 
problems of the Rob- 
erts inductances 
solved for the average 
builder by adapting 
the standard three- 
circuit tuner to the 
requirements of the 
more efficient Roberts 
circuit. These coils 
are widely purchased 
under a variety of 



In the R. B. Lab This Month 

SHORT ARTICLES ON 

Three-circuit tuner coils for the. Roberts set. 

A one-stage resistance-coupled power am- 
plifier. 

Loop sets on outdoor antennas Why this 
is inadvisable and how it should be done when 
necessary. 

A one-tube receiver that works on a loop 
accomplished by radio frequency and regen- 
eration. 

"Building your own lab" The slide rule 
and how it can kelp you in your work. 

and short lab notes that may 'mean a lot 
to you. 

We are endeavoring to make "In the R. B. 
Lab" the most valuable single department to 
you in RADIO BROADCAST. Tell us what you 
would like to see in it some particular ex- 
periment or test that has been pulling you. 



trade names such as " The Ambassador Coil," 
"The Trans-Continental Tuning Coil," "The 
Uncle Sam" etc., all of which are char- 
acterized by three windings, primary, (antenna 
coil), secondary (grid coil) and the rotating 
tickler (plate coil). There is little electrical 
difference between the various makes of these 
coils, and any one of them, with the addition 
of a few turns of wire, may be substituted for 
the usual spider-web, radio-frequency trans- 
former and tickler in the Roberts set (T2, 
Fig. 2). 

First count the number of primary turns 
of which there will generally be from fourteen 
to sixteen. Place a layer of tape over the 
primary winding, and connect one end of a 
sufficient length of No. 22 wire to the binding 
post which represents 
the primary terminal 
nearest the end of the 
tube. Wind over the 
tape exactly as if you 
were winding a sec- 
ond layer of the pri- 
mary over the first 
layer, winding to one 
turn less than the 
original primary. You 
will now have a trans- 
former primary, and a 
neutralizing coil with 
one terminal common. 
In wiring the receiver, 
the common post 
leads to the plus B 
battery, the two re- 
maining terminals 
running, indiscri- 



4 86 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. I 

The three-circuit tuner in an experimental Roberts 

set. The extra winding can be seen on the lower 

portion of the coil 

minately, to the neutralizing condenser and 
plate of the radio-frequency tube. (This is 
exactly as directed in the articles describing 
in detail the construction of the Roberts re- 
ceiver). Fig. i shows the arrangement con- 
nected in the R. B. LAB. 

Fig. 2 shows the circuit in which the modi- 
fied coupler was used as T2. Pi and ?2 refer 
to the primary and neutralizing windings, S 
to the secondary, and "tickler" to the ro- 
tating coil, the last two windings being con- 
nected as in the usual three-circuit arrange- 
ment. Ti is the antenna coupler, the sec- 
ondary of which consists of forty turns of wire 
on a three-and-a-half-inch form. The pri- 
mary is wound alongside of the secondary 
with fourteen turns of wire. This forms a 
semi-tuned primary, the ground side of which 
is connected to the filament lighting battery. 
The usual type of tapped primary can be 
used if desired. 

For further details and operating data, the 
reader is referred to any one of the numerous 
articles on the Roberts set appearing in the 
August, September, and October, 1924, num- 
bers of RADIO BROADCAST. 

A ONE-STAGE RESISTANCE-COUPLED 
POWER AMPLIFIER 

A. WAS demonstrated in this depart- 
ment last month, the tendency of a 
receiving system toward instability 
increases more or less directly with the num- 



ber of tubes. For this reason, the addition 
to a multi-tube receiver of still more tubes, 
such as a single stage of power amplification 
for use on distant stations and dance pur- 
poses, must be effected with unusual method 
and care. In many cases an extra stage of 
transformer-coupled power amplification to 
a many tube reflex or super-heterodyne re- 
ceiver proves to be the straw that breaks the 
camel's back, precipitating the system into 
almost incurable oscillations or squeals. 

The characteristics of resistance-coupled 
amplification, which made effective the at- 
tempts at stabilizing the three-tube reflex 
receiver as described in the R. B. LAB. for 
December, recommend this method of am- 
plification as a final stage of power intensifi- 
cation free from the complications attending 
a similar step of transformer coupling. (Re- 
sistance coupling and its particular qualifi- 
cations in final amplifying stages, has also 
been described in greater length in "How To 
Make A Knock-Out Amplifier" featured in the 
same issue of RADIO BROADCAST.) 

Figs. 3, 4, and 5 are descriptive of a single 
stage of resistance-coupled power amplifi- 
cation, for use as an external and auxiliary 
amplifier. Fig. 3 illustrates the amplifier 
built up on a base board for experimental 
and lab work, while Fig. 4 suggests a more 
finished cabinet model, designed to conform 
in appearance and for use with the Haynes 
super-heterodyne receivers described in sev- 
eral numbers of RADIO BROADCAST. The cir- 
cuit is shown in Fig. 5. 

The coupling resistor, Ri, is generally a 
one hundred thousand-ohm resistor, though 
this value often varies in either direction, 
following a stage of transformer-coupled in- 
tensification. A one hundred thousand-ohm 
resistor, when using one hundred and fifty 
volts or less on the plates, may be a Daven 
special coupling resistance, which will clip into 
the Daven resisto-coupler shown in the photo- 
graph. However, if higher voltages are used 
on a one hundred thousand ohms or lower re- 
sistance, a Crescent Lavite is recommended. 
On resistances above one hundred thousand, 
the Daven unit may be employed almost re- 
gardless of plate potential. 

The coupling condenser, Ci is a .006 mfd., 
Micadon. 

A power tube, such as the w. E. 2i6-A 
is recommended, with a gridleak of 100,000 
ohms. 

The input of the single stage resistance- 
coupled amplifier is coupled to the output of 
the preceding amplifier in the usual manner 



In the R. B. Lab. 



487 



i.e., substituting the input connections for 
the loud speaker. The lead from the upper 
end of the resistor, however, must run to the 
plate of the preceding bulb. 

USING LOOP SETS ON ANTENNAS 

PROBABLY the best way of disposing 
of this question would be to state 
emphatically that it should never be 
done. There are two excellent reasons why 
engineers and reputable magazines frown upon 
this procedure. In the first place the ar- 
rangement is deliberately inefficient. Ap- 
paratus designed for loop reception is ultra- 
sensitive it is made receptive to the com- 
paratively weak impulses supplied to it from 
the coil antenna by the rather prodigal use 
of extra radio frequency stages that are not 
merely unnecessary but actually undesirable 
on antenna reception. Less theoretically, it 
is possible to design a three-tube antenna re- 
ceiver (the Roberts for instance, plus one 
stage of transformer-coupled audio amplifi- 
cation) that will do everything that a seven- 
tube super-heterodyne will accomplish work- 
ing on a loop. 

The second consideration dispels the rather 
prevalent misconception that if a receiver 
works well on a loop, it must necessarily func- 
tion many times better on an open antenna. 
Such is far from being the case, particularly 
with a receiver primarily designed for loop 



reception. Connecting such a set to the 
antenna merely raises the noise level. There 
is. a more or less definite limit to the strength 
of the signal which a radio-frequency am- 
plifier can feed to the detector tube a limit 
that is occasionally reached ia the case of 
loop reception. Hence it is obvious that on 
such stations, the use of the antenna will 
merely bring up the extraneous noises 
atmospherics, arc light interference, etc. to 
this same limit of audibility i.e. until these 
undesired sounds are quite as loud as the 
desired signal ! Weaker signals will of course 
be amplified more than on the loop, but owing 
to the raising of the noise limit they will be 
anything but enjoyable if heard at all. (In- 
cidentally, a good loop receiver will bring 
in most signals above the noise level, at the 
point of reception that is, signals that are 
louder than the undesired but inevitable sta- 
tic and similar disturbances. Thus the effect 
of operating such a receiver on an antenna 
would be to lower the signal to the noise level.) 
An additional and very weighty argument 
against antenna operation is found in the 
case of the super-heterodyne, where a con- 
tinuously oscillating bulb is coupled into the 
antenna circuit. Such an arrangement is a 
radiator one that will produce a continued 
squeal on stations slightly above or below the 
transmitter to which the "super" is tuned. 
Investigation has shown this receiving system 
(the "super" closely coupled to the antenna) 




"C - 6V. 



FIG. 2 

The standard three-circuit tuner as adapted to the Roberts circuit, in tke 
R. B. LAB. If the reader prefers, T, may be the usual tapped coupler 



Radio Broadcast 



the source of many squeals usually attributed 
to a heterodyning distant transmitter. 

Unfortunately, advising against this pro- 
cedure will not solve the problem. Indeed, in 
some cases, such as in transoceanic reception 
and similar tests, the proper use of a loop re- 
ceiver on an open antenna may be justified. 
However, a good bit of the justification lies 
in the word "proper." Coupling should never 
be made by tapping on to the loop, by the use 
of a tuning coil or by a standard variocoupler. 
In all of these cases, the coupling will be con- 
siderably too tight. Tight coupling results 
in two more or less obvious undesirable con- 
ditions the raising of the noise level, and 
radiation in the case of the "super." 

A simple and acceptable manner of experi- 
mental coupling, which will determine if yours 
is one of the few loop receivers that benefit 
from antenna operation, consists of two turns 
of No. 1 8 or any other self-supporting wire, 
with a diameter of about one foot, suspended 
a few inches from the loop connected in the 
usual way. One side of the additional coil 
is grounded and connected to the minus ter- 
minal of the filament lighting battery, the 
remaining terminal running to the open an- 
tenna. 

A less experimental type of coupler may be 
built up in accordance to Figs. 6 and 7. 
The two coils are wound on a three-and-a- 
quarter to three-and-a-half-inch tube, with 
an inch and a half separation between pri- 
mary and secondary. The ten-turn or pri- 





FIG. 3 

The one-stage resistance-coupled power amplifier 
built up on a base board for lab and experimental 
use. One hundred and forty volts were used on the 
plate of the w. E. 2i6-A tube shown in the photo- 
graph 



FIG. 4 

A more pretentious layout of the power amplifier. 

It is merely plugged into the output jack of the 

preceding amplifier or receiving set 

mary winding is connected to antenna, ground, 
and A battery in the manner suggested for 
the two-turn coil, while the forty-turn induc- 
tance or secondary is substituted for the loop. 
No. 1 8 annunciator or magnet wire can be 
used in place of the designated wire. The 
completed coils are mounted in back of a 
seven by five inch panel. The coupler pho- 
tographed has been mechanically designed 
for use alongside of a RADIO BROADCAST 
super-heterodyne described by A. J. Haynes 
in this magazine in January and March, 1924. 
Electrically, it will give equally good results 
on the Grimes and similar reflex circuits. 

The use of the antenna will seldom increase 
signal strength on local and semi-local sta- 
tions, and while better reception of distance 
may be effected, this can. only be accom- 
plished by also bringing up the noise level. 

THE ONE-TUBE KNOCKOUT ON A 
LOOP 

IT IS theoretically possible to operate any 
circuit from a coil antenna, merely by 
substituting the loop for the customary 
input coil to the detector or radio-frequency 
tube. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of a 
receiving system designed for antenna opera- 
tion is generally seriously impaired when such 
a receiver is switched to loop operation. 
However, in the RADIO BROADCAST Knock-out 
single-tube receiver, a slight revision of the cir- 
cuit develops into a receiver that makes loop 
reception on the head phones quite practical 
the usual losses, being somewhat compen- 



In the R. B. Lab 



489 



sated for by the circuit changes. The possibil- 
ities of such a receiver were first suggested to 
this laboratory by a reader, R. S. Ryan, and 
the resulting circuit is shown in Fig. 8. 

Other than the substitution of the coil an- 
tenna for the secondary of the usual radio- 
frequency transformer, Ti, the changes of the 
circuit consist of a liberal distribution of bypass 
condensers and the two hundred-ohm potentio- 
meter, which contribute controlled regen- 
eration that is doubtless responsible for the 
effectiveness of the single-tube loop receiver. 




FIG. 5 

The circuit, connected to the last tube in the super-heterodyne de- 
signed by A. J. Haynes. If the extra battery 82 is not used (when 
Bi is above too volts) B may be connected to C 



a ground connection, running to the minus 
side of the filament lighting battery. 

A fixed crystal may be used with this re- 
ceiver, though an adjustable detector, which 
can be operated on a comparatively high re- 
sistance spot, will permit greater regeneration. 
Try reversing connections to the crystal. 
A loop of standard dimensions will operate 
successfully with the receiver, though as 
usual signal response will vary directly with 
the size of the loop. 

Though this laboratory has not been able 
to duplicate Mr. Ryan's recep- 
tion record of 1000 miles, the 
results indicate that such a 
range, while perhaps not con- 
sistent, is quite possible. Local 
tations (within 25 miles) come 
in with enjoyable ear-phone 
volume, and when amplified 
with the Knock-out amplifier, 
described in the December 
number of RADIO BROADCAST, 
gives a signal of splendid vol- 
ume and quality. 



BUILDING YOUR OWN 
LAB 



Ta corresponds to the original specifica- 
cations for this transformer, 63 turns being 
wound on a two and a half inch winding 
form, functioning as the secondary, followed 
by a layer or two of paper and the primary 
of thirty-six turns. Any convenient magnet 
wire, between No. 22 and No. 26 may be used. 
In the R. B. LAB. (Fig. 9) the Ballantine 
Varioformer has been found particularly ef- 
fective in this one-tube loop 
receiver, the regeneration that 
is more or less objectionable 
when operated on an open 
antenna, adding considerably 
to the audibility and range of 
the loop set. When using the 
Varioformer, the condenser 
across the secondary T2 is, of 
course, eliminated. 

The audio-frequency trans- 
former T3 may be any reliable 
make this laboratory recom- 
mending a medium high ratio 
such as five to one in which 
case the bypass condenser 
across the secondary is best 
dispensed with. 

Under some conditions, it 
will be found advisable to use 



O 



UR suggestion this month is addressed 
in particular to the more serious fan 
the experimenter the embryo en- 
gineer, whose interest and inclinations prompt 
him to original and studied design. Our 
recommendation is a slide rule preferably a 
Keuffel and Esser, ten inch polyphase rule. 
Such a rule, with leather case, retails at eight 
dollars, and is shown in Fig. 10. 



O 

TO SET* 

O 




FIG. 6 

Suggested layout for the antenna coupler 



4QO 




Radio Broadcast 

LABORATORY HINTS 

A si INVALUABLE assistant to the lab 
worker is a good manual of electrical 
engineering. Such a manual should cost 
five dollars or more. The experimenter will 
find arranged in it in a logical system, all the 
formulas, data and miscellaneous information 
that he has run across in his more or less 
haphazard reading and to which it is so often 
difficult to return. 

THE modern vacuum tube (the De Forest 
ov-2, the Cunningham c-3oi-A and the 
Radio Corporation uv-2Oi-A) is not at all 
critical in respect to detector plate potential, 
and in many cases requires higher voltage for 
most efficient operation than the older soft 
tubes. This is particularly noticeable in the 
super-heterodyne, when it may be found ad- 
visable to increase the detector plate voltage 
to ninety. 



FIG. 7 
The finished coupler 

This wonderfully ingenious arrangement 
is equally a most capable assistant at desk 
and lab bench. The rule consists of a set of 
scales which, through their logarithmic inter- 
relations make possible multiplication, di- 
vision, squaring, cubing, the extraction of 
square and cube roots, the solution of ratios 
and proportions, the determining of logari- 
thms, and the juggling of trigonometric func- 
tions practically without mental effort and in 
a small fraction of the time required to ac- 
complish the same calculations in the usual 
way. The radio experimenter will find the 
slide rule particularly applicable to the solution 
of problems involving Ohm's law, and to the 
design of transformers where, given one wind- 
ing additional voltages and windings are 
solved almost instantaneously, the changing 
of wavelengths to kilocycles, and in the 
thousand and one calculations to which lab 
work invariably gives rise. Tube curves and 
similar characteristics may be plotted with 
the slide rule in a tenth of the time required 
for arithmetic derivations. 

Though the slide rule is generally associated 
with the more serious experimental endeavors, 
the fan with only the slightest inclination to- 
ward the design and engineering side of 
electricity and wireless will profit by possession 
and a working knowledge of the rule. The 
fascination of its ingenious possibilities is a 
powerful stimulant leading to a more compre- 
hending appreciation of this science-art of ours. 



MOST loud speakers must be connected in 
the right direction in respect to polarity. 
If the direction of current is reversed the per- 
manent magnets are weakened, and the ef- 
ficiency of the speaker ultimately impaired. 
It is often difficult to locate, the plus battery 
lead to a jack or plug. However, in the case 
of adjustable diaphragm speakers, it is easy 
to determine when the instrument is connected 
correctly, by noticing at what adjustment the 
"rattle-spot" occurs. When the adjuster is 
turned all the way to one side, the diaphragm 
of the speaker is generally in contact with 




The one-tube loop hook-up the first cousin to our 

old friend the single-tube knock-out. If the Ballan- 

tine Varioformer is substituted for Ta, the condenser 

across the secondary is eliminated 



In the R. B. Lab 



491 



the magnets, or so near to 
it that it rattles badly on 
a signal. As the adjuster 
is turned away from this 
dead or inoperative side, 
the diaphragm is raised 
until it generally "plops" 
free. When the speaker is 
connected correctly, it will 
be necessary to turn the 
adjuster farther than on 
the incorrect polarity, to 
free the diaphragm and 
achieve distortionless re- 
production. 

NEVER overload your 
loud speaker. The sus- 
picion of a rattle should 
be avoided. Even mo- 
mentary overloads lower 
the power capacity of the 
talker (in respect to satis- 
factory reproduction) and 
a loud speaker that has 

been occasionally strained Testing t he one -tube loop receiver in the R. B. Lab. Regen- 

will distort and blast on eration is quite pronounced with the Ballantine Varioformer 

much lower powers than 

before the initial stress. This fact was ably periments carried on in the R. B. Lab in 
demonstrated in a series of amplification ex- which volume was a primary consideration. 




FIG> 




FIG. IO 

The ten inch poly-phase slide rule or "slip 
stick," our laboratory suggestion for January 



IN THE R. B. LAB SOON 

The R. B. LAB is preparing data on tow loss 
coils in the Roberts receiver, in both the broadcast 
set and the record-making short-waee receiver. This 
material will appear in an early number. 



Pioneering With De Forest in 

Florida 

High Adventure with Temperamental Wireless When Forty Feet of Sand 
Brought Failure Close Despair, Expense, Trouble, and Final Success 
How the Pensacola and Key West Navy Wireless Stations Were Built 



BY FRANK E. BUTLER 

Former Chief Assistant to Dr. Lee De Forest 



THE erection of five high-powered 
wireless stations in the South guaran- 
teed to give perfect communication 
over a distance of one thousand miles 
was the flattering contract offered Dr. Lee 
De Forest by the United States Government 
after he had made his sensational success at 
the St. Louis World's Fair. Naturally, he 
was elated at such unqualified endorsement of 
this success coming 
from so high a source. 
And I, having worked 
with him during every 
hour of that long and 
desperate struggle, 
and having shared 
with him the final 
triumph, was equally 
elated. 

The stations were to 
be built at Pensacola 
and Key West, Flor- 
ida; at Guantanamo, 
Cuba ; San Juan, Porto 
Rico; and Colon, Pa- 
nama. 

They were to be the 
first wireless stations 
ever erected in the 
tropics. They were to 
work over a distance 
two thirds greater 
than wireless commu- 
nication had before 

carried. But what of it? Had we not smashed 
the world's record at St. Louis? As a prelimi- 
nary to this stupendous achievement had we 
not conquered all installation troubles? This 
Southern job was going to be an easy matter 
now that we had the St. Louis experience 
back of us! There was nothing to worry 
about, even though this time we were work- 
ing for the Government. 




TOWER 

The 

Each timber in the base is eight by eight 



This was the way we felt the day we 
started for the South. But, alas! 

That Southern trip, begun in 1905, lasted 
close to two years. In the exercise of patience 
and the development of skill it made those 
gruelling days at St. Louis seem as no more 
than a preliminary bout before the battle royal. 
It was a battle from the very start. All 
nature seemed in revolt at our intrusion. 
She fought us with 
static overhead. It 
was fierce, relentless 
static such as was 
never heard before 
with the crude tuning 
devices at hand. She 
baffled us by "ground 
conditions" under- 
neath that taxed to 
the utmost our 
perseverance and in- 
genuity in the effort 
to conquer them. 
She pestered us day 
and night with in- 
sects so vicious we 
grew to think of the 
mosquito as a friend. 
But we stuck. And 
we stuck until we 
conquered. 



BASE AT THE PENSACOLA STATION 

masts were two hundred feet high. 



SCENE OF OUR FLOR- 
IDA STRUGGLES 

MY FIRST stop was at the Warringtaa 
Navy Yard, Pensacola, where I was to 
have charge of the erection of a two-masted 
station with a fan antenna. This station was 
to be of 10 KW capacity, and although very 
similar to the St. Louis Fair installation, ex- 
celled it in refinements of apparatus and wir- 
ing. I had a special letter from Mr. Breckea- 
ridge Leng, then Secretary of the Navy (under 



Pioneering With De Forest in Florida 



493 



President Roosevelt), requesting all navy 
officers to assist us as much as possible in our 
work, but it was not necessary for me to use 
it because the navy officers at this yard were 
always exceedingly courteous and helpful to 
us in every way. 

For a time I lived at the hotel in Pensacola. 
But only for a time. As our troubles multi- 
plied I found it necessary to be right on the 
spot day and night. So 1 moved down to the 
wireless station where I slept on a bunk and 
ate my meals with the "Jack Tars" in their 
mess hall. It was here among these happy 
fellows that I learned many things which have 
proved most helpful to me ever since. They 
patiently taught me the knack of tying knots 
and of rope splicing, accomplishments I after- 
ward found most useful in making proper an- 
tenna construction. I was allowed access at 
all times to their machine shop and electrical 
department, and I had the advantage of their 
experience with heavy construction work, 
wind stresses, mathematical formulas, etc. 
Arid so, for weeks, all concerned in the erection 
of the station worked happily, undaunted by 
nature's enmity, worked with the persistent 
energy that comes from a surety of ultimate 
success. 

When the installation was finally completed 
it had all the aspects of a beautiful job. 

As the day arrived for the initial test, the 
stage was all set to begin the test signals at 8 





P.M. Dr. De Forest was 
located at Key West, about 
400 miles distant. He was 
notified to listen-in at the 
appointed time when we 
were to send out the ac- 
customed " D" test signals. 
All of the reading instru- 
ments on the operating ta- 
ble registered perfectly, the 



"WE SHOULD WORRY" 

They seem to be saying, even though they are away 
down in Pensacola. Mr. Butler, third from the 
left, of this group of "Jolly Tars" is helping the boys 
form the lucky combination of "four eleven, forty 
four" 



spark across the spark gap was fast and power- 
ful, and there was every indication of a perfect 
inauguration of service without delay. 

IT WOULDN'T WORK 

THE battleship Brooklyn was anchored in 
the harbor about two miles distant. The 
wireless operator aboard had been a daily 
visitor at the station and was interested in the 
test, so he planned to listen-in that evening. 
It seemed ridiculous to us that he should listen 
in on a 10 KW station located only two miles 
away, but he did. 

As I started the test I was positive of its 
success. I sent "D's" for hours, waiting 



MUNICIPAL PROGRESS AT KEY WEST IN 1 905 

The lower cut shows the transportation system of 
the city. One car, one mule, one street. To board 
car, proceed to center of street. The mule then 
stops, turns head around, and will not start until 
passenger is aboard. The conductor at rear of car 

gives the mule 
"motorman" the 
bell twice and on 
you go until the 
"motorman" stops 
of his own accord 
at the other side 
of the next street. 
At the left, the 
diamond stack 
wood-burning loco- 
motive that was 
still in use on the 
Florida railroads 
when Mr. Butler 
went from Pensa- 
cola to meet De 
Forest at Key West 
in 1905 




494 



Radio Broadcast 



anxiously for a tele- 
gram from De Forest 
at Key West. Nothing 
came. 

However, at eleven 
o'clock, the Brooklyn 
operator came ashore 
in a launch and re- 
ported at the station. 
He inquired as to why 
we had not been send- 
ing, and added that 
he "had not heard a 
peep" from us. 

The following morn- 
ing a message was 
received from Dr. De 
Forest stating that he 
had not heard our 
signals. 

Every item of the 
installation was care- 
fully checked over and 
not a flaw found. A slight change in adjust- 
ment was made and the test resumed that 
evening with the same result. This testing 
continued week after week with relentless pa- 
tience and continual changes. Even the large 
spread fan antenna was taken down, closely 
inspected and replaced. 



What Dr. De Forest Said of 
the Author 

"Mr. Butler, is in fact the only 
surviving member of the "old 
guard" who is still interested in 
wireless and who is in a position to 
lay before the public, in a graphic 
and interesting manner, a gripping 
story of those old days and the sub- 
sequent development of radio under 
the De Forest banner. He has just 
read me the first three installments 
of a most graphic story of his early 
days in wireless, recalling a thou- 
sand interesting facts which I had 
forgotten, and in which every radio 
fan must be intensely interested." 



The "ground" was 
an item of suspicion. 
This "ground" had 
been considered a 
good one for the rea- 
son that it was made 
of heavy sheet cop- 
per one hundred feet 
square and buried five 
feet underground two 
feet under water, and 
connected to the spark 
gap by a four-inch 
copper bus bar. 

To make sure the 
ground was all right, 
we dug up the plate 
and prepared to sink 
it deeper into the sea 
water. To do this 
it was necessary to 
construct a coffer- 
dam, and while a 
force of men shoveled out the sand another 
crew on each corner operated force pumps to 
keep out the water so the digging gang could 
work. It was slow, stubborn work. When a 
depth of eleven feet had been reached, we 
were compelled to stop further excavation on 
account of the increased rush of the incoming 




KW 



The De Forest station at Key West, erected in 1905 for the United States Navy. This spark set had a 

capacity of twenty kilowatts. The radio scenery at Key West now looks vastly different, what with the 

tall steel masts of the present modern Navy station now there 



Pioneering With De Forest in Florida 



495 



water. Then we dropped a new one hundred 
square feet of copper and buried it, feeling 
certain it would solve our ground difficulties. 
That evening we sent " D's" energetically and 
with renewed confidence in our success. 

It was a staggering blow to receive the fol- 
lowing morning the old accustomed telegram 
from Dr. De Forest, "Heard nothing." This 
was followed by some suggestions of another 
change and an admonition to keep up courage. 

That day, when the clouds of despair were 
at their darkest, an incident occurred which, 
trivial in itself, was the turning point in our 
apparently hopeless battle with an unknown 
trouble. 

It was a drink of water that brought about 
the idea that solved the Pensacola problem. 

A DRINK OF WATER SOLVED THE PROBLEM 

WITHIN a few rods of the wireless station 
was a well from which we obtained our 
clear, cool drinking water. As I strolled over 
to the pump to get a drink on this day I met a 
Navy officer who reached the spot at the same 
time I did. After the usual greeting, I said: 

"This is fine drinking water. Wonder if it's 
a drilled well." 

To which he replied: 

"It is. I know because I drilled it." 

"How deep?" I asked, 
and little realized the tre- 
mendous importance of the 
question. 

"Fifty feet," came the 
answer. " But," went on the 
officer, "if I had stopped at 
forty feet or gone down to 
sixty feet, I would have had 
nothing but salt water." 

"How's that?" 

"Well, you see it's this 
way. This white sand 
around these parts is about 
forty feet deep, and below 
that is a stratum of clay 
and stone twenty feet thick, 
and beyond that is an in- 
definite reach of sand." 

"Ah, I see," was my 
rather inane comment. But 
I was too stunned by the 
idea that had flashed into 
my mind to carry on the 
conversation further. 

The idea was that per- 
haps that white silica sand, 
the body of which was 
greater than the thin film 



of seawater that seeped around it, offered too 
much resistance or formed a dielectric which 
prevented a good ground. 

I spent the rest of the day absorbed with this 
idea. It still had full possession of me when, 
in the evening, I went to the Western Union 
office to send a telegram. Before I left I 
asked the operator what kind of a ground he 
had. He replied that the ground they used 
consisted of an iron pipe driven down forty 
feet, and that using any less than that pro- 
duced no electrical results whatever. 

That settled it. I was sure the solution of 
our baffling problem was at hand. 

The following day I bought about six 
hundred feet of four-inch pipe and engaged 
men to drive twelve iron pipes each forty-five 
feet long into the loose, moist sand. These 
were grouped in a small circle about two feet 
apart. The twelve tops were joined together 
with heavy copper cable and a large bus bar 
run into the spark-gap. 

The evening after this was finished we 
started sending " D's" promptly at 8 o'clock, 
and scarcely before I could realize it, the joyful 
news was received from Dr. De Forest that he 
had heard the first signals we sent out. To 
have success so suddenly thrust upon us after 
weeks of discouraging failures, was indeed a 




PALMS AND WIRELESS AT KEY WEST 

The palms hid the masts, but the station and its buildings took up an 

entire block. The insert at the right shows Dr. De Forest as he 

looked when he was doing the installation at Key West 



496 



Radio Broadcast 



keen pleasure and relief. You radio fans who 
enjoy making your own sets and revel in the 
thrill of "hearing results" for the first time, 
can perhaps appreciate to a degree the sensa- 
tion that was ours that evening. 

From this time on "PN" worked perfectly, 
and it was not long 
before we were heard 
by distant Northern 
stations. 



KEY 



WEST GETS 
STATION 



/COURAGE soared. 
V> It was time for 
another "forward 
march!" 

Leaving the Pensa- 
cola station in charge 
of the Navy wireless 
operators, I departed 
for Key West, over- 
land, by way of 
Tampa, and thence 
by steamer. Even if I 
.had not taken a snap- 
shot . of it, I should 
still be able to visu- 
alize the primitive 
engine that went 
ambling leisurely from 
Pensacola to Tampa, 
an engine of the 
"diamond stack" 
wood burning type. 
About every twenty- 
five miles cords of 
three foot stove wood 
(Were loaded on the 
tender, to be con- 
sumed during the 

I next twenty-five miles with much belching of 
I smoke that, compared to coal smoke, was a 
'grateful odor. 

Arriving at the Tampa docks just before 
noon, I had lunch, after which I found my 
finances reduced to exactly five cents. My 
boat ticket included meals, but the boat was 
not to leave until evening. There was nothing 
but a railroad yard at the Tampa docks, and 
the city itself was ten miles distant. So, with 
insufficient carfare to "go to town" there was 
nothing to do during the long afternoon but to 
watch the fish from the dock. It did not occur 
to me to mourn over being broke, for, during 
those early days of wireless, being broke was 
the usual condition with all of us, and being 
flush meant knowing where next month's rent 




ALL IN THE DAY S WORK 
Here are the laborers pumping out water from the 



"ground excavation" at Pensacola to enable the 
diggers to get at their job of making a place for the 
large copper ground plate and below, the gang of dig- 
gers shovelling sand for the "ground" excavation at 
Pensacola. Some of them had to work waist deep 
in the cofferdam. The peculiar character of the 
ground connection here led to some unusual and 
very discouraging difficulties 



was coming from. And it was worth it, the 
fight, the privation, the anxiety. And even 
if any of us had had it in us to weaken, it 
would have been impossible with De Forest 
always at the helm, an inspiring leader. 

I found him at Key West in his wireless 
station set in the 
midst of a picturesque 
tropical grove. Co- 
coanut, banana, and 
palm trees completely 
surrounded the sta- 
tion and the living 
quarters of the wire- 
less crew. So far as 
climate and scenery 
were concerned, this 
island was an ideal 
place in which to live. 
But the restaurants 
were exceedingly 
poor. The only appe- 
tizing food was rice 
and hard rolls. Al- 
though fish was abun- 
dant, no one seemed 
to know how to cook 
it. When our work 
was going fairly well 
(comparatively speak- 
ing) we felt rather 
disturbed about this 
inadequate food sup- 
ply. But when trying 
to solve seemingly un- 
soluble problems, we 
scarcely knew whether 
we ate or not. 
Spread majestic- 



ally over the trees 
of the grove that sur- 
rounded the station was the huge triangular 
cage antenna consisting of 45,000 feet of wire, 
suspended from three equi-distant masts, two 
hundred feet high. The radio fan who has 
used seven .stranded phosphor bronze wire for 
antenna purposes knows how stubborn and 
kinky it is and how difficult to handle. Think, 
then, of the difficulty of this antenna installa- 
tion owing to the density of the tree foliage 
and the prevalence of high winds. 

Many improvements in the wireless appara- 
tus were noted at this station, and the quality 
of the spark at "KW" (as it was then called) 
was better than hitherto heard. Most notable 
of these changes were new ideas in receiving 
tuning devices. We made a definite endeavor 
to overcome the incessant static. 



Pioneering With De Forest in Florida 



497 




STATION PN 
The De Forest Station at the Warrington Navy Yard, Pensacola, Florida 



In my diary, under date of April 16, 1905, 
I find a notation of an experiment we carried 
on at this Key West station with an incan- 
descent lamp for the purpose of eliminating 
static. In these tests we used bulbs of various 
voltages and watts in conjunction with coils 
and condensers. The results were unique but 
not definite. 

This was two years before the famous "aud- 
ion" bulb was invented by Dr. De Forest. 
Little did we know how closely we were 
stumbling at the door of the "wonder lamp" 
that was destined to revolutionize wireless 
and make radio broadcasting possible. Had 
we gone a degree or two farther we might have 
a different story to tell here. 

Evidently the doctor had become tired of 
"pump handling" " D" signals as was done 



at St. Louis, day after day, because here he 
had devised a mechanical contrivance operated 
by clockwork, which sent out the "dash-dot- 
dot" " D" signals incessantly, without manual 
effort. 

My stay at Key West was short, as it was 
now time to begin operation at Guantanamo 
Cuba, where the third station of the group was 
to be erected. Again, I started forth with high 
hopes, believing that the worst of my experi- 
ences with wireless were behind me. As it 
turned out I was going straight into a work 
that called for wholly unforeseen and difficult 
engineering feats and the most crucial physi- 
cal endurance test of the entire contract. 

How success was finally accomplished after 
eleven months of hardships and disappoint- 
ments is a storv in itself which will follow. 



( The next article in this series will deal with 
the experience of these radio pioneers in Cuba) 




FIG. 



The rear view of the seven-tube "super". The photograph shows what an excellent layout can be 
secured using a standard 7 by 24-inch pane!. The small balancing condenser is shown between the 

two variable condensers 

Revamping the Silver 
Super-Heterodyne 

Complete Instructions and Discussion on Changes Necessary to Adapt a Dry- 
Cell Straight "Super" for Storage Battery Tubes A Complete How-to-Build-it 
Article Describing a Super-Heterodyne Which Produces Remarkable Results 

BY McMURDO SILVER 



IN THE October, 1924, RADIO BROADCAST an article appeared by Mr. Silver, 
describing a super-heterodyne that operated on 199'$, had remarkable selectivity, 
and could be assembled from standard and easily procurable parts. In this 
article, Mr. Silver has answered a demand for a super-heterodyne of the same 
qualifications to operate with storage battery tubes. Experienced constructors, 
and those not so experienced will readily appreciate that this "super" is well 
worth the time necessarv to build it. THE EDITOR. 



SINCE the publication in the October 
RADIO BROADCAST of the description of 
the portable super-heterodyne receiver 
using dry-cell tubes and self-contained 
batteries, the writer has been swamped with 
letters from fans asking all manner of ques- 
tions, and reporting results far in excess of 
what they had expected from the set. 

Reports have come in from all sides, telling 
of phenomenal DX reception with this set 
and its exceptional selectivity and quality 
of reproduction, both from seasoned experi- 
menters and from builders who had no 
previous constructional experience. One log 



made by a man totally unfamiliar with radio 
who had built the set, listed thirty-three 
stations heard in one night, with loud speaker 
volume on an 1 8-inch loop. This was the 
second evening he had operated the set in 
his home, in a thickly populated Chicago 
residential district, surrounded by steel frame 
buildings. Another report came from a man 
who had built seven different super-heterodynes 
in an endeavor to get selectivity and DX 
reception in his home, located, within a 
radius of five miles of a number of powerful 
broadcasting stations. Suffice to say, that 
he finally found whr.t he had been hunting 



Revamping the Silver Super-Heterodyne 



499 



for as he was able to report during the first 
week of operation three Pacific Coast stations 
received with loud-speaker volume. 

Several of the sets, located within five 
blocks of WQJ and WEBH in Chicago, have 
tuned-out these two stations and brought 
in WGY in Schenectady and wos in Jefferson 
City, with loud-speaker volume on a small 
loop. The separation between WGY and WEBH 
is ten meters, and between WQJ and wos, 
seven meters. It is also possible to work 
through WLS on 345 meters towsz in Springfield 
on 337 meters. Some builders have reported 
five Pacific Coast stations in one night, through 
the locals. An experimenter in Delhi, New 
York, reported loud-speaker reception from 
KGO in Oakland, California, several times 
in one week, as well as stations all over the 
country. 

Last but not least, Captain Irwin of the 
RADIO BROADCAST COVERED WAGON reported 
from Las Vegas, New Mexico, hearing both 
east and west coast stations with loud-speaker 
volume, operating the set right in the COVERED 
WAGON. He advised that dead spots did 
not seem to exist when the set was in operation, 
and that it was the most selective outfit he 
had ever operated. This will be realized 
when it is understood that a one half degree 
movement of both dials will tune from WSAI, 
Cincinnati, to KGO, Oakland, with a silent 
spot between them. 

Practically all of the letters received about 
this set have asked questions which might be 
summed up as follows: 

1. How can storage battery tubes be used? 

2. How can the set be enlarged to make an easier 
wiring and assembly job? 

3. Can resistance-coupled audio amplification be 
used? 



4. How can a stage of tuned radio-frequency 
amplification be placed ahead of the first 
detector? 

5. How can voltmeters be incorporated for A and 
B battery voltages? 

THE NEW MODEL 

IN RESPONSE to these many questions a 
larger model of the portable "super" was 
designed, which for ease of reference, will be 
called the laboratory model. This set is 
24 inches long and fits in a 7 x 7 inch cabinet. 
It may be used with any type of tube now 
on the market, or various combinations of 
types, and will permit of as many refinements 
in the way of extra high grade material as 
the builder may desire to incorporate. 

The portable set has already proved to be 
one of the most thoroughly satisfactory and 
fool-proof "super" designs ever presented to 
the public, and the larger laboratory model 
is even superior to it in the matter of volume 
when 20 1 -A or ov-2 tubes are employed. 
This model retains all the desirable features 
of the portable, but because it is spread out 
more it is somewhat simpler to construct and 
is recommended to the fan who is not inter- 
ested in building a small, self-contained 
outfit. 

The results to be expected will be somewhat 
better than those experienced with the port- 
able set. In the suburbs of Chicago the 
laboratory model will bring in the east or 
west coast broadcasting stations on a small 
1 8-inch loop with slightly greater loud speaker 
volume than the portable. On locals the use 
of the larger tubes gives considerably more 
volume. As for selectivity, stations such as 

WHN, WGY, WBZ, WFFA, WOAW, KGO, and 

many others could be brought through while 




FIG. 2 

Shows the front panel view of the storage battery-operated super-heterodyne. The 
small balancing condenser used in the receiver is not shown in the photograph 



500 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 3 

Schematic circuit of the seven-tube super-heterodyne 



four or more of the powerful local stations were 
operating within a radius of twenty miles. 
The tuning of the set is so sharp that a 
fraction of a degree will throw out out-of-town 
stations, and a movement of two or three 
degrees on both dials will throw out locals 
completely. 

ANY TYPE OF TUBE MAY BE USED 

THIS laboratory model may be built for 
use with any tubes on the market and if 
the builder already possesses WD-II'S or 
wo-12's, which heretofore have been con- 
sidered unsuitable for "super" use, they may 
be used in this design satisfactorily. The 
tube combination may employ either WD-I i's, 
wo-12's, uv-iQg's, ov-3's, uv-2Oi-A's or 
ov-2's either throughout the entire set, or 
as detectors, oscillator or intermediate ampli- 
fiers. In any case the use of 2Oi-A's for audio 
amplification is advisable in order that full 
advantage may be taken of the volume 
developed by the set. If volume enough for 
home use is all that is desired, 2Oi-A's need 
not be used, however. 

A front view of the laboratory model is 
given in Fig. 2, which, however, does not show 
the small balancing condenser brought out 
to the panel. Meters are not absolutely 
necessary, but if the constructor desires to 
add them they are very convenient for check- 
ing up the battery voltages. Fig. i is a rear 
view of the set, showing the placing of the 
instruments and the general lay-out. Figs. 3 
and 4 give the circuits, both pictorial and 
schematic, and it will be seen that they are 
practically the same as for the portable. 
The panel lay-out is in Fig. 5. 

Certain refinements have been added in 
this larger model, such as the addition of 
battery binding posts, a filament switch, the 



location of the balancing condenser on the 
panel, and the voltmeter, which need not be 
employed unless desired. 

Below is a list of parts used: 

2 Silver .0005 Low Loss Condensers. 

2 4" Moulded Dials Tapered Knobs, preferably 

vernier type such as Apex or National. 

Howard 7-Ohm Rheostat. 

Howard 2oo-Ohm Potentiometer. 
7 Insulated Top Binding Posts, Eby or similar. 

Single circuit-closed Carter IO2-A Jack 

Open circuit Carter 101 Jack. 

Silver R. F. Transformer Unit No. 401. 

Silver Oscillator Coupler, No. 101. 
7 Benjamin Spring Sockets. 

2 Thordarson 3^:1 Audio Transformers. 

1 On-off Switch. 

3 .5 mfd. By-pass Condensers. 

2 .00025 rnfd. mica Condensers with Leak Clips. 
2 .002 mfd. mica Condensers. 

i .0075 mfd. mica Condensers. 

i .000045 mfd. balancing Condensers. 

i .5 Megohm grid leak. 

i i Megohm grid leak. 

7 x 24 inch Panel. 

7 x 23 x f inch Oak Base Board. 

Bus-Bar, Spaghetti, Screws, Nuts, Solder, Lugs. 

etc. 
ACCESSORIES: 

1 Loop with Center Tap. 
7 Tubes 

2 4^-voIt C Batteries. 
A Battery 6 volt. 
B Battery 90 volt. 

Phones, or Loud Speaker, and Plug, 
i 7 x 24 x 7 Mahogany Cabinet. 
Tools needed: screw driver, pliers, soldering iron 
and hand-drill with drills and counter-sink. 

Other parts may be substituted for those 
recommended in the list, but the constructor 
should be very careful to see that they are of 
first class manufacture and in every respect 
of as good quality as those recommended. 



Revamping the Silver Super-Heterodyne 



501 



If uv-2Oi-A, ov-2, uv-199, or Dv~3 tubes 
are used, the Benjamin spring sockets will 
work in very nicely. These sockets absorb 
all vibration and eliminate almost entirely 
the ringing noise often experienced with such 
tubes. In addition, these sockets are ex- 
cellent from an electrical and mechanical 
standpoint. 

If standard 4-inch dials are used on the 
condensers, they can be tuned satisfactorily 
either by means of a pencil with an eraser 
rotated against the edge of the dial and the 
panel, or by tuning the dial with the fingers 
on the outside edge instead of on the knob. 
If vernier dials are used, the Apex, which 
is geared about 10 to i, is extremely satis- 
factory and is to be recommended. The 
Eztoon is also a good dial, except that the 
vernier action covers only a few degrees, 
after which the entire dial must be rotated 
and the vernier re-adjusted. Any other good 
standard vernier dial without "back-lash" 
or play in it will be satisfactory. 

Jefferson No. 41 transformers may be used 
in the set although Thordarson 3^ to i trans- 
formers seem fully as satisfactory as the 
Jefferson. 

The Thordarsons may be used in either 



3^ to i for both stages or if a very great 
volume is anticipated a 3^ to i in the second 
stage and a 2 to i of the new type in the third 
stage. 

For details of the construction of the set. 
the reader is referred to the unusually com- 
plete construction article on the portable set 
in RADIO BROADCAST for October, 1924. 
Methods of construction in both sets are 
quite similar. 

HINTS ON ASSEMBLY 

ALL PARTS are placed on the base- 
board and panel, and should be located 
according to the photographs. After the 
panel has been prepared, the proper parts 
should be placed on it and the sub-base 
screwed in position. The parts to go on the 
sub-base should be placed in their proper 
positions, and their locations marked, care 
being taken to see that they are so situated 
that the wiring will be easy and that tubes 
will not strike meters, etc. or the location of 
any parts on the sub-base conflict with parts 
on the panel. 

All wiring that it is possible to do on the 
panel should be done before the panel is 
attached to the sub-base on which the sockets, 



ooo 




B9CH- AFC- B45+ RFC- 

FIG. 4 

A placement diagram of the units in the receiver 



5O2 



Radio Broadcast 



transformers, etc. have been mounted. Like- 
wise, all possible wiring should be put in 
place on the sub-base before it is finally 
screwed to the panel. If this is done, only a 
few leads will have to be run from the panel 
to the baseboard and the wiring will be found 
quite simple and easy. The wiring may be 
done with bus-bar, straightened, bent at 
angles and soldered to lugs fastened to the 
instrument binding posts, or it may be done 
with flexible n.agnet wire covered with spag- 
hetti, as described in the October article. 

A C battery is used on the intermediate 
amplifier tubes as well as on the audio ampli- 
fier tubes. For uv-2Oi-A's this C battery 
will vary between 3 and 4^ volts. The same 
values will hold for uv-igg or ov-3 tubes, 
while the C battery value for WD-II'S, or 
wo-12's will range from if to 4^ volts. In 
each case the C battery is connected with its 
negative terminal to terminal 6 of the radio- 
frequency transformer unit and its positive 
lead to the center contact, or arm of the 
potentiometer. The audio amplifier C battery 
is connected with its negative lead to the F 
terminals of the audio transformers and with 
its positive lead to the minus side of the 
filament line. The C batteries may be 
located on the right hand corner of the base 
board inside the cabinet. If a high value of 
C battery is used on the intermediate amplifier, 
the potentiometer will have no effect on the 
volume of the set and a low enough voltage 
to permit of the potentiometer volume control 
should be used. 

It will be noticed in Fig. 3 that three by- 
pass condensers are used, each of \ mfd. One is 
connected across the go-volt B battery, one 
across the 45-volt B battery section and 
one from terminal 6 of the radio-frequency 
transformer unit to the minus side of the 
filament. The cans of these condensers are 
soldered together, and with the cans of the 



audio transformers and the radio frequency 
transformer unit, are grounded to the neg- 
ative side of the filament. This is very im- 
portant; instability of the set may be due to 
the failure to ground all of these cans. 

If meters are to be used in the set, a volt- 
meter with a maximum scale reading of from 
6 to 10 volts mav be connected directly 
across the A battr , terminals of the set to 
indicate the A battery voltage, or across the 
filament terminals of one of the tube sockets 
to read the filament operating voltage. This 
latter is the preferable position as it will 
permit operating the tubes at their best 
point, and resetting of the rheostat to the 
same value each time the set is used. A 
milliameter in the plate circuits of the tubes 
is of little value; a B battery voltmeter would 
be preferable. The B battery voltmeter may 
be connected directly across the B battery or 
it may have its negative terminal connected 
to the negative B terminal of the set and its 
positive post brought through the resistor 
to the center arm of a small single-pole double- 
throw switch. If one contact of the switch 
is led to the 45-volt B post and the other con- 
tact to the go-volt B post it will be possible, 
by means of this switch, to throw the meter 
across either the 45- or go-volt battery sections 
at will. If a double range voltmeter is em- 
ployed, a small switch can be used to throw it 
from the A to the B battery. The details 
of these circuits are given in Fig. 6. 

The advantage of bringing out the balancing 
condenser to the panel is that it permits 
maximum sensitivity to be obtained at every 
wavelength. If the balancing condenser is 
set at one fixed value, it will have to be at a 
point where the first detector tube will not 
oscillate at the shortest wavelength to be 
received. At the longer wavelengths the 
value of balancing condenser may be increased 
slightly with resultant strengthening of 




FIG. 5 

The panel layout 



Revamping the Silver Super-Heterodyne 



503 



signals. This control is not critical except 
that if too high a value of condenser is used 
the first detector tube will oscillate and 
become unstable. The condenser may be 
located above and between the two tuning 
condensers on the portable model also, if it is 
desired to take advantage of the full ampli- 
fication possibilities of the set by means of 
this one additional, but fairly non-critical 
adjustment. 

Binding posts may be located on small 
bakelite strips on the sub-base so that they 
will not appear on the panel. This will add 
somewhat to the appearance of the set if it 
is to be used in a permanent installation. 

WIDE LATITUDE IN ASSEMBLY 

T^HE assembly can be changed to meet 
* any individual conditions of height, 
depth, or length, such as might be imposed 
by a phonograph cabinet. The amplifier 
assembly should not be changed, but the 
oscillator coupler and first two tubes may be 
moved up against the panel between the two 
condensers, which will have to be located 
farther apart. The entire amplifier section 
may then be shifted behind this portion of 
the set, which will make an assembly 12 to 
15 inches long and 8 to 10 inches deep. 
(See Figs. 6, 7, and 8 of the article on the 
portable receiver.) It is also possible to 
locate the amplifier section above the con- 
densers and first two tubes. The size would 
then be approximately 10 to n inches high, 
12 to 15 inches long, and 6 to 7 inches deep. 
These variations are only suggested where 
the constructor wishes to meet particular 
space requirements, and feels confident that 
he will be able to work out the changes 
satisfactorily. 

TESTING AND TROUBLE SHOOTING 

Filter Condenser: The value of the con- 
denser across the RF unit terminals 7 and 8 
will vary between .0075 and .01. It is best to 
start with .0075 and then build up to .01 by 
adding .0005 and .001 condensers in parallel 
with the .0075 condenser. The best value 
will be where the oscillator dial reading is 
sharpest on a comparatively strong local 
signal. The proper number of condensers 
may be bolted together with machine screws 
and nuts and soldered in position on the 
wiring. 

Grid Leaks: For 201 -A tubes the grid leaks 
should be from ^ to 2 megohms for the second 
detector. One megohm is satisfactory. A 
grid leak from 2 to 5 megohms should be used 



for the first detector. The higher value is 
preferable. Grid leak values for 199 tubes 
are given in the October, 1924, article and the 
same values are correct for ov-3's. For 
WD-I I's or wo-12's they will be approximately 
the same as for 2Oi-A's. 

Filament Returns: In the portable receiver, 
the first detector grid return, or center tap of 
the loop is shown going back to the negative 
side of the filament, and for the second detect- 
or, terminal 9 of the can leads to the plus side 



2 RAN6E VOLTMETER WITH 



FILAMENT a PLATE VOLTASE 




VOLTMETER RESISTOR 



I RANGE VOLT ME TEH TOR 
DETECTOR OB AMPLIFIER 
PLATE VOLTA6E 




VOLTMCTER RCSIST4* 



FIG. 6 

Wiring details of voltmeter which can be 
used with advantage in the super-heterodyne 



of the filament. In the laboratory model 
both these returns are shown to the negative 
side of the filament. It is not of very great 
importance which connections are followed 
out, although it would be advisable to keep all 
returns, including those of by-pass condensers, 
on the negative side of the filament line. 

Overloading: Due to the extreme ampli- 
fication, about 55 per stage (voltage) with 201- 
A or ov-2 tubes, developed in the intermediate 
amplifier it is sometimes possible to overload 
the set on strong local signals. This may be 
overcome by some of the suggestions offered 
in regard to the portable super-heterodyne or 
by connecting grid leaks of j\ to j megohms 
across the radio-frequency amplifier tubes 
from grid to plus or minus filament. 

Potentiometer Control: In the case of 
2OI-A, ov-2, uv-i99, or ov-3 tubes, the 
potentiometer control will probably be satis- 
factory in that the volume of stations may be 
reduced by retarding its arm toward the 
positive side. If this is not possible, de- 
creasing the value of C battery on the RF 
tubes will remedy matters. On WD-II'S or 
wo-12's, good control will be difficult to 
obtain and the C battery will have to be set 
at the lowest value commensurate with good 



504 



Radio Broadcast 



signal strength in order to obtain any volume 
control at all on the potentiometer. This is be- 
cause in the case of 2oi-A's, the voltage varia- 
tion across the potentiometer is from 3 to 5 
volts and with igg's from i\ 103 volts, whereas 
with wo-12's, the variation is only about i volt. 
Filament Rheostat: If one type of tube is 
used throughout the set, a single rheostat for 
all tubes is sufficient. This should be from 
6 to 7 ohms for any of the standard tubes. 
If SOI-A'S are used only in the audio stages, 
their positive filament leads will have to be 
brought out independently, when other types 
of tubes are used up to the audio stages 
The filament adjustment on the 2OI-A audio 
tubes may be made by means of an extra 
rheostat or by means of a small resistance 
unit placed inside the set and adjusted once. 
The filament current of the audio tubes is not 
critical and when once adjusted may be left 
fixed. If the igg's are to be operated as the 
first five tubes in the set in conjunction with 
2Oi-A's on a 6-volt battery, the rheostat 
resistance for these five tubes will be from 1 5 
to 20 ohms. If WD-I I's or i2's are used for 
the first five tubes, they should be operated 
either on a 6-ohm rheostat lead out to a separate 
A-plus binding post and then to a 2-volt tap 
on the storage battery or to a separate A 







1 * 


.0005 * 


A 

\ 

^ 

-- __f 
> < 

> 


4 

r 


n 






i/ 








.0075 
( 


.000045- ( 


-6 



FIG. 7 

How to add an additional stage of radio-frequency amplification to the 
"super". Another oscillator coupler, tube, socket, rheostat, and variable 
condenser is necessary for the construction of this separate unit, which 
should not be attempted except by the radio constructor who is expert 
at tuning the super-heterodyne because the additional radio stage 
sharpens the tuning greatly 



battery. If they are to be operated directly 
from a storage battery supplying the 2Oi-A's, 
the rheostat resistance will be about 10 
ohms. In both the case of the 199*5 and 
WD-i2's, run directly from the storage battery, 
the rheostat used with them should be just 
barely turned on, as if it is cut all out the full 
6 volts will be applied directly to these tubes 
with disastrous results. 



Volume Control: The volume of the set 
may be controlled by the potentiometer, 
operated in conjunction with the rheostat. 
The potentiometer might be entirely omitted 
and the volume controlled by the rheostat 
only. It will be found that if the full amplifi- 
cation of the set is used on local signals, a 
slight amount of distortion may be evident. 
With volume enough to be heard all over a 
40 foot square room no distortion will be 
experienced. In any event it may be con- 
trolled by proper rheostat and potentiometer 
adjustments. It has been found possible to 
operate 2OI-A tubes with as little as 3! volts 
on the filaments with perfectly satisfactory 
results. 

Location of Rheostat: Tube manufacturers 
recommend that rheostats be placed in the 
positive filament lead of the detector tube and 
in the negative lead of an amplifier. The 
reason for this change is that in the circuits 
shown in the tube data sheets an endeavor is 
made to use the voltage drop across the 
rheostat for grid biasing purposes. If a 
separate C battery is used and no endeavor is 
made to utilize this voltage drop across the 
rheostat, it is of absolutely no importance 
which filament lead the rheostat is connected 
in. It is always advisable, however, to keep 
it out of the lead which is a 
common B battery return. 
The common point in these 
sets is the negative. For 
these and other reasons it 
is shown in the positive fila- 
ment lead, while the on-off 
switch is in the negative 
lead. 

Plate Voltage: The set 
will operate satisfactorily 
with as little as 45 volts on 
all tubes, but the C batteries 
will have to be readjusted if 
this voltage is used. Vary- 
ing the detector and oscilla- 
tor plate voltage from 22 
to 45 may sometimes im- 
prove reception slightly, and 
decrease consumption a 
small amount. The current consumption using 
2Oi-A's on 90 volts is twenty milliamperes or 
loss, and in using IQQ'S from 14 to 15 milli- 
amperes. 

If it is desired to add resistance-coupled 
amplification to the set instead of transformer- 
coupled audio it may be done by using the 
amplifier circuit given in Fig. 8. This shows 
two stages, which will give not quite the 




Revamping the Silver Super-Heterodyne 



Zfi&DEI 



.0075 



.0075 




B-MS 



FIG. 8 



Two additional stages of resistance-coupled amplification may be connected 
in place of the ordinary audio-frequency amplifier specified in the circuit 



volume of two transformer-coupled stages. 
This is of no very great importance, however, 
since the volume obtained from the set is in 
practically all cases, very much more than 
will be needed for good loud-speaker operation. 
It is suggested that lavite resistances of 
about 48,000 ohms be used as the plate- 
coupling resistances with grid leaks of from 
j to I megohms. It will be advisable in this 
case to leave out the jacks in this amplifier 
and use either the detector output or the 
full two-stage amplifier output, as is shown in 
the figure. In this case, a C batten will be 
necessary only on the last audio stage, where 
it should be of approximately 45 volts. This 
is because the effective plate voltage on the 
first stage is only about 30 to 40 volts, 
whereas the effective plate voltage on the last 
stage is very nearly up to the full 90 of the B 
battery. This will be made clearer when it 
is realized that a 48,000 ohm resistance is in 
the plate circuit of the first audio stage which 
cuts the B voltage to approximately J that of 
the full plate potential. Only a loud-speaker 
or a pair of phones is in the plate circuit of 
the last audio stage with the result that 
practically all the B battery voltage is applied 
directly to the tube. 

SHORT WAVE RECEPTION 

'IPHERE is a growing interest in a really 
* sensitive receiver for operation on the 
new low broadcasting wavelengths in the 
neighborhood of 100 meters. 

The wavelength range of the oscillator used 
is about 150 to 550 meters, which is more 
than ample for the entire broadcasting wave- 
length band. This oscillator range will per- 



mit reception over a range of from slightly 
below 150 meters to about 600, by using the 
lower heterodyne point at the upper end 
of the range, and the upper points at the 
lower end of the range. 

It is also possible to use a harmonic of the 
oscillator to perform the heterodyne function. 
If the first harmonic, or half the wavelength 
of the oscillator is used, it means that the 
range of the oscillator, using this harmonic, 
would be from below 75 meters to nearly 300 
meters. If it is desired to receive a 100 
meter signal, the oscillator dial may be set at 
either of its points where a 200 meter station 
may have been heard. Then the harmonic 
will bear the proper relation to the 100 meter 
signal to create the necessary beat with it. 
This, of course, is general, but it indicates 
how the set would be operated. 

The loop circuit would have to be changed 
for this work, the loop being cut to about four 
turns. It may be rather difficult to employ 
the split loop feature at these waves also. 
If an antenna is used, the coil to replace the 
loop may consist of about 20 turns of No. 16 
or No. 18 DCC wire, on a three or four-inch form. 
The antenna coil should contain three to eight 
turns, depending upon individual conditions. 

If a set is to be built for short wave work 
only, the oscillator coils could be wound with 
fifteen turns each in L.2 and 1,3, and about 
six or seven turns of heavy wire in Li. 

SHORT WAVE R. F. AMPLIFIER 

UNDER certain conditions the experi- 
enced fan may find it desirable to 
add additional R. F. amplification to either 
of the receivers. A condition which would 



Radio Broadcast 



justify this would be where the atmospheric 
noise was not very great and where it was 
desired to obtain the very limit that could be 
gotten from a receiving system. Or, it might 
be that the receivers were poorly located, so 
far as collecting sufficient energy for their 
operation is concerned, yet the noise level 
might be very low. In either of these cases 
it would be possible to add a stage of R. F. 
amplification before the first detector tube, 
which would involve but one additional tuning 
adjustment. This adjustment would be com- 
paratively sharp and the addition of this 
amplification is not recommended until the 
builder has operated his set for some time and 
is entirely familiar with its operating charac- 
teristics. This is because with three tuning 
dials the set would be so sharp that it would 
be extremely difficult to tune it without 
knowing where at least two of the dials should 
be set for a given wavelength. 

The circuit for this amplification is given 
in Fig. 7 and the only additional equipment 
necessary to construct it would be an oscillator 
coupler, as described in the previous section, 
the tube with its socket and rheostat, the 
tuning condenser, and a balancing condenser. 

The entire amplifier could be housed in a 
small box which would go at the loop end of 
the set with three binding posts to connect 
it to the set and three binding posts for the 



loop. It would also be necessary to bring out 
posts for the A and B batteries as shown in 
the drawing. 

It will be seen that this circuit is practically 
the same as that of the first detector, except 
that the grid condenser and leak and oscillator 
coupling coil have been omitted. 

In the plate circuit of this R. F. tube, the 
coupling coil of an oscillator coupler is 
connected. The stator windings of the 
coupler are brought to three binding posts on 
the panel of this unit and are in turn connected 
to the three binding posts intended for the 
loop on the set itself. The oscillator coupler 
then performs the function of the R. F. 
transformer. Its two stator coils with their 
center leads joined, form the secondary cir- 
cuit, the coupling coil acting as the primary. 
The balancing condenser in this case is not 
critical as in the first detector circuit of the 
super and may be set practically all the way 
in without oscillation occurring in the R.F. 
stage. This condenser acts almost entirely 
as a neutralizing condenser, its purpose being 
to sharpen the tuning of the loop connected 
in the R. F. stage and to prevent oscilla- 
tion. 

The same batteries may be used for this 
unit as are used for the set itself, and any 
standard type of tube may be employed in 
the circuit. 




FORCE OF RADIO HABIT 

The Doctor: "H'm! that's strange, 
Cuba ought to be on now!" 



THE BOREDOM OF RANCH LIFE is Now BROKEN B 

WoRD AND 1EN UCTURES OF THE JlrDAR RANCH 

Bry Remington Schu^ler 




STATIC" describes perfectly the eve- 
nings on the old ranch in South Dakota. 
So static were our evenings that in 
desperation we turned in along about 
nine o'clock of a winter's evening, bored to 
death with each other. 

The same old faces, stories, and magazines 
grew terribly dog-eared. We knew the mag- 
azines from cover to cover. We knew the ad- 
vertisements with the same close intimacy. 
We knew every yarn of the other fellow's and 
every "funny story." Dynamite is "static" 
till you wallop it. It only needed some slight 
wallop to start something in the close harmony 
of our bunk-house. It was a desperate time. 
You can't forever talk horses, cattle, and wo- 
men. 

Living the same life, doing the same things, 
day after day atrophied our brains. Our 
conversation moved sluggishly in deeply worn 
channels, all too familiar and threadbare. 

The nearest ranch, Isaac Battleyoun's, was 
fifteen miles over across the broken buttes of 
the Key-a-pa-ha. Ike had a wax cylinder 
Edison; a Steinway, a pipe organ, and a daugh- 
ter who could certainly play. At times my 
bunkie and I would ride over and sit in on 
some music. It was not often, for by sun- 
down we were dog-tired, and thirty miles, 
what with the drifts, was no great sport after 
a fourteen-hour day. 

We were building up the E Bar. Our days 
were long and full of toil. Four A. M, when it 
was still dark and bitterly cold we "came alive," 
bustled into our frozen, board-like clothes and 
got out and going. There were seven of us. 



Six cow-hands and Bob Emory, our genial 
foreman. Into the frosty darkness, one of us 
would ride over the drifted prairies and round 
up the pony herd and work horses. By 
lantern light another chopped wood. A third 
pumped water for the stock and calves in the 
pens. The rest busied themselves pitching 
hay or building the board corral and branding 
chute. At six o'clock and barely dawn we 
were heartened by the familiar ring of the 
lustily beaten frying pan and the welcome 
whoop, "Come and get it." In a ravening 
pack we scrambled to be first into the grub 
house. This nine by nine end of the log 
cabin was also kitchen and washroom. 

Hustling in the door, one slopped a dipper of 
icy water into the tin basin hurriedly soaped 
and washed face and hands and slicked one's 
hair. Then on to the grabbing match at the 
oil cloth covered table. 

At the round corral a lively scene followed. 
The pony herd led by the wise old bell mare 
had been driven in. With saddle rope drag- 
ging we stealthily stalked our horse for the 
day. If you were crafty enough, to mislead 
the horse you were after into thinking you 
were after some other one, then a sudden 
swish of the throw rope and you had your 
mount for the day. 

Saddles were slapped on, latigoes made 
snug and we were off about our several busi- 
nesses. Some rounded up and counted the 
scattered herd and threw them back on the 
range, then looked for strays or cattle that had 
"gotten down." Others set out with running 
gear and teams to haul logs from the "breaks" 



508 



Radio Broadcast 



of the Little White. The logs were needed 
for our bunk house which was slowly rising 
alongside the original ranch-house. 

At noon and again at six we went through 
the same washing rites and ate the same grub. 
After supper "while we were resting" as Bob 
used to say, we squared and wrestled into 
place a few more logs on the bunk-house walls. 

During the fall, the tent which "The Kid" 
and 1 slept in had been the gathering place. 
Now that winter was seeping down from 
Medicine Hat it had grown too frigid to be 
pleasant for gossiping. 

Our new bunk-house was complete, so we 
gathered the clan there. Pipkin and Am- 
brose had one room, The Kid and I the other. 
Our room had more bunks and a stove. The 
Kid's mother had sent over some curtains 
and do-dads that added to the coziness. 

THERE was Pipkin an ex-cavalry man, 
a genial, hard riding good scout. He had 
come to us in the summer. "Pip" was down 
on his luck with a badly infected finger and 
arm, but with a zest for work. After he ar- 
rived we had taken turns as surgeons. A lib- 
eral use of gauze, bailing wire and tobacco 
quids had nursed him back to a normal use 
of his hand and arm, and an intense desire to 
work. His army stories and ditties had given 
us quite a few thrills and furnished enter- 
tainment. But he was running dry. We 
knew his Sergeant McGillicuddy tales almost 
perfectly. 

Ambrose, nick-named "Old Nick," was a 
dirty, unshaven, unbathed rascal. He had a 
flow of language which was an undammed 
stream of obscene profanity. He couldn't 



even ask for a smoke without G- 



-D- 




-mg 

it. And yet his folks were sturdy pious New 
Englanders. The daguerrotypes of his par- 
ents and grandparents showed fine stock, de- 
pendable citizens. He had slipped from his 
earlier snubbing post and was a disgusting 
specimen. A bath with him consisted of 
squirting water on himself and scrubbing white 
spots with a sock. If ever his spots seemed 
in danger of overlapping he would quit dis- 
gustedly, muttering he was getting "too 

particular". Then another month would 
add its grime and grit unmolested. 

"The Kid" was young, handsome, well knit, 
the son of a teacher in the Indian day schools; 
raised on the prairies, a good cow hand and 
rider. But his mind dwelt constantly on new 
conquests to be made and the remembrance 
of former ones. A year as a fireman on the 
Missouri and Elkhorn; another with the Ex- 
press Company, these were the only times he 
thought he had really lived. They were his 
only vivid experiences. He constantly pined 
for what he longingly called God's City 
Chicago. 

For my part they knew all I could tell them 
of my native state, Missouri. My camping 
experiences down in the Ozarks among the 
mountain people were the only bits of con- 
versation that got by. So I would plunk my 
old guitar and sing Negro camp meeting songs 
and the latest popular hits I had learned 
before leaving St. Louis. "Goo Goo Eyes" 
"Under the Bamboo Tree" and such like. 

The two Indians were just so much smoky 
blanketed background. They silently rolled 
and swiftly smoked cigarettes. Like most 
Indians who smoke they resembled an engine 
starting up. A series of short sharp puffs, 
then a pause. Another series and then that 
cigarette was about done. 

Often I tried to draw them into the conver- 
sation. But "The Kid" and Ambrose 
thought only of them as "damned Injuns," 
and barely tolerated them in our circle. 

Eagle Horn Dog was a noted singer of the 
Sioux. That is, he made new songs and knew 
all the old ones. He had a fine voice and loved 
to sing. Sometimes I could get him to favor 
us. It was stirring to listen as he thumped 
the bunk edge with a quirt and sang "Sitting 
Bull's Defiance" or "Go You to War?" or 
"Horses I am Seeking." Last year when I 
broadcast my western experiences from WEAF, 
1 sang some of the songs which I had learned 
from Eagle Horn. Eagle Horn is gone to the 
Happy Hunting Grounds. Enlisting imme- 
diately when we entered the World War, he 



Static Days and Nights 



509 



went across with the First Division. He was 
among the first to fall. 

Except for an occasional grunt, " Was-Tay" 
(good), "Waw-wee" (the Hawk) never made 
himself prominent. He seemed to be glad 
of the warmth and the company, but other- 
wise was merely a blur in the smoky back- 
ground. 

Bob, our foreman, was our best entertainer. 
He had grown up in the saddle. He had 
known cattle and horses all his life. He had 
been in on the last of the buffalo running. In 
his youth he had 
drifted over many 
ranges. He told tales 
of "The Panhandle," 
Montana, Idaho, and 
the "Ute" country 
near Carson Sinks. 
The Dakotas were as 
familiar to him as his 
own quarter sections. 
His kriowlege of cat- 
tle ways and pony- 
tricks seemed un- 



Where It Drips Boredom 



canny. 

When the mood 
was on him he could 
recount thrilling ex- 
periences in a stilted 
matter-of-fact way. 
He had been in 
Spotted Tail's tepee 
when Crow Dog had 
ridden up and shot 
"Old Spot" as a traitor to the tribe's best 
interests. A moment later, sharp knives were 
slicing the tepee to ribbons while stone mauls 
were smashing the poles down about his ears. 
The uproar and excitement following the 
slaying, he told of as if he had been but a 
guest at a tea party. Yet in actual fact, he 
barely escaped alive by jumping his horse 
down a cut bank and riding across a narrow 
swift river on a one log bridge. 

SO FOR a month or two we had good en- 
tertainment. But as the snow banked 
up around our log houses, and blizzard and 
snow storm followed each other in steady pro- 
cession, sweeping down on us over hundreds 
of miles of treeless prairie from distant 
Saskatchewan, we gradually got worn to a 
frazzle. 

We tried by superhuman efforts to hold the 
herd from drifting too far with the blizzards, 
then worked them back on to our range with 
painful effort, almost carrying in the weak- 



Remington Schuyler, who is well known to 
readers of this magazine through the many 
excellent covers he has done for us, spent 
considerable time among a certain type of 
real Westerners to whom we all attach a great 
deal of "romance". And most of us have 
thought of the life of the cow-puncher and 
Indian as something resplendently virile and 
somehow romantic. We think most often of 
radio in the city or small town and on the 
farm, but here is a view of what radio is 
doing in the genuine "open spaces." The 
sketches accompanying this story were made 
some years ago by Mr. Schuyler on the 
ground, and our cover this month shows one 
of the typical ranch houses in this country 
with radio holding its new sway. 

THE EDITOR. 



ened steers. Now and then we rescued 
some snow-blind, snow-bound freighter. And 
again when a windless snowfall had buried 
even the ridges, we fared forth with the pony 
herd. All day we let them paw through to 
the grass and then drove them on to another 
pawing contest. The cattle herd followed, 
and once having smelled the grass exposed by 
the ponies they nosed out a meagre meal. At 
night the tired hungry ponies were given some 
hay and then set adrift to shift for themselves. 
The prairie wind seldom ceased. All day 

it buffeted one. The 

drifts in the gullies 
smothered any one 
who got off the ridges. 
It was struggle and 
fiendish toil. Then an 
evening as pictured 
in the beginning 
monotonous in its 



sameness. 

But once a month 
came a rift in our 
clouded horizons. 
The Rosebud, a four- 



page newspaper, 
printed at the Agency 
School by I ndians 
would arrive by some 
circuitous hand to 
hand route. But be- 
draggled and mussed 
though it was, it 
brought news from 
the outside world. We had new things to talk 
about. 

In memory I can see Old Bob, leaning back 
in an old broken backed chair, following the 
text with one finger and laboriously reading 
and gloriously mis-pronouncing such interest- 
ing items as "John Comes-Out-Holy" has 
been visiting in Cut Meat with his old friend 
"B rings-White" or "Bill Bates and Mack 
Marsten have been out gunning for antelope 
in the Bad Lands, or "Doug" McChesney, 
Agency Brand: Inspector, was down near 
Olaf Nelson's ranch checking up on Olaf's 
report of too many strays from the settlers 
down in Nebraska, or perhaps these bits of 
Agency humor: "The stork has left a new 
Annuity Baby at Mrs. Chased-by-Bears. 
Louis Ribideau will have one more papoose 
by next Annuity Payment Day. Good luck to 
you Louie. We hope it will be twins." 

And so the wonderful news of the outside 
world dribbled in to us. 

Except for The Rosebud and an occasional 



510 



Radio Broadcast 




drifting cowboy we had lost contact with the 
outside. We were thrown so much on each 
other that it looked like a iVee for all would 
be the only safety valve. There was no 
telephone. "No nawthing" as Bob used 
to say. 

IT IS a winter's night on the old E-Bar in 
* the year 1923. By hard riding I dropped 
the drifted miles behind and received a rousing 
welcome as I pulled up at dusk. 

The supper is much the same and the old 
wash basin and dipper still do duty. But the 
bunch seems changed. Bob is there, grayer 
and more wrinkled, Pipkin much the same. In 
old Ambrose there is a marked change. He 
seems too ungodly meek and thoughtful. He 
gets through first and disappears toward the 
bunk house. We follow leisurely and as we 
come close to the door I notice for the first 
time a rude antenna on the roof. 

"Sh-h" says Bob as I start to congratulate 
them. "Slip up here and have a look-see 
at the old cuss." 

Through the small window there is Ambrose 
hunched down in front of a "super-het" set. 



Through the thin panels of the door comes a 
voice familiar through all the country. That 
tough old ex-service man, McNeary, with his 
grand voice and wonderful imagination telling 
bedtime stories and old hard-boiled Ambrose 
listening-in on the loud speaker. When 
WOR has signed off we stomp loudly up to the 
door and bursting in, find Ambrose trying to 
get WEAF. 

At last we succeed and coming over the air 
is Oskenonton, the Mohawk Singer singing 
an Indian program. His rich voice and the 
thump of the water drum comes clearly. At 
the end he sings "Sitting Bull's Defiance" 
and one of old Eagle Horn's plaintive melodies. 

"Jest like old times ain't it Cinchbuckle?" 
says Bob. "Can't you jest hearn Eagle Horn 
a-yowling? I'll tell a man we sure got the 
world by the tail with a down hill pull." 

"When these here dinkuses furst came out 
we didn't put no stock in them," says Pipkin. 
"But Johnny in at the Agency got one and 
when we all heered it, why man alive we just 
cottoned to it." 

"We hocked our German silver trappings 
and we're way behind on the pay, but I'd eat 
my socks if I had to to jest keep the dinkus 
in prime shape." 

It was funny to hear their remarks about 
the different performers. 

"Why," says Bob, "We nearly bought a 
vacuum cleaner, after listening to a feller who 
was 'loco' about it. It do beat all what you 
can learn." 

And so each evening while I was there we 
had a radio banquet. Gone was the old 
dismal gloom of snow-bound isolation. A 
wider world had stalked across the frozen 
prairies and opened up their lives. They 
were living nowadays and happy. In an old 
shed they had the wreck of a flivver jacked up. 
It was Ambrose's job to keep her running 
enough to store the battery. The three old 
cronies Bob, Pipkin, and Ambrose still clung 
to the remnants of the old E Bar doing freight- 
ing carrying the mail, and Bob now and then 
had put in a few years as instructor to the In- 
dians in farming. But the tie that made the 
old E Bar a rallying point a home for all of 
them, was radio. 



Notes on Neutralizing the 
Roberts Circuit 



BY JOHN B. BRENNAN 



RADIO receivers, especially those using 
the regenerative principle, should not 
be allowed to radiate energy into 
space, causing unnecessary interfer- 
ence with other receivers in the vicinity. 

In the Roberts circuit, radiation is prevented 
by the use of the coil N and the condenser 
connected to the grid of the first tube and the 
coil N. This coil N, because of its peculiar 
connection, prevents oscillation in the plate 
circuit of the first tube, and the condenser, 
when properly adjusted, should exactly equal 
the capacity between the grid and plate of the 
tube. (See Fig. 4). Mr. Roberts describes 
the theory of this action as follows: 

Whatever alternating voltage exists on the plate 
of the tube must be due to alternating magnetic 
flux linking P. But the same flux also links the 
similar winding N, which is connected the other way 
'round, and hence, acting through C, produces an 
effect on the grid which is equal and opposite to that 
produced by P acting through the grid-plate 
capacity of the tube. Thus the net feed back, or 
tendency to regenerate is completely neutralized or 
balanced. 

Having now determined the necessity for 
this neutralization, we must know how to 




BUS- WIRE 



"-METM. TUBING 



BUSHING 



TUBING 




MOUNTING 
'"'HOLE 



; CONNECTING POST 
'FOR. SLIDING TUBE 



FIG. I 



How to make your own neutralizing condenser. 
Bakelite or formica may be substituted for the 
hardwood base. If it is desired, the right side mount- 
ing may be eliminated, making it possible to slide the 
tubing over the end. This will allow a greater range 
of neutralization 



apply this method of neutralization to the 
receiver. 

To do that, one proceeds as follows: turn 
the tickler control well up against the secon- 
dary; light the filaments of the tubes and 
rotate both dials until the carrier wave or 
"squeal" of a station is located. Now adjust 
the dials for maximum signal strength and 
then lower the tickler coil to loosen the 
coupling between it and the secondary. 
Now, by rotating the left hand dial slowly, 
the intensity of the squeal will be varied as 
the dial is moved. The intensity depends on 
the amount and the direction that the dial is 
turned. 

On another page are shown two curves, which 
illustrate incorrect and extremes of unbalanced 
neutralization which are occasionally experi- 
enced in the Roberts circuit. To operate this 
receiver successfully without radiation, the 
neutralizer must be correctly adjusted. There- 
fore a bit of instruction on this important 
feature will not be amiss. 

The best home-made type of neutralizer is 

made from a length of bus bar with spaghetti 

or glass insulation and a piece of copper 

gasoline tubing for the sliding member. Fig. i 

gives the dimensions for such a unit. 

In determining whether or not your 
receiver is properly neutralized, one must 
| visualize the rise and fall in squeal in- 
' tensity. 

The curves in the two graphs shown in 
Figs. 2 and 3 are somewhat exaggerated 
to make it easier to understand the ac- 
tion of the neutralizer. 

HOW TO TEST YOUR SET FOR IMPROPER 
NEUTRALIZATION 

BY ROTATING the dial (Fig. 2) in 
the direction of the arrow, we find a 
quiet spot X at the reading 50 and ex- 
tending one or two degrees either side of 
it. By continuing slowly to rotate the 
dial, we immediately reach the full squeal 
intensity indicated at B. As the dial 
continues to rotate, the squeal intensity 
gradually decreases to A. On the other 



512 



Radio Broadcast 




An example of ex- 
tremely unbalanced 
neutralization. 
Visualize your own 
"squeal curve" on 
condenser Ci in the 
Roberts circuit 



side of X, rotating the dial in the opposite 
direction, we immediately reach the full 
squeal intensity as before at C, but here the 
decrease in intensity is very rapid ending at D. 
In Fig. 3 the action is just the opposite. 
The quiet point X is 
found at 50. Rotating 
the dial in the direction 
of the arrow, the full 
squeal intensity is im- 
mediately reached at B 
and then rapidly de- 
creases to A. On the 
other side of 50 we im- 
mediately reach the full 
squeal intensity at C 
which gradually dimin- 
ishes to D. 

These two examples 
of improperly balanced 
neutralization will sug- 
gest to the constructor 
the proper setting of the 
condenser. The graph showing the proper 
balanced squeal curve appeared in the article 
on the four-tube receiver. 

Obviously, if your receiver produces squeals 
similar to those indicated in Figs. 2 or 3, the 
condenser tubing must be shifted until each 
section on either side of the quiet spot (in- 
dicated in the graph,) is equal and balanced. 
It is well to remember that the same 
setting will not always be correct for all tubes. 
The Roberts receiver will operate equally 
well on all types of standard tubes. In the 
first description of the Roberts circuit appear- 
ing in the April number, two types of tubes 
were used, a uv-2oi-A and a vv-igg. The 
only reason for this arrangement was the 
saving of .19 ampere in 
filament consumption. 
Naturally the neutralizer 
setting for these tubes 
would not work out effi- 
ciently if wo-12's were 
substituted. 

In determining the 
location of the squeal, 
this characteristic noise 
should not be mistaken 
for forced or over- 
regeneration due to the 
use of high B battery The correct .< squeal 
voltage applied to the curve" will result 
plate of the detector 
tube. However, in this 
operation, the tickler coil 
should be turned well up 




FIG. 3 

Showing the other 
extreme of unbalanc- 
ed neutralization. 




FIG. 4 

The heart of the Roberts circuit. Any standard 
tuned radio-frequency amplifier may be neutralized 
by using the inductance N and the capacity C. In 
the Roberts circuit, S is made of 44 turns of No. 22 
dec wire wound on a spiderweb form having 13 
teeth. The first turn diameter is 2| inches. The 
outside diameter is 5 inches. S is shunted by a 
.0005 mfd. variable condenser, preferably a vernier. 
Coil N-P is wound on a similar form. A pair of 
wires, of different colors for ease in winding and 
connection, are wound for 20 turns. For this coil, 
use No. 26 dec wire. The outside turn 'of one of the 
wires is connected to the plate and its other end 
(inside) is connected to the outside lead of the 
other wire. From this point, a lead is brought to 
the B battery or phones. The inside end of the 
other coil attaches to the neutralizing condenser C 
which is connected to the grid of the tube 

against the secondary. Once the squeal of a 
station has been located, the volume may be 
reduced at will by decreasing the coupling 
between the tickler and secondary coils. 

To adjust the regen erative action so that 
there is no sudden 'pkop' of the regenerative 
squeal, regulate the detector B voltage to its 
most effective value for the particular detector 
tube used. 



O 



from a neutralizer 
condenser setting 
equal to the average 
of the settings in 
Figs. 2 and 3 



ANOTHER GOOD TEST 

NE of our readers, Mr. W. A. Golden, Jr., 
of Santa Ana, Calif., writes us as follows: 

A very easy and effective method of determining 
the point of neutralization can be had by the use of 
a good crystal detector and a pair of phones con- 
nected across the antenna and ground binding posts. 
First tune-in a strong station in the regular manner, 
allowing the detector tube to oscillate and form an 
audible beat note with the carrier wave of the sta- 
tion; then listen to the phones connected in series 
with the crystal detector between the antenna and 
ground and, if the set is not neutralized, this beat 
note will be heard. Now adjust the small neutraliz- 
ing condenser until this beat note becomes inaudible. 
It is a good idea when doing this to listen to the 
phones in the plate circuit of the tube set once in a 
while so as to be sure that the detector continues to 
oscillate and form the audible beat note at aH times 
while the neutralizing condenser is being adjusted. 
When the note can no longer be heard in the phones 
between the antenna and ground, the set is adjusted 
properly and should be left permanently in this 
condition. 



Notes on Neutralizing the Roberts Circuit 



513 



I have found this a very simple and efficient 
means of performing this otherwise rather difficult 
task. 

The coil winding data contained in the 
May RADIO BROADCAST is herewith re- 
printed with slight elaborations. 

A WINDING FORM FOR THE ROBERTS COILS 

IT IS recommended that double cotton 
covered wire be used instead of silk covered 
wire as the latter is more apt to wear away 



more quickly. Enamel covered wire may be 
used, providing the builder is sure there are no 
points at which the insulation has worn away. 

Coils A-S and T are all wound the same way, 
that is, over two spokes and then under two 
spokes of the spiderweb form. The coil 
N-P is wound over one, then under one 
spoke. 

The number of coil turns for the several 
inductances is listed below the spiderweb 
template. For those who wish to experiment 




A TEMPLATE FOR THE SPIDER WEB COILS 

Exact size. The winding for these coils, as used in various parts of the Roberts circuit and indicated by 
the letters are as follows: A: 40 turns No. 22 dec wire tapped 1-2-5-10-20-30-40; Si: 44 turns 
No. 22 dec wire; N:2O turns No. 26 dec wire; P: 20 turns No. 26 dec wire (two wires of N and P are 
wound parallel as a pair); 82: 44 turns No. 22 dec wire; T: 18 turns No. 22 dec wire. Coils A, Si, 82 
and T are each individually wound under two and over two spokes of the form. The NP coil is wound 

under one and over one spoke 



Radio Broadcast 




A N EW TV PE 
of the P-S coil 
of the diamond 

weave winding 



THE N-P-S 

UNIT 

Made of coils 
wound in dia- 
mond w e a v t e . 
They are a new 
possibility for the 
Roberts circuit 




with cylindrical coils, it is suggested that they 
use the same number of turns as specified for 
the spiderwebs and then increase or decrease 
the number of turns, as the case may be, until 
a satisfactory arrangement is provided. 

NEW COILS FOR THE TWO AND FOUR TUBE 
KNOCKOUT 

SOME of our readers have reported some 
difficulties in making the two- and four- 
tube knockout receivers employing the Roberts 
circuit perform satisfactorily. We have found 
that in many instances this difficulty has been 
caused by faulty manufacture in connection 
with the spiderweb coils. In some of these 
units, the coils were wound in the wrong di- 
rection, and occasionally turns in one or more 
of the coils have been short-circuited. 

During the past few weeks, we have exper- 
imented rather extensively with the coils illu- 
strated here, which are made by the F. W. 
Sickles Company, of Springfield, Massachu- 
setts, and have found that the difficulties re- 



ferred to in the case of the spiderwebs were 
not encountered. With good condensers we 
have discovered that these coils will cover a 
wider band of wavelengths than was possible 
with the spiderwebs, permitting reception on 
amateur waves at the lower end and commer- 
cial stations at the upper. 



The following numbers of RADIO BROAD- 
CAST have contained constructional and 
operating information about the Roberts 
circuits. 

RADIO BROADCAST for April, 1924, pages 456 to 460 



May, 

" July, 

" August ' 
" September 

" October 
" November 

" December 



73 to 78 
' *2 

279 to 285 

and 308 to 314 

379 to 386 

and 438 

490 to 497 

60 to 62 

and 1 12 

" 279 to 281 




A CORNER IN A 

GERMAN TUBE 

FACTORY 



The German Radio Patents 

The History of Certain Important Patents Seized 
During the War, and Now Released for General Use 



OM'E of the outstanding events in the 
radio patent field took place Oct. 30, 
1924, when the Navy Department 
decided to issue licenses to approxi- 
mately sixty independent radio manufacturers 
under 129 German patents seized by the 
Alien Property Custodian during the World 
War. 

Early in 1923, application for the patents 
had been filed, but no decisive action was 
taken by the Washington authorities. The 
cooperation of Congressman Fred Britten of 
Chicago, the National Association of Broad- 
casters, and the Radio Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation was enlisted. 
The majority of the 
patents and applications 
involved were originally 
owned by the Tele- 
funken Company, a 
German corporation. 
Among their patents is 
the controlling patent 
covering tuned radio 
frequency amplification 
the well-known Wil- 
helm Schloemilch and 
Otto von Bronk patent. 
Under a series of con- 
tracts, the first dated 
Feb. 21,1913, substantial 
rights in these patents 
and applications were as- 
signed by the Tele- 
funken Company to the 
Atlantic Communication 
Company, a German 
corporation organized 
under the laws of the 
State of New York. 

Under the provision 
of the Trading With 
the Enemy Act, as 
amended, the Alien 
Property Custodian 
seized all right, title, and 
interest in and to these 
letters patent and appli- 
cation, which remained 
in the Telefunken 




Underwood & Underwood 

CONGRESSMAN FRED BRITTEN 

Of Illinois, in an unconventional attitude. 

Mr. Britten was influential in having the radio 

patent situation clarified according to the 

recent ruling of the Attorney General 



Company, and simultaneously took over the 
Atlantic Communication Company. 

Under the provisions of the Trading With 
the Enemy Act, as amended, the Alien Prop- 
erty Custodian on Feb. 5, 1919, sold to the 
Secretary of the Navy, representing the United 
States, all right, title, and interest in and to 
the said patents, which had been vested in 
the Atlantic Communication Company and 
acquired by him from it. Next day the 
Custodian also sold to the Secretary of the 
Navy all right, title, and interest in and to the 
patents and applications which had remained 
in the Telefunken Company after the assign- 
ment to the Atlantic 
Communication Com- 
pany, and which had 
been acquired by the 
Custodian. 

These sales were out- 
right, without any 
limitations, and covered 
all the rights acquired 
by the Government. 
The sale expressly in- 
cludes "the sole and ex- 
clusive right, license, 
and authority to manu- 
facture or cause to be 
manufactured within the 
United States, its Terri- 
tories and dependencies, 
and within the Republic 
of Cuba, and the right 
to sell and install, to 
use and to grant the 
right to use. . . ." 

THE SALE IS LEGAL 

THERE is no ques- 
tion about the 
legality, of sales of this 
nature. Title to pro- 
perty so acquired vests 
in the United States. 
The Attorney General 
has so decided. 

It is also established 
that the grant of a re- 
vocable, non-exclusive 



5 .6 



Radio Broadcast 



license to use patents valuable to the manu- 
facture of radio apparatus is well within the 
discretion of the Secretary of the Navy. 

On Aug. 5, 1920, the Secretary of the Navy 
granted to the International Radio Telegraph 
Company a non-exclusive, irrevocable license, 
without royalty, to make, use, and sell for the 
purposes and to the extent which the de- 
partment has a right to do the inventions 
covered by the patents. 

The theory on which the independent manu- 
facturers requested grant of license was that 
such grant would tend to advance the welfare 
of the people of the United States and would 
promote a healthy competition in the manu- 
facture and sale of radio apparatus; that to 
withhold such license would tend to injure 
the public welfare by tending to promote 
monopoly contrary to the policy declared 
by the Sherman act; that the denial of 
the license to the applicants would make 
the International Radio Telegraph Com- 
pany the only licensee, which would be 
inconsistent with governmental policy as to 
monopoly. 

As a part consideration for granting the 
license, the independent radio manufacturers 
agreed to grant to the United States of Amer- 
ica, represented by the Secretary of the 
Navy, a non-transferable, non-exclusive li- 
cense under United States letters patent 
which they now own or may hereafter own 
during the term of the agreement, to make or 
have made for it and use for governmental 
purposes apparatus utilizing or embodying 



the inventions of their patents, but not for 
sale. 

It is claimed that this grant of license by 
the Navy Department to the independent 
radio manufacturers will completely change 
the complexion of patent litigation. 

One of the chief obstacles to the greatest 
development of the industry is thus removed. 
The complexities of the radio patent situation 
have been minimized. 

A "muffler" or "blocking" tube is a 
vacuum tube used in a special circuit to 
climate radiation from a receiving set. The 
patent which covers this method of preventing 
radiation is owned by the United States Navy 
Department. Proposals have been made to 
release the invention to the public so that 
American manufacturers can develop a device 
to stop the interference caused by radiation 
of receivers. 

The patent was originally issued on Feb. 
17, 1914, by the United States Patent Office 
to two Germans, Wilhelm Schloemilch and 
Otto von Bronk. The patent is 1,087,892 
and is titled "Means for Receiving Electrical 
Oscillations." 

Since this patent was finally granted during 
the World War to citizens of Germany it was 
seized by the Alien Property Custodian Jan. 
28, 1919. It was sold by the Alien Property 
Custodian on Feb. 6, 1919, to the United 
States Government as represented by the 
Secretary of the Navy. The legal title now 
belongs to the United States Navy Depart- 
ment. New York Times. 



THE COVERED WAGON IN NEW MEXICO 

Captain Irwin navigating a pass through the mountains in New Mexico on his way to California. He is 
now in California where great interest is being show in the WAGON and its cargo of receivers developed in 

the RADIO BROADCAST LABORATORY 




Principles of Feed Back Circuits 

Various Applications of this Method, Regener- 
ation, to Receivers A Simplified Explanation 

WHAT MAKES THE WHEELS GO 'ROUND: IX 
BY WALTER VAN B. ROBERTS 



IT IS particularly fitting that this installment of Mr. Roberts's interesting series of 
technical discussions which we have been printing since the March, 1924, RADIO 
BROADCAST should have to do with regeneration and the feed back principle, for 
the interesting application of that method is one of the features of his now famous 
Roberts Knock-Out circuit. Many wild claims are being made these days for 
various neutralizing circuits, and good radio terms are being played with fast and 
loose. Some of Mr. Roberts's remarks may serve to clear up misunderstandings 
which exaggerated claims have caused. This installment is quite worth the read- 
ing. THE EDITOR. 



BESIEGED on all sides by new circuits 
bearing peculiar Greekish names such 
as Homodyne, Neutrodyne, Pliodyne, 
and Superdyne, and others less 
mysterious-sounding but equally impressive, 
such as regenerative and super-regenerative, 
the radio enthusiast will do well to deepen his 
understanding of the principle of "feed back," 
upon which the operation of most receiving 
circuits depends in greater or less degree. 
Fundamentally, the idea of "feed back" 
is quite simple: energy in the form of alter- 
nating current is picked up by the antenna and 
amplified by one or more vacuum tubes. 
Some of the amplified alternating current 
energy is then used to produce a voltage that 
is fed back to the antenna or other part of the 
circuit. In the simple regenerative circuit, 
the voltage thus fed back into the antenna in- 
creases the current in the antenna, and hence 




FIG. 58 



increases the strength of the signals. Figs. 58 
and 59 are familiar single-circuit regenerative 
receivers working in this fashion. In Fig. i, 
voltage is fed back into the antenna circuit 
by the coupling to the coil L of the coil T 
(the tickler) which carries the amplified alter- 
nating current. 

74- THE TUNED PLATE CIRCUIT 

IN FIG. 59, the voltage produced by the 
amplified current flowing through the vario- 
meter V is fed back to the antenna circuit 
through the capacity (shown in Fig. 59, as a 
small condenser drawn in dotted lines) that 
exists inside the tube between the grid and 
plate and the wires leading to them. 

This latter is often called a "tuned plate 
circuit" regenerative receiver, but it is easy 
to see that the plate circuit is not tuned, at 
least not in the ordinary sense of the word, be- 
cause the amount of inductance in the vario- 
meter required for regeneration is very largely 
determined by the filament current and B bat- 
tery voltage, whereas the inductance required 
for tuning in the ordinary sense is determined 
only by the frequency of the signal. 

75. RELATION OF VOLTAGE PHASE TO FEED 
BACK 

SO FAR, only simple special cases of feed 
back have been considered. In general, 
feed back has two features: 

1. The amount of voltage fed back, and 

2. The phase of the voltage fed back. 



5 l8 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 59 

While a complete explanation of the word 
"phase" would be too much to include here, 
yet those unfamiliar with it may be able to 
get an idea of its meaning from the following: 
Consider the familiar circuit of Fig. 58. Re- 
generation is accomplished by bringing the 
feed back coil T up close to the antenna coil L. 
Now suppose that coil T is turned around so 
as to present its other side to L without chang- 
ing the distance between them. (Or, what is 




FIG. 60 

the same thing, the connections to T are 
reversed). The amount of voltage fed back 
into the antenna circuit will be unaltered but 
its phase will be reversed, or expressed other- 
wise, its phase will be changed by 180 degrees. 
It might seem reasonable to suppose that if we 
turned the tickler coil only, say, a tenth of 
the way around we would alter the phase of the 
feed back by 18. This is however not the 
case. In this simple circuit we can adjust 
the amount of feed, back to whatever we 
want, but the onlv control we have over its 




FIG. 61 



phase is the choice of the two values 180 
apart. If, by reversing the connections to T, 
we get the wrong one, the result is that in- 
stead of regeneration we will have what might 
be called ^generation, or weakening of the 
signals. In between these two extremes there 
are other possibilities. If we could manage 
somehow to feed back a voltage having a 
phase 90 different from those considered 
above, there would be no effect upon the 
signals. Feed backs having other phases 
cause more or less regeneration or degener- 
ation. 

76. r HOW CORRECT PHASE IS ATTAINED 

WHENEVER feed back is desired, 
whether for regeneration or to neutral- 
ize some undesired feed back, it should be 
supplied not only in the correct amount, but 
also in the correct phase. In practice, a small 
error in phase is not serious, as the feed back 
can be considered to be composed of two feed 
backs, one having just the right phase and the 
other being off by 90 and hence having no 
effect at all. Theoretically however it would 
be desirable to have complete control over 
both the phase and amount of feed back to 
any part of the receiver or amplifier, and this 
can be obtained in a number of ways, the 
same general idea being behind them all. 

Perhaps the most elegant method is that 
shown in Fig. 62. To make things definite, 
suppose this represents the last tube of a 
radio-frequency amplifier. Coils a and b are 
in a fixed mounting, concentric but at right 
angles. The condenser in series with "a" 
is adjusted so that the phase of the current 
through "a" is the same as if resistance alone 
were present in the lower branch. The con- 
denser in series with "b" is adjusted so that 
the reactance of the upper branch is equal to 
the resistance of the lower branch. Thus the 
currents in the two coils will be equal in 
magnitude but 90 out of phase. As a result, 
a rotating magnetic field is produced. If now 
a small coil "c" is properly pivoted inside the 
other two coils, it will pick up a voltage which 
will be of the same amount in whatever 
direction it is turned, but the phase of the 
voltage depends upon the position into which 
it is turned and can be set to any value what- 
ever. The feed back from "c" to the desired 
part of the circuit can be effected either 
magnetically as shown in Fig. 63 or electrostati- 
cally as shown in Fig. 64. If it is desired to 
feed back to two different points another coil 
"d" maybe placed inside of "c" and operated 



Principles of Feed Back Circuits 



independently of "c." In Fig. 63 the amount of 
the feed back is controlled by the closeness of 
magnetic coupling to the desired part of the 
circuit, in Fig. 64 by the amount of capacity 
coupling; in both cases the phase is adjusted 




FIG. 62 

by rotating coil "c." When it is desired to lis- 
ten to a different station the two condensers in 
Fig. 62 must be readjusted, but as their adjust- 
ment is not critical they may be shafted to- 
gether and the dial set to the wave length 
desired, the dial readings being previously 






FIG. 63 



FIG. 64 

calibrated in wave lengths. In actual practice 
a radio-frequency choke coil would have to 
be shunted around one of the condensers to 
afford a path for the direct component of" 
plate current. 

The above very general type of feed back 
was devised about two years ago by the writer 
and successfully used to control the tendency 
to regenerate in a two-stage Radio Corpora- 
tion u.v. 1714 transformer-coupled amplifier. 
On account of its complexity however it is by 
no means recommended for ordinary use. The 
chief thing is that it is a general method of 
which regeneration, the neutrodyne, and the 
superdyne as well as other less well known 
circuits are merely simplified special cases, 
and if its action is well understood, many 
queer looking new circuits can be "solved" 
at a glance. 



The next article in this series by 
Mr. Roberts will discuss the super- A 
heterodyne. 



The Complete Re 

RADIO BROADCAST Will Publish Its Own Com 
Radio Broadcast Tests Involving Two 

By ARTHUR 

THIS number of RADIO BROADCAST is going to press just 
as the International Radio Broadcast tests are at their 
zenith and it is impossible to get a complete story of the 
most interesting radio event in history into type in time 
to make our presses. The first two days of the tests, every tele- 
phone in the Doubleday, Page & Company plant was swamped 
with local and long-distance calls, and the telegraph offices in our 
vicinity were overwhelmed with messages from every part of the 
United States, reporting successful reception of foreign broadcasts. 
The forecast, made in earlier numbers of this magazine, that 
reception from abroad would be very generally and surprisingly 
successful this year, in certain contrast to last year, is certainly 
borne out in no uncertain fashion. Thousands and thousands of 
listeners have reported their success to us, and that, in spite of 
great atmospheric difficulties the first few nights. 

We are compiling the complete story of the tests for the February 
RADIO BROADCAST, which is as soon as we can possibly print it, 
and we know that every radio fan, whether or not he is a regular 
reader or subscriber to the magazine will be intensely interested 
in reading the fascinating story of events radio as they progressed 
at our laboratory at Garden City, at the Army Air station at 
Mitchel Field, in the offices of the British Broadcasting Company 
at London, and at the Wireless World and Radio Review in the 
same city. 

OFFICIAL LISTENING POSTS 

WELL known radio amateurs, newspapers, broadcasting sta- 
tions, and manufacturers' engineers were all appointed as 
official listening posts and it is going to take some time to group 
their reports and to analyze their experiences. Some of the best 
radio locations in the New York territory were secured and special 
receivers installed. Stories of loud-speaker reception of the foreign 
stations await only the telling. 

An official of the New York office of the United Press told us that 
the interest expressed by newspapers all over the country as shown 
by telegrams and telephone calls in their office was "positively 
phenomenal." Several men in the various news services did nothing 



port in February 

plete and Exclusive Story of Its International 
Continents and Millions of Radio Listeners 

H. LYNCH 

else for several days but devote themselves to handling news matter 
about the tests. 

The International Radio Broadcast tests are full of powerful 
potentialities for international betterment and a firmer basis for 
understanding. More than one person has agreed with us on this 
stand. We have the following copy of a telegram which bears out 
this contention and phrases the idea in most powerful fashion. 




HEARD MENTION LAST EVENING OP TONIGHT'S GALA PROGRAM AND 
CONGRATULATE YOU THEREON STOP THIS WEEK IS CERTAINLY A 
GALA EVENT IN RADIO BUT PEOPLE SEEMINGLY REGARD INTER- 
NATIONAL BROADCASTS AS JUST INTERESTING PEATS STOP 
MOMENT'S THOUGHT WILL REVEAL AMAZING POTENTIALITIES POR' 
BENEPIT MANKIND IN PREE EXCHANGE OPINIONS BETWEEN NATIONS 
STOP IP ANYTHING WILL PUT ALL BATTLESHIPS AT BOTTOM OP 
OCEAN WHERE THEY BELONG UNDER A REAL CIVILIZATION RADIO,' S 
INPLUENCE IN PROMOTING BETTER UNDERSTANDING AND MORE 
INTELLIGENT PUBLIC OPINION AMONG THE NATIONS WILL BE THAT, 
PACTOR 

ERIC H PALMER BROOKLYN NEW YORK 
24 NOVEMBER 1924 

We shall make an effort to print the names of all those whose 
reception of the foreign programs has been verified, but the number 
may grow too large by the end of the test, in which case other 
arrangements will have to be made. 

All the American broadcasters showed unanimously that they 
appreciated the importance and interest attaching to this test and 
were good enough almost unanimously to keep off the air during 
the foreign transmission periods. It was almost without exception 
that the American stations kept off the air and used every means 
within their power to see that the American air was free for listeners 
on this side. This involved considerable sacrifice on the part of 
some of the stations who had contracts with various organizations. 

The official detailed story complete with exclusive photographs 
will appear in February. 




WHEN YOU WRITE THE GRID . . . 

Don't fail to enclose a stamped, self -addressed envelope with your 
inquiry if you expect a personal reply. 

Don't be impatient if you do not receive an immediate answer. Every 
letter is answered in the order of its receipt. Do not send a second letter 
asking about the first. 

Look over your files of RADIO BROADCAST before asking a question 
which might have been covered in a previous issue. 

Don't ask for a comparison between manufactured apparatus. The 
addresses of manufacturers of articles used in the construction of ap- 
paratus described in RADIO BROADCAST will be given on request. 

Don't include questions on subscription orders or inquiries to other 
departments of Doubleday, Page Co. Address a separate inquiry to 
The Grid. 

Don't send us a fee for answering your questions. The Grid Depart- 
ment is maintained for the aid and convenience of readers of RADIO 
BROADCAST and there is no charge for the service. 



QUERIES ANSWERED 



HOW MAY I ADD AN R. F. AMPLIFIER TO MY 
HAYNES SUPER'? 

W. H. - Baldwin, L. I. 

HOW CAN I INSERT A JACK IN MY CIRCUIT FOR 
LOOP USE? 

E. J. B. Lansing, Mich. 

WHAT is A COUNTERPOISE AND HOW is IT USED? 
L. W. A. Chicago, Illinois. 

CAN YOU GIVE ME A FEW POINTS ON TROUBLE- 
SHOOTING IN THE KNOCKOUT CRYSTAL REFLEX 
CIRCUIT? 

W. E. D. Peru, Indiana. 



MY ROBERTS RECEIVER DOES NOT OPERATE COR- 
RECTLY. HOW CAN I TEST IT FOR DEFECTS, ETC.? 
C. J. F. Chicago, Illinois. 

CAN CYLINDRICAL COILS BE USED IN THE ROBERTS 
CIRCUIT? 

M. J. M. Atlanta, Georgia. 

WILL YOU PUBLISH A BUZZER CIRCUIT FOR THE 
PRACTISE OF CODE? 

A. W. M. Bronx, New York City. 
WHAT RHEOSTATS SHOULD BE USED WITH 2oi-A 

TUBES? 

R. N. R., Memphis, Tennessee. 



MAKING THE SUPER MORE SENSITIVE 

FOR those who, like Mr. W. H., wish to make 
their Haynes super-heterodyne more sensitive 
to weak signals emanating from great dis- 
tances, the information contained herewith should 
be helpful. 

The circuit in Fig. i-A shows the use of an 



antenna and an extra stage of neutralized radio- 
frequency amplification placed before the first 
detector tube of the "super" receiver. It is quite 
necessary that this stage of amplification be neutral- 
ized, especially when the antenna is used, so that 
radiation does not occur. Ordinarily a good super 
does not require the use of an antenna as a collec- 
tive agency and its use is poor practise. In Fig. i 



The Grid 



523 



RADIO FREQUENCY AMPLIFIER 



HAYNES "SUPER" CIRCUIT 




FIG. I 



its use is indicated for general purposes when the 
R. F. amplifier is connected with other circuits. The 
method for plugging in a loop is shown in Fig. 2. 
Explaining the circuit in Fig. i-A, no changes or 
alterations are necessary in the Haynes circuit. 
The amplifier may be constructed so as to be entirely 
contained in its own cabinet as a separate unit. 
See Fig. i-B and C. For the sake of compactness 
P and S of Ti and N P-S of Ta may be wound on 
spiderweb forms similar to those used in the Knock- 
out Roberts receivers. The number of turns for 
each coil is as follows: 

Ti-P 40 turns No. 22 dec wire S 44 turns No. 22 
dec wire. T2-N 20 turns No. 24 dec wire P 20 turns 
No. 24 dec wire S 44 turns No. 22 dec wire. 

If it is desired, P of Ti may be wound with about 
ten turns to make the antenna circuit a periodic or 
untuned. 2, the neutralizing capacity may 
be made by connecting a 4" piece of bus bar to the 
grid post of the tube. A piece of spaghetti in- 
sulating tubing is slipped over it and on top of this 
is wound two or three inches of bare wire with the 
turns soldered together making it one continuous 
piece of wire tubing. Ci is a .0005 mfd. variable 
condenser preferably of a vernier type. 

Coils N and P are wound as a parallel pair of 
wires. In this instance two spools of No. 24 dec 
wire may be used for simultaneously winding both 
turns together. A panel and base layout are shown 
for use primarily as a guide, not as an actual definite 
placement for the parts. This type of amplifier 
will fit in nicely as an addition to any type of 
receiver. See articles in the March and May, 1924, 
RADIO BROADCAST for additional details. 



DOUBLE CIRCUIT JACK FOR CHANGE-OVER PURPOSES 

IN THE multi-tube radio frequency receivers, 
super-heterodynes, and neutrodynes, a double 
circuit jack may be included to change auto- 
matically from loop to antenna by merely inserting a 
plug to which the loop has been connected, in the jack. 
This feature will also apply especially to those who 
are inclined to experiment with couplers of various 
designs, antennas, loops, etc. The circuit in Fig. 2 
shows how the adaption is made. The secondary of 
an additional coupler may be connected to the in- 
serted plug which is of the Weston or other "instant 
change" type. 

USE AND VALUE OF A COUNTERPOISE 

MANY operators of receivers are troubled by 
broad tuning or by their peculiarity of 
picking up local disturbances caused by 
telephone ringers, house-lighting circuits, vacuum 
cleaners, elevators etc. Usually these defects may 
be attributed to faulty ground systems to which 
many of the above named apparatus are connected. 
A counterpoise, very similar to an ordinary flat top 
antenna, excepting that it is mounted just above the 
earth or in the cellar of one's home, may be ad- 
vantageously employed to eliminate these forms of 
disturbances. In Fig. 3, several forms of counter- 
poise are shown with their constructional details and 
method of use. It is only necessary to remember 
that to be efficient they should be well insulated 
from near-by objects. Any type of wire, insulated 
or bare, may be used. Porcelain cleats may be 
economically used as insulators. The counter- 



524 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 2 



poise is connected to the radio receiver in place of 
the ordinary ground connection. 

USING STANDARD PARTS FOR THE ROBERTS CIRCUIT 

IN THE matter of substitute coils to replace the 
spiderwebs used in the RADIO BROADCAST 
Knock-out circuit, it is well to understand from 
the start that endeavors along these lines so far have 
been experimental in nature. Many experimenters 
are working on the problem, and in a short while no 
doubt the needs of all will be 
satisfied in this particular 
connection. 

RADIO BROADCAST has ex- 
perimented|with various forms 
and herewith is presented a 
few guiding facts which may 
prove helpful to those who 
wish to experiment of their 
own accord. 

In most instances those 
couplers now on the market 
such as Ambassador, Sham- 
rock, Fischer, Eastern pickle- 
bottle, and others of a similar 
constructional nature may 
be advantageously experi- 
mented with by merely add- 
ing to, or rewinding the 
primary coil constituting the 
N-P winding of the Roberts 
circuit. The turn ratio be- 
tween primary and second- 
ary will vary according to 
the coupler used and no 
definite value can be given. 
In general it is well to use 

the same number of turns as specified for the spi- 
derwebs, then vary for satisfactory operation. 
Instead of a double wound primary a coil of 
twice the number of turns as specified may be used 



taking off a center tap as shown in Fig. 5 and 6. In 
most instances the placement of the primary N-P 
coil will have a very decided effect upon the opera- 
tion of the receiver. The usual practice is to rewind 
the primary N-P coil directly over the secondary 
with cambric cloth insulation between the two. 

Standard neutroformers offer an opportunity for 
interesting experiment. The present primaries may 
be removed and double-wound coils substituted. 
In this case the N-P-coil would consist of as many 
turns per coil as the removed primary. A vario- 
meter in the plate circuit of the detector tube will 
provide regeneration. 

Mr. Roberts, in his original article describing the 
two-tube receiver, mentioned the fact that the two 
wires constituting the N-P winding should be wound 
physically as close together as is possible. From 
Mr. Roger Whitman, Associate Editor of Country 
Life, comes the suggestion of cutting two pieces of 
wire long enough to provide 20 turns each for the 
N-P coil and twist them together. Mr. Whitman 
has found that with about 3 to 5 twists to the inch 




TO RECEIVER 

FLOOR. INSULATOR TU8E /FLOORING 




RADIAL I T K- 
FLAT TOP 



SUPPORT COUNTER'OISE- 



CEILINS T1M&ERS TYPES OF GROUND LAYOU1S 

IN CELLAR FOR. COUNTERPOISE 




FIG. 4 



DOUBLE WOUND N-P COIL 

PLACED ON SAME PLANE 

WITH SECONDARY 



FIG. 5 

this arrangement provided more stable, sharper 
operation. Figs. 4 and 5 are illustrations of the vari- 
ous points explained herein. Fig. 6 shows the circuit 
diagram for the connection of the coupler with the 
split primary illustrated in Fig. 5 

GENERAL POINTERS ON THE ROBERTS CIRCUIT 

MR. C. J. F'S. question is similar to a number 
of others received by THE GRID. The 
following general pointers will serve as an 
aid in locating and eliminating the troubles some- 
times found in the RADIO BROADCAST Knock-out 
Roberts receivers. 

1. Check over all the parts to be used, be- 
fore assembling, with a view to preventing the 
use of defective parts. A pair of phones and a 
C battery, used as a testing circuit, will un- 
cover any open circuits in the various coils, 
transformers etc., and any possible short cir- 
cuits in the several condensers to be used. 

2. Tubes offer one of the greatest hin- 
drances to proper, efficient operation. This is 



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especially true in the case of the detector tube. 
Change around the tubes until their best oper- 
ating position is found. 

3. Manufactured and home-made coils may 
be so mounted that the direction of winding in 
several of the coils is found to be opposite. 
Check over the coil assembly and be sure that 



TROUBLE SHOOTING IN THE CRYSTAL REFLEX 
RECEIVER 



T 



I HE use of good, tested crystals in the RADIO 
BROADCAST Knockout crystal reflex receiver 
cannot be emphasized too much. Poor 
crystals will cause squealing due to regeneration 




FIG. 5 



THE N-P COIL 
PLACED OVER THE SECONDARY 



all the coils are mounted so that the winding 
direction in all the coils is the same. 

4. When regeneration does not occur, it is 
an indication that the tickler coil is reversed. 
Also, the B battery voltage on the detector 
tube may be too low. On the other hand, if 
regeneration is too pronounced, the circuit 
going in and out of oscillation with a decided 
"plop," it is quite evident that excessive de- 
tector plate voltage is being applied and must 
be reduced for more stable operation. 

5. Howling may be due to (a) an inter- 
action or feedback between the several cir- 
cuits; (b) Reversed leads to the primary of the 
audio reflex transformer, (c) Incorrect values 
of C battery. In some cases it will be found 
necessary to ground the negative side of the 
A battery to obtain stability. 

6. Grid leaks clear up, to a marked degree, 
the volume and tone quality delivered by the 
receiver. Try various values of leak and grid 
condenser. 

7. The spiderweb coils; as designed, will 
cover the entire broadcasting wavelength when 
the secondaries are shunted by .0005 mfd.. vari- 
able condensers. When the sensitivity of the 
receiver varies for different wavelengths, that 
is to say, when signals received are louder on 
the lower wavelengths than on the higher 
wavelengths, the receiver is then in a condi- 
tion where the step-up of energy is not the 
same over the entire wavelength scale. To 
overcome this, the primaries and secondaries 
of the two couplers must be made semi-variable 
so that resonance may be obtained at all the. 
wavelengths. Variation of the turn-ratio be- 
tween primary and secondary will also serve 
to eliminate this trouble. 

8. The use of a by-pass condenser shunted 
across the C battery and secondary of the 
audio reflex transformer as outlined in the 
November GRID is not a general cure-all for 
poor volume output. In a majority of cases 
this procedure does "tone up" the receiver 
quite appreciably. This usually depends upon 
the value of C battery and type of audio reflex 
transformer used. 




CENTER 
TAP 



FIG. 6 



produced by a high resistance contact on the crystal 
This condition also causes body capacity effects re. 
suiting in unbalanced operation. 

It is essential that the negative side of the A 
battery be grounded. It would be well to have 
the negative side of the A and B battery connected 
together, thus providing a common ground for both 



BUZZER 




FIG. 7 



batteries. In some cases, due to internal charac- 
teristics of the receiver this does not work out well 
and it is necessary to connect the negative B to the 
positive A post. 

A CIRCUIT FOR CODE PRACTICE 

THOSE who have a longing to know the code 
used in radio communication will find the 
circuit shown in Figs. 7 and 8 useful in the prac- 
tise of sending and receiving dots and dashes. The 
system is especially applicable to Radio Clubs, 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



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This application of regeneration is 
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of selectivity, sensitivity, volume 
and range. 

This Model L-2 Ultradyne, 
without a doubt, represents the 
peak of present day super-radio 
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Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 



528 



Radio Broadcast 




FIG. 



A picture diagram of the actual layout of the parts 
and wiring. Only the keys, buzzer, coil, binding 
posts, etc., need be mounted on the top of the oper- 
ating table while all the wiring is made on the under 
side. As may be seen from the schematic diagram 
in Fig. 7 the secondary-key-phone circuit is a series 
parallel one allowing provision for additional oper- 
ating positions 



quency transformer and is a positive 
means for controlling the volume 
with its resultant distortion. The 
Bradleyleak and other commercial 
types of variable resistance are 
admirably suited for this use. 

In a unit of this kind a power 
amplifier tube works better than the 
ordinary type of vacuum tube 
the uvaoiA. The standard 5 
watt tube or any of the Western 
Electric power amplifier tubes are 
fine for this purpose. Power am- 
plifier tubes require a higher plate 
voltage than the uvaoiA's and 
in most circuits the addition of 
a C battery inserted in the lower 
lead of the secondary of the trans- 
former returning to the negative 
side of the filament supply will 
often clarify and stabilize the cir- 
cuit quite noticeably. The nega- 
tive side of the C battery should 
connect to the secondary of the 
transformer and the positive ter- 
minal of the C battery should con- 
nect to the negative side of the 
filament supply. The value of C 
battery is governed by the amount 
of plate voltage used and is out- 
lined in the following table: 



school classes, and other organizations desiring a PLATE VOLTAGE 

means for group practise. 40 

The material needed is a buzzer capable of pro- 60 

ducing a high-frequency note (the General Radio 80 

and Federal buzzers are very good for this work) a 100 

telephone induction coil, a switch, a key and pair 12 o 

of phones per person, and the necessary batteries. j^o 

By arranging the parts as shown in Fig. 8 the 
circuit may be controlled by any one of the keys, 
the signal being heard in all the phones. In this 
way it is possible to maintain intercommunication 
between the several receiving points. 

By putting the buzzer in a continuously operated 
circuit, the tone produced will be more constant 
than if the several keys were used to interrupt the 
buzzer circuit. Also, by placing the keys in the 
secondary side of the circuit there will be no ap- 
preciable "lag" or "key thump" in the signals 
as transmitted. 



A POWER AMPLIFIER AND C BATTERY 

THE fundamental idea involved in the design 
and construction of a power amplifier is briefly 
outlined in the circuit shown in Fig. 9. First, a 
low ratio audiofrequency transformer is necessary to 
prevent distortion and unbalance in the input side 
of the vacuum tube. The resistances unit composed 
of various values of resistance from 25,000 to 100,000 
ohms directly shunts the secondary of the audio fre- 



C BATTERY VOLTAGE 

o . 5 to i . o 

i .o to 3.0 

3.oto 4.5 

4. 5 to 6.0 

6.0 to 9.0 

9-O tO 1 2 . 



The use of a C battery in any audio-frequency 
amplifier circuit will materially reduce the current 
drain on the B batteries, thereby increasing the 
number of hours of use of these batteries. A C 
battery will also permit a vacuum tube to function 
at its most efficient point of operation, amplifying 
the signal applied to the grid of the tube in a distor- 
tionless and also economical manner. 




Shows a power amplifier circuit. The volume 
output is controlled by the shunt resistances 




RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



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Eveready "B" Batteries will long 
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There is an Eveready Radio Battery 
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New Equipment 




GRIMES INVERSE DUPLEX 
An inverse duplex receiver designed by the inventor 
of this system of reflexing. It employs three tubes 
and a crystal detector and is very satisfactory for 
quality and distance. Made by David Grimes, 
Inc., 1571 Broadway, New York City 



RADIO 
VOLTMETER 

A double range, 
o-io and 0-50 
volts, voltmeter 
which is well 
made. The 
double range 
makes it possi- 
ble to take ac- 
curate readings 
of A, B and C 
batteries. Made 
by the Roller-Smith Com- 
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A CONDENSER 

Of the all-vernier type, the vernier control is at- 
tained by means of the friction plates showing at the 
back of the condenser. One possibility of loss is 
eliminated because the stator plates are stamped 
from one piece of aluminum and not severed. A 
very good range of capacity is covered. Made by 
the U. S. Tool Company, Inc., 117 Mechanic St., 
Newark, N. J. 




REMLER CAPACITY UNIT 

An instrument of novel design very well built. The 
photograph is the rear view showing the embossed 
plates, twin rotors, and all-vernier control. Made 
by the Remler Radio Mfg. Co., 154 W. Lake St., 
Chicago, Illinois 




SPLITDORF RECEIVER 

The Splitdorf receiver is a five-tube neutralized set of the tuned radio-frequency type. It is of fine 
appearance and a very pleasing set to operate. Made by the Splitdorf Electrical Co., 392 High St., 

Newark, N. J. Price $150 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



531 




The FA DA Neutroceiver 

will surpass anything you have 

expected of a radio receiver 



VOLUME? The FADA Neutro- 
ceiver will give you all the con- 
trolled volume you can possibly 
desire. Designed to use powerful 
tubes and operate on either indoor 
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teed to give powerful results. 

Clarity? This wonderful, five- 
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quality which is unexcelled. It re- 
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voice and of every musical instru- 
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Selectivity? Separates stations, 
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lengths are but a few 
meters apart. 

Simplicity of control? 
Anyone, without exper- 



UTR 



ience, can operate the Neutro- 
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bring them back night after night. 
Beauty? As a piece of art- 
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gently to facilitate easy tuning. 

Supplementing the FADA Neu- 
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each a remarkable value. 

See your dealer. 




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F. A. D. ANDREA, INC., 1581 JEROME AVENUE, NEW YORK 




a d i o 




Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 




Our ^Authors 



PEMINGTON SCHUYLER is repre- 

l^- sented with the cover on RADIO BROAD- 
CAST this month and a story "Static Days and 
Nights" both of 
which tell some of 
his experiences in 
ranch life in the 
West. "Building a 
house has certainly 
kept me busy," 
writes Mr.Schuyler, 
but my first celebra- 
tion in the new home 
is going to be a 
Four-Tube Knock- 
REMINGTON out set." Mr. 

SCHUYLER Schuyler is one of 

In Indian Costume the best known of 

American painters 

of Indians. During Marechal Foch's recent 
tour of this country he was official American 
Legion painter and made portraits of French 
and American officers on the trip. 





|N SEEKING re- 
* lease from amateur 
photography, I found 
a substitute in radio. 
I hocked all my 
cameras and bought 
condensers. I haven't 
had a fish rod in my 
hands since I became 
infected. I am fond 
of soldering paste in 
my coffee and own a 
Roberts Knock-out 
receiver." The photo- 
graph is a flashlight of Mr. Bradford being 
much pained by the squealers. Mr. Bradford, 
cartoonist for the Philadelphia North American, 
did the cartoon which appears as our frontis- 
piece this month. 



W. R. BRADFORD 

In a self-posed photo- 
graph, saying something 
definite about "bloopers" 




B 



F. MIESSNER is a 

c o n's u 1 1 i n g engineer 
with Wired Radio, Inc., 
New York. He has been 
for many years engaged in 
radio and electrical work 
for the Navy, John Hays 
Hammond, Jr., and Emil 
B. F. MIESSNER J. Simon. For a time, he 
was director of the 
acoustical research laboratories of the Bruns- 
wick Balke Collender Company at Chicago. 
Mr. Miessner invented the Automatic Helio- 




ALBERT C. ALLEN 
Taking movies of wild life 



trophic Machine (the Electric Dog). He is 
also the author of Radio Dynamics, published 
by D. Van Nostrand and Company. 

TAMES MILLEN is a student at Stevens 
J Institute of Technology and is specializing 
in radio work. 

ALBERT C. AL- 
LEN "was born 
and raised in the 
regular army, and 
served in the Span- 
ish and Phillipine 
wars." He has 
always lived in what 
he calls "the real 
West" West of the 
Rockies, and has of 
late been particu- 
larly interested in 

horticulture, and also in photographing wild 
life. 

DOBERT H. MARRIOTT is not un- 
1^- familiar to readers of this magazine, for 
his contributions have appeared here quite 
frequently. One of Mr. Marriott's distinc- 
tions is that he was the first president of 
the Institute of Radio Engineers. He was 
one of the first to take up radio engineering as 
a profession and began actively in 1901. He is 
now chief radio engineer for the Puget Sound 
Navy Yard at Bremerton, Washington. 

FRANK E. BUTLER is well known to 
many old timers in radio when it was 
wireless. The story of his experiences with 
Dr. Lee De Forest in the early experimental 
days is printed in this magazine for the first 
time, and, according to the mail we are re- 
ceiving in the office, is attracting an unusual 
amount of attention. There are more articles 
by him to follow. 

MC MURDO 
SILVER is a 
rare combination 
among radio men. 
His spare hours, in- 
stead of being de- 
voted to radio, as 
are those of most 
other radio men, 
are devoted to 
James Branch Ca- 
bell, Arthur Machen, and Roland Firbank. 




MCMURDO SILVER 



RADIO BROADCAST ADVERTISER 



657 




Radiotron 

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The standard 
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tube. 



^N "tf ^ 

jret a good detector 



Radiotrons WD-11 
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Radiotron WD-12 
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What will Radiotron WD-1 1 and WD-12 do as de- 
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superlatively sensitive, as remarkable distance per- 
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Second, they are good "oscillators" and that is 
important in regenerative circuits. And third, they 
are quiet in operation add no electrical noises to 
the music, or speech. Radiotrons WD-11 and 
WD-12 are famous as audio and radio frequency 
amplifiers too and have made possible the hun- 
dreds of thousands of dry battery receivers that are 
in use today. They mean clear, true reception 
over big distances with dry batteries! Be sure 
to get a genuine Radiotron. 

Radio Corporation of America 

Sales Offices: Suite No. 32 

233 Broadway, New York 10 So. La Salle St., Chicago, III. 

28 Geary St., San Francisco, Cal. 




R-EG. -U. S. PAT. OFF. 



Tested and approved by RADIO BROADCAST 




mggm 




THE HUB OF THE INTERNATIONAL RADIO BROADCAST TESTS 

The masts of ibe receiving and transmitting station at tie laboratory of tins magazine. Two separate 
cage antennas are used, one for receiving and one for transmitting. The insert shows a corner of tbe 
laboratory with John B. Brennan, H'illis K. Wing, and Zeb Bouek'jof tbe editorial staff. Mr. Brennan 
is operating a super-heterodyne and a Knockout four-tube receiver as an alternate. Mr. Wing is oper- 
ating tbe line u'bicb controls tbe wireless circuit to London, and Mr. Bouck is talking over tbe radio to 
official listening posts at Mitcbcl Fitld 



RADIO 




ol. 6, No. 4 




February. 



How Michael Pupin Succeeded 

A Story Which Reads Almost Like a Chapter From Horatio Alger, 
Jr. The History of "Immigrant to Inventor," Whose Electrical 
Inventions Have Greatly Aided Radio, the Cables, and Telephony 



BY MYRA MAY 




STURDY, dark-haired boy, clad in 
a summer suit of clothes and wearing 
a red Turkish fez, crept close to a 
stack on an ocean liner during apar- 

gicularly cold March crossing to America in 

i ^74. He was a queer figure, this youngster of 

Ijfteen, minus the traditional mattress and 

Blanket of the immigrant, with no friends or 

family aboard and only the warm smoke stack 

for company. 

I Yet he kept his courage, although he had 

jwily five cents in his 

Socket, when he 

funded at Castle Gar- 

j|en, at the Battery, 

fS'ew York. The ge- 

j|ial sunshine, the ac- 

vity in the harbor, 

jtshe swarms of people, 

.l|ll thawed out his 

loneliness and au- 
gured that he had 

peached the land of 

Opportunity. When 

%c left the ship, he 

Bought a prune pie 

|rom a vendor. The 

ie, however, proved a 

Siarc and a delusion. 



"The more boys work with 
their apparatus, the more knowl- 
edge of the science of electricity 
they will obtain and the more 
will their interest in the marvels 
of radio be aroused. Radio is 
the coming science and if its 
disciples attain as much practical 
experience and grounding in 
electrical principles as is possible 
to crowd into their lives, they 
can be sure of making progress." 
PROFESSOR PUPIN. 



It was filled with prune pits instead of the 
actual prunes. Having spent his entire cap- 
ital, he nonchalantly strolled up Broadway. 
So Michael Pupin, now professor of electro- 
mechanics at Columbia University, and widely 
known as the inventor of the Pupin coil, en- 
tered America. 

He had run away from home. Back in 
Hungary, he had been known as a bright boy 
who had too easily absorbed the nationalistic 
theories of the radicals and so had been trans- 
ferred from his own 
local school to Prague. 
There, disgusted with 
the military spirit of 
the academy, he de- 
cided to run away to 
America. It was a 
sudden decision- 
There was no time to 
write home and dis- 
cuss the plan, but 
time only to hurry to 
Hamburg where an 
immigrant ship bound 
for America sailed. 
To supplement his 
scanty funds, he sold 
his warm clothing, 



66o 



Radio Broadcast 



his books and even then, lacking sufficient 
money, he had to sell his heavy sheep's wool 
overcoat and cap to eke out his steerage fare. 
Then clad in the light summer suit his sole 
remaining garment plus the red fez, he came 
aboard. 

Immigrants had to supply their own bed- 
ding. But young 
Michael Pupin, too 
poor to buy even a 
mattress and blanket 
for the hard bare 
floor of a third-class 
ship, hugged close to 
the smoke stack and 
fought off intruders. 
He had national tra- 
ditions and five cents 
to bring to the new 
country. 

Discharged from 
Castle Garden, Pupin 
looked with bewil- 
dered eyes at the 
clanging horse cars, 
at the thick network 
of telegraph wires 
overhanging the 
buildings, at the hand- 
some new custom 
house, at the New- 
York of 1874. Prague 
and Budapest had 
seemed bustling cities 
compared to his na- 
tive village but the vastness of New York 
overshadowed even those cities. 

TWO-FISTED AMERICANS 

HE WAS soon accosted by a group of news- 
boys attracted by the novel fez. Pupin 
could speak no English, and the bully of the 
crowd, finding that he could not fight him with 
words, substituted fists. These Pupin under- 
stood much better. In his native Hungary, he 
had tended cattle and out in the open had 
learned wrestling from the sportive herdsmen. 
He was lithe and strong. It was not long be- 
fore he had his adversary down on the ground 
yelling "enough." 

"I then had my first introduction to Amer- 
ica," Professor Pupin relates. "In Europe a 
crowd stuck together, putting up a united 
front against the stranger. Over here, on my 
first morning, the newsboys initiated me into 
the fraternity of fair play. When the boys 
saw that I had won the fight honorably, they 
cheered me and when a large official in blue 



Once in a Lifetime 

The story of the success of Michael Pupin, 
who progressed from a poor immigrant, who 
landed in New York with five cents in his 
pocket, to a famous scientist known and re- 
spected by the entire world is one which can't 
be read very often. But a success such as his 
happens just frequently enough to assure the 
world that such things can happen, after all. 
It was not altogether by what the enthusi- 
astic fiction writers call "sheer pluck and 
indomitable energy" that Pupin arrived at 
the position he now holds. There is a great 
deal of what we call ability involved. Pro- 
fessor Pupin, in addition to being a scientist 
of unquestioned standing and prominence, is 
personally, a tremendously good fellow, as 
any of his acquaintances will tell you. Miss 
May's story is published through arrange- 
ment with Charles Scribner's Sons, New 
York, who publish his autobiography, From 
Immigrant to Inventor. Many of the photo- 
graphs used in this article are reproduced 
through, the courtesy of Scribner's. 

THE EDITOR. 



suddenly appeared, they apparently inter- 
ceded in my behalf, for the large official 
dropped his gruff tones, released my arm and 
even handed me my battered fez, torn and 
dusty from the scuffle. My adversary shook 
hands with me and as I swaggered back to 
Castle Garden the whole crowd cheered. I al- 
ready, liked America. 
Even in far-off 
Hungary the fame of 
Franklin and Lincoln 
had penetrated. 
Now, while working 
on a Delaware farm 
almost his first job 
the immigrant boy 
learned the legends 
of Pocahontas, of the 
Jamestown settle- 
ment, the gallant 
Captain Smith, and 
many of the other 
blood-quickening 
tales of pioneer 
America. 



IN PHILADELPHIA 
LIKE FRANKLIN 



HE lessons which 
I learned from 
my farm teacher 
seemed to prove 
that America was a 
great country with 
equal opportunities 

for all if we could only take advantage of 
them," Professor Pupin says. "I made up 
my mind to find new opportunities for myself, 
to leave the Delaware farm and to journey to 
Philadelphia." 

"I had compared myself to Benjamin 
Franklin, whose story I loved because he had. 
been my incentive in coming to America and 
because he had first awakened an interest in 
electricity. I made my entrance into the 
town in the most approved Franklin manner, 
walking along the street eating a roll. Al- 
though I wandered five days I could find no 
work. I was ready for opportunity but it 
seemed to have passed me by. My heavy 
farm boots were almost worn out from hard 
use I had given them while I searched for a 
job. My ten dollars wages I had brought 
from the farm was nearly gone. As I sat i ft 
Fairmount Park and ate a big Philadelphia 
bun, I reflected that even Franklin with all his 
hardships, had been an American and had 
known the printing trade and all I knew was 



How Michael Pupin Succeeded 



661 



how to drive mules. While 1 moodily specu- 

( lated on my difficulties, a farmer approached 

, me and offered me a job driving mules. 1 

accepted and once more left for the country." 

',' But the farm was hot, the opportunities to 

learn English or a new trade negligible, so once 

rnore Pupin took up his wanderings. From 

the farm in southern Maryland, he journeyed 

to Baltimore and thence to New York. In 

those days before the Pennsylvania tunnel, 

'trains deposited their passengers at Jersey 

'City and a ferry took them over from there to 

New York. Along with the rest of the crowd, 

^Pupin was landed in lower New York in the 

heart of the shipping district. 

As he walked uncertainly through the un- 
familiar neighborhood, he saw a small hotel 
'AJvith a German name. It was an oasis in a 
Vegion of strange sights and sounds. The 
proprietor had a son about Pupin's own age 
and the two became friends immediately. 

Pupin's funds were so limited that the two 
boys decided their first consideration must be 
to get him a job. This, however, was no easy 
"matter. During the previous year the entire 
country had suffered from the great panic of 
/i 873. This was the summer of 1874, but the 



country was not yet settled again. There was 
widespread unemployment. No matter how 
early the two boys went in response to adver- 
tisements for labor, they were sure to find long 
lines ahead of them. In those gloomy days 
men were so desperate they waited all night 
at the newspaper offices so that they could 
read the "help wanted" inserts in the first 
editions and stand all night in line to apply 
for work the next morning. 

Pupin and Christian, the son of the hotel 
keeper, soon discovered that the erstwhile 
farmhand would never get a job in this way. 
More drastic methods were necessary in a 
neighborhood so close to the shipping center. 
The opportunity finally presented itself. Dur- 
ing a strike of longshoremen, Christian,! wjio 
acted as Pupin's business manager, signed up 
his client as a scab. 

"My job was to help the sailors paint the 
ship," Professor Pupin remembers. " Partly as 
a means of protecting us from the strikers and 
partly as a means of getting the work done 
quickly, we substitute workers were out in. the 
bay. Of course, 1 knew nothing about pa.int- 
ing but bitter need for employment will give 
us ability to do almost anything. At the end 




CASTLE GARDEN, NEW YORK 

Where Pupin landed from the German immigrant ship in 1874. Castle Garden has since been con- 
verted into the Aquarium and immigrants no longer land there, hut down the Bay at Ellis Island. 



662 



Radio Broadcast 



of three weeks, when I returned to the little 
German hotel and my friend, I was a full 
fledged painter with thirty dollars, which was 
more money than I had ever earned before. 

My new found work was short-lived. Chris- 
tian left town for a Western city and I, with 
my best friend gone, was no longer interested 
in the German hotel. I rented a small room 
near Cooper Union, in an entirely different 
part of New York. 

WHERE HIS STUDY REALLY BEGAN 

HPHEN I started hunting work as a painter. 
' Conditions were hopeless; more than a 
year had passed since the great panic, and 
labor was still a drug on the market. I 
tramped the streets from early morning until 
the last shop closed, but I could not find em- 
ployment. My little hall bed room was so 
unfriendly that I formed the habit of spending 
my evenings at Cooper Union. Here I first 
read of the mysteries of science and tried to 
reason out the phenomena of sound and light. 
"After 1 had hunted work in vain for several 
weeks I finally created a job for myself. 1 



followed coal wagons and when the coal was 
dumped in front of its destination, I would 
offer to put the coal in the cellar for fifty cents 
a ton. It was back-breaking work. I fre- 
quently toiled two days to make a half a dollar. 
But when it was over, I could buy a bowl of 
filling bean soup and a chunk of brown bread 
for five cents at the Bowery Mission, so 1 never 
starved. 

"When the coal was in the cellar I would 
suggest that 1 paint the walls and ceiling of the 
basement. My story of being a journeyman 
painter out of work and forced to carry coal 
for fifty cents a ton was so heartrending that 
owners were often glad to help me by giving 
me painting jobs. Carrying coal and refur- 
bishing damp, dismal cellars were not cheerful 
occupations for the winter, you will admit." 

In the spring, Pupin paid a return visit tc 
the German hotel keeper. He was full of sym- 
pathy for the unfortunate immigrant and 
promised to get him a steady job. Within a 
few days he had made good his word. Pupin 
had a position in a cracker factory, working 
with a squad of boys punching the name of 




PUPIN S BIRTHPLACE 

In Idvor, in Banat, Hungary. The house is the first on the left. Pupin left his native 
Hungary in 1874 to come to this country where he landed with scarcely a cent in his pocket 



How Michael Pupin Succeeded 



663 



. the company on sweet biscuits. 1 1 was not the 
^mechanical act. of pressing the name on the 
crackers that interested him, for that merely 
required a certain manual dexterity. It was 
the. boiler room in the factory that fascinated 
iseventeen-year-old Pupin. 
; Early in the morning, before the factory 
whistle blew, he was shoveling coal, watching 
the fires, and learning engineering from the 
fireman. There, in the boiler room, he had his 
first lessons in engineering. He was puzzling 
over the phenomena of light and sound, but 
the boiler-room professor could not shed much 
light on his difficulties. 

A BOILER SHOP SCHOOL 

THIS improvised school, .with its science 
department in the basement, had a clas- 
sical course which was given on the top floor. 
In a philanthropic attempt to utilize some 
: waste space to the advantage of the workers, 
the company had made sleeping accommoda-- 
tions in the attic of the factory. Pupin, a 
homeless waif, lived in this make-shift dormi- 
'; tory. One of his roommates was a crippled 
German student with a remarkable knowledge 
of Greek and Latin, a ven- 
eration for ancient civiliza- 
tion, and a contempt for 
modern industrialism. He 
instilled in Pupin a love for 
the classics. At the close 
of the factory day the two 
machine workers forgot 
their manual labor during 
the long mill hours, and re- 
cited Latin prose and reveled 
in the sound of Greek verse. 
Naturally under these cir- 
cumstances, Pupin longed 
!for more education. He 
had no money to pay for 
college tuition. But a boy 
who had taught himself the 
ways of a new land could 
find the means to get fur- 
ther education. He did. 
The factory was his high 
school. For a science lab- 
oratory, he used the boiler 
room . and for his classical 
subjects, he had an expert 
tutor in the German 
: scholar. In his Columbia 
College entrance examina- 
tions he did so brilliantly 
that he was given a scholar- 
ship for the entire four years. 



College over, Pupin was offered his choice of 
a fellowship in either literature or science. 
His record in both departments had been 
equally high, but he chose the science. . 

"When I was a little sheep herder in the old 
country," Professor Pupin confides, "we used 
to warn each other about straying cattle, by 
means of signals which we sent by tapping on 
a knife stuck deep in the hard ground. 1 had 
observed that the sound was carried for greater 
distance through the hard ground than 
through the air. I could not understand why. 
It was a problem that fascinated me so that 
when I had the chance to continue my studies, 
I selected science in the hope that it might 
answer my question." 

In Europe, Professor Pupin worked at. Cam- 
bridge and then studied for a doctor's degree 
at Berlin. Meantime Columbia University, 
his alma mater, had organized a department of 
electrical engineering in the school of mines. 
When Pupin heard of it, he applied for the 
position. Needless to say a student who had 
made his brilliant college record, who had won 
scholarships in Europe, was promptly given 
the post at Columbia. 




Underwood & Underwood 
A RECENT PHOTOGRAPH 
Of Professor Pupin, who now holds the chair of 
mathematical physics at Columbia University 



66 4 



Rg.dio Broadcast 



A PROFESSOR AT COLUMBIA 

THE physical equipment of the new de- 
partment was primitive. There was only 
a temporary shed, a "cowshed" the students 
called it, with a laboratory equipment of a 
dynamo, a motor, and an alternator. 1 1 seemed 
a hopeless prospect to the young teacher fresh 
from the marvels of European science but his 
enthusiasm was such as to conquer all diffi- 
culties. 

" From my studies of the experiments of the 
European physicists, 
1; concluded that 
sound, like Ijght, trav- 
eled by the vibrations 
being carried from 
one wave to the other, 
reinforced by each 
wavelength. I be- 
lieved that by short- 
ening the length of 
the wave, the sound 
could be carried fur- 
ther and on this 
basis I perfected my 
induction coil. By 
using three or four 
coils to the mile on a 
long-distance tele- 
phone wire, the size 
of the wire could be 
considerably reduced. 
Not long ago, a friend 
of mine, a telephone 
executive, figured 

that my invention had saved the telephone 
company about a hundred million dollars and 
went on to say that without it long-distance 
communication could never have been greater 
than about twelve miles." 

Professor Pupin has not only cradled the art 
of long-distance telephonic communication but 
he is responsible for six out of the nine basic 
radio inventions. In 1895-6, while he was an 
assistant professor at Columbia and working in 
the derided "cowshed" laboratory, he evolved 
an apparatus for electrical tuning and rectifi- 
cation, and in 1902 he sold his patents to the 
Marconi Company. This fact is not generally 
remembered. 

Professor Pupin, fresh from his European 
studies, had become much interested in the 
theories of Hertz, the father of radio, and had 
begun experimenting with them. At that 
time, the rectification electrical transmission of 
sound was not known, the waves brought an 
indistinguishable buzz which Professor Pupin 




PROF. M. I. PUPIN 

In 1883 when he graduated 
from Columbia University 



hoped to make audible. After a year's ex- 
perimenting, he succeeded. 

Sounds which the waves brought could now- 
be understood. But the growth of radio had 
only just begun. Professor -Pupin, who nur- 
tured radio in its infancy, brought it still 
another step . forward. He suggested .modi- 
fications which transformed these explosive 
electrical motions into more or less ^damped 
oscillations. 

All of us know to-day that when our 
receiver is not in resonance with some par- 
ticular transmitter, 
we simply turn a 
knob to get the de- 
sired wavelength. 
But in the 1890'$ 
tuning- wasn't so sim- 
ple. In fact, trouble- 
some wavelengths 
were one of the big- 
gest drawbacks -to 
the science. Profes- 
sor >Pupin undertook 
to correct, this de- 
ficiency. Through 
e x h a u s t i ve experi- 
ments, he devised 
an ^apparatus which 
sup-erimposed these 
waves and got them 
in phase. 

"The electrical tun- 
ing at .the receiving 
end, as we know it. 
came into use when 

Marconi took over my invention of electrical 
tuning," Professor Pupin explains. "Selectivity 
was thus introduced into wireless reception and 
it eliminated some of the objections to the new 
form of electrical communication. Rectifica- 
tion of the received electrical oscillations by. 
crystals of asymmetrical conductivity, or by 
my balanced electrolytic rectifier was the next 
advance." 

A TEACHER OF FAMOUS MEN 

AS, A teacher, Professor Pupin has started 
many of our most famous radio figures on 
their triumphant way. At one time three boys 
were working under him for their doctor's 
degrees. They were E. H. Armstrong, 'J. 
H. Morecroft, now of Columbia University, 
and Alfred N. Goldsmith of the College of 
the City of New York. It was in Professor 
Pupin's laboratory at Columbia that Arm- 
strong successfully developed his feed back cir- 
cuits. It was in Professor Pupin's laboratory 



How Michael Puj3ih' Succeeded 



"665 



that Robert Andrew Millikan began his scien- 
tific career. 

Pupin, this famous teacher of famous men, 
exhorts boss everywhere to "monkey with 
their sets." 

"The more boys work with their apparatus, 
the more knowledge of the science of electri- 
city they will obtain, and the more will their 
interest in the marvels of radio be aroused," 
he says. "Radio is the coming science, and 
if its disciples attain as much practical expe- 
rience and grounding in electrical principles as 
is possible to crowd into their lives, they can 
be sure of making progress." 

During the war, Professor Pupin did re- 
search work for the United States Government 



in radio communication. His results became 
government secrets and outside of the. fact 
that his war activities necessitated many trips 
to Key West, the world knows nothing of his 
work. As a product of his activity at this 
time, he helped organize the third arm Of our 
national defence the National Research 
Council, an organization of scientific men 
with headquarters in Washington. 

The story of America contains many epics of 
boys who, beginning at the bottom, struggled 
to the top, but none illustrates more clearly 
than this one the chances for a penniless, 
working boy to achieve a technical educa- 
tion and to become a power in the scientific 
world. 




THE CHURCH 

Where Pupin worshipped as a young boy in Idvor 



A Word About Common Deceptions in the Sale of Tubes, Batteries, Antennas, 
and Complete Sets Some Guides for the Tyro Wandering in the Radio Forest 

BY WILLIAM P. GREEN 

Associate Director of the National Vigilance Committee, Associated Advertising Clubs of the World. 




ROBABLY the most outstanding in- 
stance of outright fraud in radio to- 
day, is found in the manufacture and 
sale of counterfeit tubes, both in tube 
construction and in fake labels and cartons. 
The; counterfeiting at times would almost 
baffle : an expert. 

In some instances former employees of large 
electrical manufacturing concerns which hold 
tube patents are ferreted out as members of 
these counterfeiting rings. They hold forth 
in secluded. spots, sometimes in the rear, of a 
gafage or perhaps in a private residence. No 
signs are in evidence to indicate what is being 
done on the premises. Frequently the blinds 
ate drawn. In many cases investigators have 
found it :. difficult to secure entrance at all, 
visitors being required to state their business 
in. a front hallway or even out on the sidewalk. 
As 1 many as eight 
hundred tubes a day 
have been manufac- 
tured in one of these 
places alone. 

i Recently a com- 
plaint was made to 
the National Vigi- 
lance Committee that 
a concern in a middle 
western city was sell- 
ing tubes represented 
to be genuine Radio 
Corporation of Amer- 
ica products, under 
circumstances that 
appeared suspicious. 
Tubes were purchased 
at the store and for- 
warded east for ex- 
amination. This ex- 
amination showed 
that the grid, plate, 
and the glass bulbs 
were not genuine R. 
C. A. products. The 
bases were the genu- 
ine article. The use 



Truth in Advertising 



Is the splendid slogan of the Associated 
Advertising Clubs of the World, and this 
forms the second of a series of excellent 
articles by Mr. Green, an official of that or- 
ganization, on common deceptions in radio 
merchandising and advertising, all of which 
are violations of faith, whether the decep- 
tions are committed intentionally or other- 
wise. The first of Mr. Green's articles 
appeared in RADIO BROADCAST for August, 
1924, and discussed fraudulent practises in 
selling complete radio receivers. The Better 
Business Commission, which is now organized 
in 36 cities in the United States, has also in 
some cities taken steps to insure that radio 
dealers abide strictly by the highest code of 
professional ethics in their advertising and 
merchandising. Neither this magazine nor 
Mr. Green wish to give the impression that 
the radio business is full of irresponsible and 
conniving dealers. That there are not more 
dealers whose methods are not above re- 
proach is remarkable, considering their now 
large numbers. Every one who buys radio 
apparatus should be interested in what Mr. 
Green has to say. Tin- KDITOK. 



of the base in this way made it possible for 
the tubes to be sold with every appearance of 
being a genuine Radio Corporation product. 

Occasionally the practice of buying up worn 
out tubes of standard make, in order to secure 
the bases, is discovered. Add to the base a 
counterfeit filament and other essential parts 
and the finished product has all the appearance 
of the genuine article. Even the identifica- 
tion mark, such as the well known General 
F.lectn'c circle frequently is counterfeited. 
The counterfeiting of the cartons and the 
directions accompanying standard make tubes 
usually is accomplished by means of the ordin- 
ary photographic plate process. 

One manufacturer of counterfeit tubes may 
sell to many distributors. As a general rule 
the distributor knows what he is buying and 
when questioned about the tubes he is market- 
ing, he refuses to dis- 
close the source of 
supply. 

The manufacture 
of counterfeit tubes 
is, of course, outright 
fraud. It is not to be 
classed with many 
other forms of decep- 
tion and trickery that 
put in an appearance. 



REPAIRED TUBES 

THIS counterfeit- 
ing of tubes is one 
of the handicaps in 
radio to the removal 
of which manufac- 
turers and retailers 
are devoting much 
attention. 

Some concerns 
advertise that they 
will repair radio tubes 
and this raises the 
interesting point of 
whether the tube 
actually is repaired 



The Way of the Transgressor 



667 



or a new tube constructed on the old base. 
This question is closely concerned with the 
patent rights of the leading manufacturers of 
tubes. 

There is one Feaeral decision which holds in 
effect, that the replacement of a vital part is a 
violation of pat- 
ent rights. 

Most certainly 
the filament of a 
vacuum tube is the 
vital element of 
the product (said 
an official of the 
Radio Corporation 
of America in dis- 
cussing this ques- 
tion). It is the 
part that emits the 
electrons, produc- 
ing the actual 
phenomenon of de- 
tection or amplifi- 
cation. There is 
no substitute that 
can be used for this 
filament. If it is 
omitted, no results 
whatever will be 
obtained. In most 
so called repair 
work, the replacing 
of the filament is 
not the only thing 
that is done. A 
new vacuum must 
be obtained to per- 
mit the electrons 
to pass from the 
filament to the 
plate. The tube, 
therefore, must be 
evacuated anew 

and, as a matter of fact, it costs almost as much 
to repair certain tubes on a commercial scale 
as it does to make a brand new product. 

This question of tube manufacture and re- 
pair still is fraught with some uncertainty. 
The chief interest of the consumer is in the 
question of whether tubes are genuine or 
counterfeit, actually repaired or completely 
rebuilt, and, in any case, whether the result, as 
determined by actual use, is in accord with 
the representations made by the advertiser. 
The average consumer is not much interested 
in patent rights or infringements. What he 
wants to know is whether the merchandise 
he buys is what it is represented to be, in name, 
quality, and utility. 

Still other conditions which vitally affect 
the public are coming in for consideration. 




L. E. HOLLAND 

\Vho is serving his third term as president of the Associated 
Advertising Clubs of the World Himself an ardent radio 
enthusiast, Mr. Holland has been keenly interested from the 
beginning in the protection of the radio industry and the public 
from deceptive merchandising and advertising practices 



Perhaps the most interesting of these is the 
cut price situation. Some retailers, as a 
steady policy, offer sets at prices on which the 
manufacturers claim the retailer cannot possi- 
bly make a profit. These manufacturers do 
not claim that the merchandise is not always 

genuine or that 
it is defective, 
although many 
purchases have 
been traced 
where such was 
the case. Their 
chief contention 
is that in some 
instances cut 
price merchan- 
dise is offered as 
a leader in order 
to bring the cus- 
tomer into the 
store as prey for 
the sale of other 
inferior goods. 
Undoubtedly it 
is true that radio 
offers a fertile 
field for certain 
types of "bait 
advertising" be- 
cause of the 
number of acces- 
sories needed 
with a set. In 
many cases the 
t o\ a I cost of 
such accessories 
equals or exceeds 
the cost of the 



set itself. 

The source of supply of cut price merchan- 
dise is a constant problem with the radio manu- 
facturer. Much of this cut price merchandise 
is secured through indirect channels. The re- 
tailer asks some friend in a distant city, who 
happens to be in good standing with the dis- 
tributor, to order certain goods which, when 
received, are relayed to the retailer desiring 
them. Another source of supply is the over- 
stocked retailer who, when a representative 
of a cut price store appears on the scene, is 
glad to unload at a price approximating the 
manufacturer's. 

One retailer, whose chain of radio stores 
features cut price merchandise, maintains 
that the radio manufacturer's profits are in 
proportion to his sales and that the retail price 
is not a factor in his profits at all. 



668 



Radio Broadcast 



DOWN WITH THE ROOF WIRES 

Regardless of the type of tube 
set you operate, this indoor 
aerial will equal, and in many 
cases exceed, any outdoor aerial 
you may be using. 



MORE THAN A SHADOW OF DOUBT 
Kxtravagant claims, which in many instances, 
actual trial shows to be unjustified, breed certain 
dissatisfaction and tend to impair the enthusiasm of 
radio purchasers. The radio public itself should 
cooperate to require advertisers to tell the truth 
about their products 

: "If the manufacturer maintains a senti- 
mental attitude as to how his goods shall be 
priced by the retailer," he argues, "let him 
total his cash book at the end of the year and 
he will find that the radio chain store quite 
probably has moved one hundred times as 
much merchandise as the collection of small 
jobbers." 

Careful reading of magazines and news- 
papers continues to disclose practices which 
bear out the statement that radio is passing 
through a period in which the buying public 
must exercise great caution and discrimination. 
Take as an illustration a recent advertisement 
of a well known battery by a retail store. It 
road- 



We are the only dealer in 
the city in a position to supply 
the public with unlimited 
quantities of this 

NEW 

108 volt B battery 



The fact was that this battery, instead of 
being a new model, was being discontinued. 
The agency handling the advertising copy ex- 
plained that the word "new" was intended to 
mean that the batteries were fresh from the 
factory and that "unlimited" meant that 
enough were available to supply the store's 
trade. Certainly the word "new" in the copy 
was objectionable because the average reader 
might well take the advertisement to mean 
that the manufacturer was bringing out a new 
model. 



THE OVER-HNTHUSIASTIC ADVERTISER 

NOW and then advertisers inadvertently 
get off on the wrong foot. Around the 
time of the national political conventions, an 
eastern manufacturer of radio sets advertised 
in newspapers on the Pacific Coast, urging the 
public to buy his product in time to listen in. 
Investigation developed that Kansas City was 
the nearest point from which the conventions 
were being broadcast and the feat of reaching 
that far east from the west coast during the 
day time, when range of reception is very 
limited, was anything but a certainty. Again 
we have the manufacturer of a well known 
loud speaker, whose advertising in the middle 
west emphasized the pleasure to be derived 
from listening in on New York grand opera. 
It is well known that the Metropolitan com- 
pany is not heard over the air. 

Another case in point is the loose statements 
made about "noisy batteries." One radio 
expert to whom the writer talked recently 
stated that such noise practically never occurs 
in batteries used for filament supply but that 
it sometimes is found in plate batteries. The 
cause is either a defective cell in the battery, 
or a loose connection between the cells. Al- 
most any dry cell, he pointed out, even those of 
the most reliable makes, may develop noise 
when they are nearly used up. 

Other extravagant claims are made con- 
cerning the life of batteries. This is a difficult 
factor to determine, and it is here that bat- 
teries of different manufacture may be ex- 
pected to vary materially if at all. Only 
usage can determine the real utility and life 
of any particular battery with consideration, 
of course, for proper care. This is all the more 
reason why purchasers of radio equipment 
should give real consideration to the makes and 
types of batteries they purchase for their sets 
in order that they may have the maximum 
protection on the money expended. 

Claims for new and startling discoveries in 
the battery field likewise should be carefully 
examined. Years of study have brought them 
to their present point of efficiency and most 
of the possible improvements could hardly be 
called revolutionary. 

Within the last year one concern has ad- 
vertised that its batteries will enable the opera- 
tor of a radio set in the middle west to hear 
England or South America as clearly as De- 
troit or Chicago. The advertising copy was 
so worded as to make it appear that whatever 
troubles are encountered with a set may be 
removed by substituting the batteries ad- 



The Way of the Transgressor 



669 



vertised for those in use. This is obviously 
absurd. 

Another type of advertising into which 
the public should inquire carefully before 
purchasing the goods advertised is that offer- 
ing various indoor aerials either of the loop 
or single wire type. Representations that 
such aerials will equal or outdo the results 
obtained with an outdoor aerial, regardless 
of the type of set used, are not always justi- 
fied, as shown by actual experience in certain 
locations and under varying conditions. Re- 
sults obtained at close range may not be pos- 
sible at a'l over long distances and it would be 
well for purchasers to have a very definite 
understanding that the merchandise may be 
returned if it does not live up to the claims 
made for it. 

Then again, we often hear mathematics 
spoken of as an exact science. One might 
reasonably conclude from this that statements 
in radio advertising that are based on mathe- 
matical calculation could be taken without 
the proverbial grain of salt. That such is not 
always the case, however, was demonstrated 
recently when a well known radio store ad- 
vertised a standard make receiver at half price, 
with the added attractive offer that with each 
purchase an extra piece of apparatus, designed 
to increase signal strength, selectivity and to 
improve tone quality, would be given free. 

Price figures were set out in detail, as illus- 
trated in the following: 

List price of receiver 

List price of extra unit .... 

Now if the receiver were being sold at half 
price, and the extra unit given free with each 
purchase, the customer would have to put on 
the counter only $751. to be entitled to the 
complete outfit. On the contrary, however, 
the price quoted was $87.50. Either the re- 
ceiver was not being sold at half price or the 
extra piece of apparatus was not being given 
free to each purchaser of a set. The advertis- 
ing agency explained the discrepancy by saying 
that a mistake had been made in the figures. 

BUY CARH FULLY 

RADIO BROADCAST, through its columns, is 
endeavoring to inform the public concern- 
ing practices by reason of which purchasers of 
sets and accessories should shop carefully. The 
National Vigilance Committee of the Associ- 
ated Advertising Clubs of the World recently 
prepared a resume of practices which may 'be 
useful to the radio public in reading radio ad- 



8 1 50 . oo 
25.00 



vertising and in making purchases on the 
strength of it. This resume is as follows: 

i. Appropriation of radio tube type numbers, 
or any substantial or material part thereof, 
such numbers having been originated by 
and become identified with the products of 
certain well-known manufacturers is a form 
of unfair competition. Illustrations of 
such original type numbers are "wo-ia", 
"uv-i99" and ''aoi-A 1 ' as applied to the 
tubes of the Radio Corporation of America, 
and "ov-2" as applied to the tubes manu- 
factured by the De Forest Radio Telephone 
and Telegraph Company. Tubes manu- 
factured by any other companies should be 
advertised and sold under their own 
original and distinctive identification 
marks. 

2. Sets built by retail stores and containing 
certain licensed parts bearing the names of 
well-known manufacturers of sets using the 
same circuits, should be advertised and 
sold in such a way as to make it perfectly 
clear to the public that they are store built 
rather than factory built. Neutrodyne 
sets are a case in point. 

3. When a concern seeks to advertise any 
type of radio product concerning which 
there is reason to believe that the patent 
or license rights do not permit the manu- 
facture or sale of the product, the concern 
should be required to make a reasonable 
showing that it is within its legal rights 
and entitled to market the merchandise. 

4. Claims for radio apparatus, such as dis- 
tance reception, should in most cases be 
based on average performance rather than 
some rare, exceptional feat. If the ex- 
ceptional instance is featured, the advertis- 



SPECIAL OFFER 
FOR TODAY ONLY 

THE SENSATIONAL COLUMBIA 
REFLEX 

At the Unheard-of Price of 

$79.50 



DOES THIS MEAN WHAT IT SAYS? 
In going to a store in response to an advertisement 
like .this, it is important to observe whether or not 
the retailer has on hand a sufficient number of these 
sets to fill a reasonably popular demand. Often 
only one set, advertised as the sample ad above 
shows, are being offered as bait to get the public 
into the store. The customer should be careful 
to see that the accessories he buys with the set are 
genuine and recognized by the trade as efficient 
products 



670 



Radio Broadcast 



KXO. o. . wrwrr orrict 

Model UY-201-A 

DETECTOR 



Model UV-201-A 

DETECTOR 



AMPLIFIER 

Fit. VOITS..- J 

FIL AHP -41 

HATf V.. 



AMPUFI 

FIL VOLTS 

PUTE 



Radio 
Corporation 



Corporation 




WHICH IS GENUINE? 

The only distinguishing mark between the two tube cartons cannot be de- 
tected' in the photograph. The carton on the right is genuine and the one 
on' the'left is ; counterfeit. The tube which came in the counterfeit container 
was counterfeit. The color of ink on the genuine container was a deeper red 
than the false one 



ing copy should make clear the fact that 
the same result is not to be expected in 
average day to day performance. Much 
disappointment and dissatisfaction may be 
avoided if radio novices are given some 
information in advance that atmospheric 
disturbances, seasons, and other conditions 
affect radio reception. 

:5. Merchandise advertised as being reduced 
from a certain list price and represented as 
possessing the list price value, should carry 
all of the advantages, such as factory 
guarantees and repair privileges, to which 
any purchaser who buys at the regular list 
price is entitled. Otherwise the customer 
is not getting the complete service or value 
that is included in the regular list price 
quoted in the advertisement. 

6. Advertising of radio sets should state what 
accessories, if any, are included at the 
price quoted, and if accessories are not 
included, this should be apparent from the 
wording and arrangement of the advertis- 
ing copy. 

7.. Claims as to batteries and other accessories 
should accord with such limitations of 



performance as recog- 
nized scientific opinion 
in the industry has de- 
termined that the pur- 
chaser may reasonably 
expect from a particu- 
lar type of product. 
Guarantees, refunds 
and other sales appeals 
should be free from the 
ambiguity or tricks 
that sometimes make 
them the source of cur- 
rent dissatisfaction and 
a future distrust of 
advertising. 

8. When a set is adver- 
tised at a reduced price 
after the model has 
been discontinued by 
the factory, it should 
not be represented as 
still possessing its reg- 
ular list price in a way 
that leads the public to 
believe that it is secui- 
ing a much better cur- 
rent value than actu- 
ally is the case. 

9. When any particular 
. piece of radio mer- 
chandise is featured 
through advertising as 
a leader, the concern 
should be required to 
have a sufficient supply 
on hand to fill a reasonable public demand. 

10. Claims for the efficiency of indoor aerials, 
as compared with outdoor ones should 
be made with due consideration of the 
types of radio sets to be operated, dis- 
tances from broadcasting stations, location 
of the aerial or loop in the buildings where 
used, etc. 

ii. Advertising of radio devices to reduce 
station interference should not infer that 
any number of broadcasters may be elim- 
inated at one time, when such is not the 
case. Claims of the perfect operation of 
such devices should be made with due re- 
gard for usage under exacting conditions, in 
that such merchandise usually is purchased 
by reason of unfavorable location, or out 
of date receiving apparatus, etc. 

12. In advertising radio accessories, such as 
dry batteries, which show certain shelf de- 
preciation over a period of time, use of the 
word "new" should carry with it a clear 
indication of whether reference is being 
made to a new model of the article involved, 
or merely to the receipt of new stock, fresh 
from the factory. 



What Reflex Means 

How One Tube is Made to Do the Work of Two Problems of Reflexing and 
How They Are Solved Various Uses of Reflexing Another Family Tree Diagram 

BY JULIAN KAY 



TH IS article in this series of informative articles about some of the technical phases 
of radio written in a decidedly non-technical fashion deals this month with the use 
of reflexing. The patent on the reflex system dates back to February, 1913, when 
Schloemilch and Van Bronck had their application approved. There are few who 
have heard something about radio who haven't also heard the word "reflex." 
Many radio listeners want a good review of reflexing and that is just what Mr. 
Kay has done. Other articles in Mr. Kay's "What's In a Name?" series have 
discussed the various classes of receivers in use, radio-frequency amplification, audio- 
frequency amplification, and the super-heterodyne. THE EDITOR. 



THE old song that "every little bit 
added to what you've got makes just 
a little bit more" applies nowhere 
in radio quite so well as in this reflex 
business. Given a small pocket book and a 
long way to go via radio, what is one to do? 
The answer is to add just the little bit more 
and that is what reflexing effectually does. 

In the preceeding articles of this series, the 
various forms of detectors and amplifiers have- 
been analyzed as separate units. Some men- 
tion has been .made* of complete receiving 
equipment such as the neutrodyne and the 
heterodyne, both of which are really efficient 
combinations both of detectors and amplifiers. 
It is in the latter class of complete receivers 
that the reflex lies. 

The Family Tree diagram on page 672 shows 
the place of the reflex among radio circuits. 
It is a combination, a sort of trick combination 
if you will, of a detector and two amplifiers. 
The reflex idea may be extended to other com- 
plete receiving systems, such as to the neutro- 
dyne, for example in the Fada 160, or to the 
super-heterodyne as in the Radiola. 

The main idea of reflexing is to do away with 
one vacuum tube, to make one do the work of 
two. And while it is fairly simple to build a 
detector and an amplifier as separate units, 
it is a more difficult problem to build a reflex 
that works as well as the more complicated 
apparatus it replaces. Unless the reflex is 
correctly constructed from tried and true 
methods it will lose as much or more than it 
gains a state of affairs that is not true econ- 
omy. 



Fig. i shows the general scheme. Energy 
from the output of the circuit is fed back into 
the input so that the apparatus involved does 
double duty. The necessity for the frequency 
changer lies in the fact that one cannot per- 
form this feeding back stunt without having 
something happen a something usually made 
evident by howls and groans. In other words, 
the amplifier oscillates. 

A SIMPLE FORM OF REFLEX 

A SIMPLE form of reflex with which every- 
one is familiar is the well known "tickler" 
feed back affair. In this case, shown in Fig. 2, 
some of the radio frequency energy is placed in 
the input again by means of a coil inserted in 
the output or plate circuit. If the tickler is 
brought near enough to the secondary coil, the 
system oscillates. The remarkable amplifica- 
tion that results just before oscillation takes 
place is well known. 

I f the same scheme could be applied to audio- 
frequency amplifiers, much more amplification 



INPUT 


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FIG. I 

The reflex idea. The main idea in all reflex 
circuits is to make one tube do the work of two 



672 



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